US 3218755 A
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Nov. 23, 1965 A. QUERCETTI TOY MISSILE WITH DELAYED OPENING DEVICE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 6, 1964 Mll TW wr VE m6 y 0 Q m N M o ATTORNEY A. QUERcET-n 3,218,755
TOY MISSILE WITH DELAYED OPENING DEVICE 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Nov. 23, 1965 Filed Jan. 6. 1964 IN VENTOR ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,218,755 TOY MISSILE WITH DELAYED UPENING DEVICE Alessandro Quereetti, 77/16 Via Bardonecchia, Turin, Piedmont, Italy Filed Jan. 6, 1964, Ser. No. 335,873 Claims priority, application Italy, Jan. 15, 1963,
2 Claims. (Cl. B6-86) In the field of toys, missiles are known which can 'oe catapulted upwards by means of a launching sling or catapult and which on attaining a point approximately at the summit of the trajectory, open up to release a parachute which slows up the subsequent descent, or releases an object of another type such as a capsule with a parachute or the like. A certain uniformity of functioning with these toys represents a disadvantage inasmuch as the child manipulating the toy cannot in practice introduce variety into the game except by varying the height reached at the instant of opening by adjusting the launching force. Another disadvantage lies in the fact that the parachute and the object generally equipped with a parachute are expelled at the summit of the trajectory and have to make a somewhat prolonged descent so that, in case of wind, the parachuted object may be carried over a fairly long distance, reducing the prospect of recovery.
The object of the present invention is to produce a toy of the general type indicated, capable however of greater performances and in particular of making a retarded descent of shorter duration notwithstanding the increased height attained at the summit of the trajectory, and speciiically these improved performances are obtained by equipping the missile with an adjustable device which causes a delay in the opening of the missile itself after the summit of the trajectory has been reached, it being possible to preset the delay as desired before launching by suitably setting the requisite elements of the missile so that, at the limit, the delay can be reduced practically to zero (opening at the summit of the trajectory) or to a maximum value (opening of the parachute when, after a long free fall, the missile is about to fall to the ground). This manner of functioning permits individual games to be played, or interesting and lively contests.
The idea of the invention consists in incorporating a device, in particular an aerodynamically balanced device, for the opening of the missile, the function of which is to prepare the missile for opening before the summit of the trajectory is reached, and a second device which causes the missile to open only when it has attained a suicient speed in the air and then, after a period of free fall, it not being possible for this second device accidentally to cause the missile to open during the ascent because then the rst device preparing the missile for opening has not yet come into action. The said second device can consist of a small aerodynamic fin fitted on the moving part of the missile in such manner as to tend to cause it to open; the action of the second device is opposed by an elastic device holding the missile in the closed position and adjustable as desired, prior to launching.
One form of embodiment of the invention is shown by way of a nonrestrictive example in the attached drawings in which:
FIG. l and FIG. 2 are two elevations from two opposite sides, onl a somewhat reduced scale, of the missile in accordance with the invention in the ascending form and attitude;
FIG. 3 is a view of the tail;
FIG. 4 shows a launching pad in plan View;
FIG. 5 is an approximately axial section, perpendicular to FIGS. 1 and 2, and on a somewhat larger scale, of a missile, placed on the launching pad, with its front portion lacking;
FIG. 6 shows in section, continuous with FIG. 5, the front part of the missile;
FIG. 7 shows diagrammatically the missile in accordance with the invention in the different conformations assumed during the various phases of flight.
The missile consists of a xed body 1 and a moving body 2, hinged to the rear of the former at 3, and shaped in such manner that when it is alongside the fixed part 1, it encloses the cavity or recess, thus fairing the profile. In the rear part, tail fins 4 are attached to the two cornponents 1 and 2; these components, and the majority ot the components to be described hereinafter, can advantageously be made of die-cast, shockproof, synthetic resin. The xed component 1 has at least one hook 5 designed to receive the elastic of the launching catapult. The shape of the body of the missile, consisting of the unit comprising the xed part 1 and the moving part, can be substantially cylindrical, preferably tapered outwards towards the rear at 6 to provide a larger chamber capacity. The body of the missile is completed at the front by a sleeve or pipe 7 fitted on the fixed component 1 and to the front of which are fixed the nose and capsule to be described subsequently.
To the fixed part of the missile is hinged at 8 an inside lever 9, the moving end of which, arranged at the end, coacts with the moving component 2; the inside lever 9 is devised in such manner that it offers an elastic resistance to the complete closure of the moving component 2 with reference to the xed component 1 so that it tends to cause the missile to open slightly. The parachute with which the missile is usually equipped can be close packed and folded within the ixed part 1 under the inside lever 9 which holdes it packed as long as the missile is closed, while on opening of the moving component 2, the inside lever 9 can completely overturn leaving the parachute held beneath it free to unfurl.
The moving component 2 carries at the rear, pinned at 15, a pulley 12 over which is passed a cable 13 one end of which is held on a hook 14 carried by the ixed component 1 while the other end is connected by an elastic rubber cable 16 to an anchoring element 17 which can be inserted at will in any of the catches or notches in a rack 18 fitted inside a rib 19 of the moving component 2, making it possible to adjust the tension of the elastic cable 16.
The components already mentioned exert on the moving element 2 a continuous force tending to draw this moving element 2 against the iixed element 1 and thus to hold the missile closed. However, in the iinal part of the closing stroke of the moving component, the reactive force of the inside lever 9 which opposes the closure overcomes the closing force ofthe device 12 to 17.
A pawl 46 on the movable body 2 coacts with the cable 13 at its connection to the elastic cable 16, for limiting the opening movement of said movable body.
The front end of the moving component 2 has an aerodynamic in 20 preferably shaped like an inverted V lying substantially against the body of the missile when the latter is closed, and further has preferably lateral fins 11. The said end further has a travelling catch 21 held in position by a plate 22 attached to the moving part 2 and recalled to the open position by an elastic rubber cable 23 fastened on the moving component 2.. If it is desired to make the tension of the said cable adjustable, particularly to adapt the missile for launching in a flat trajectory, the cable 23 terminates in an anchoring element 2li, secured in a position selected at will in the aforementioned rack 18 in the rib 19 of the moving element 2.
In the closed, i.e. forward position, the sliding catch 21 slips under the end of the sleeve 7 engaged on the fixed element 1, locking the missile in the closed form. The catch 21 has a bracket 25 on which the smaller arm 26 of a rocking lever hinged at 27 to the fixed element 1 acts as a tappet, while the longer arm 28 outside the element 1 ends in an aerodynamic nn 29. When the longer arm 2S of the rocking lever 26-27-28 is brought towards the element 1, the smaller arm holds the catch 21 in the closed position while the force of the spring 23 is transmitted by the catch through the bracket 25 to the rocking lever 26-28, tending to move the longer arm 2S away from the fixed element 1.
A pawl 3@ is hinged at 31 to the xed element 1 and can be made to engage with a pin 32 on the arm 28 of the rocking lever 26-28, restricting the deection of the element 1 caused by the spring 23. In the position of restricted deflection shown in dots and dashes in FIG. 5, the rocking lever 26-28 still holds the catch 21 pinned under the sleeve 7 and thus keeps the missile closed.
A little lin on the body 1 brakes the movement of the rocking lever 28 by frictionally coacting with the pin 32 thereon.
The parts described above represent the basic components of the missile in accordance with the invention, which functions in the following manner.
With the parachuate 33 folded inside the body 1 secured by its cables to the rear part of the missile, the inside lever 9 is lowered over the parachute and the moving element 2 is allowed to close partially under the action of the elastic cable 16. By retracting the arm 28 of the rocking lever, the closing of the missile is effected against the resistance of the lever 9 and thus the arm 28 is brought close to the body 1, locking the catch 21 until the pin 32 is engaged with the pawl 30. The missile is now ready for launching.
The elastic of a catapult is attached to hooks 5 and stretched, drawing back the missile by its rear end (FIG. 7a); then the missile is released and the elastic members of the catapult launch it upwards. In this phase, the great acceleration initially applied to the missile and then aerodynamic action of the air through which the missile rises draws the arm 28 and the pawl 30 closely against the body 1, as shown in continuous lines in FIG. 5. In
this form (FIG. 7b), the missile completes its ascent.
Before `the summit of the trajectory has been reached (FIG. 7c), at a point of the trajectory, at which the aerodynamic action on the n 29 of the arm 28 `no longer balances the suitably regulated force of the elastic cable 23 transmitted by the catch 21, the rocking lever 26-27- 28 rotates under the action of the said cable, the arm 28 is deilected from the xed element 1 and `the arm 27 allows the catch 21 to open. Immediately, the action of the inside lever 9 produces a partial separation of the moving component 2 from the fixed component 1, but the opening of the missile does not yet occur owing to the closing force exerted by the elastic cable 16 when suitably adjusted.
However, the missile is now prepared for opening.
As the missile still proceeds, the aerodynamic action causes the arm 28 to draw towards the part 1 but owing to the displacement of the part 2 caused by the lever 9, the catch 21 can no longer engage. The lin 10 brakes the arm 28 and hinders it to flap. Furthermore, on account of the said separation, the lin in which the moving element 2 terminates, and also the fins 11, assume a certain angle of incidence so that the aerodynamic action now tends to enhance the recession of the element 2 (FIG. 7d).
When the trajectory begins to fall and the rate of descent reaches a particular value, the aerodynamic action on the fins 20 and 11 overcomes the closing action of the elastic cable 16 and the moving element 2 is completely deflected from the xed element 1, opening the missile. At this point, the inside lever 9 is no longer held by the movable body andris subjected to the action of gravity and the retardation due to the fact that the opening of the moving element 2 greatly increases the aerodynamic resistance to the advance of the missile. Accordingly the inside lever 9 rotates and releases the parachute 33 which unfurls, while coming out from the body of the missile (FIG. 7e). Becoming inated by the air current, the parachute 33 opens completely (FIG. 7f) and the missile slowly descends, hanging from the parachute.
It is clear from the preceding that the adjustment of the tension of the cable 23 by means of the securing element 24suitably engaged in the rack 18 controls the phase shown in FIG. 7c in which preparation of the missile for opening takes place; the adjustment of the tension of the cable 16 by means of the securing element 17, on the other hand, controls the phase shown in FIG. 7e during which the missile opens, releasing the parachute, i.e. controls the height above ground at which the free descent terminates and the retarded descent begins.
On the front sleeve 7 of the missile a bumper or shock absorber nose can be attached, preferably shaped as a nose cap, as shown in FIG. 6. This nose cap can consist of a body 34, inserted on the end of the sleeve 7, extended in the form of a capsule 35 preferably transparent or provided with transparent windows, in the interior of which a puppet can be arranged representing an astronaut. The capsule terminates at the front in a shock absorbing nose cap 36. These parts can be permanently secured by glueing and welding, but preferably one of the attachments should be frictional and one of the corresponding parts should have a high elastic strength so that in the event 0f a violent blow (fall of the missile in the closed position through incorrect adjustment or damage), the parts will be forcibly driven one into the other beyond the position of normal insertion without resulting in damage owing to elasticity but producing a powerful shock absorbing action and protecting the missile behind it from breaking.
The connection between the body 34 of the capsule and the sleeve 7 can be eected with a relatively light frictional it and in this case, when the parachute 33 opens abruptly braking the missile (FIG. 7f), or else when the missile is braked by opening of the movable body 2 (FIG. 7e), the inertia force causes the disengaging of the capsule 34-36 which becomes detached from the missile and proceeds as a separate unit. In this case, preferably the inner chamber of the sleeve 7 and of the body 34 will be utilised to receive a second small parachute 37 attached to the capsule which, after being inverted, will descent independently of the missile, itself slowed down by its own parachute (FIG. 7g).
It is clear from the preceding that the manner of functioning of the toy missile in accordance with the invention is particularly advantageous in the case of launching to great heights. On the other hand, the launching height is restricted when known launching means are used, by incomplete utilization of the force of the person using the missile. In fact, known means for the launching of flying objects consist of an elastic sling or catapult, to be gripped in one hand, while with the other the object to be launched is held by the tail, stretching the elastic of the catapult and then releasing the object, which is accelerated by the catapult and takes off. This launching position with arms retracted does not permit the use of great force. In association with the missile described and to permit full utilization of all its attitudes, the invention proposes new means for high power launching of the same.
In accordance with the invention, an elastic sling 38 (FIG. 7a) is provided having two handles to be gripped so that it can be manipulated with both hands and provided with one or two elastic traction cables 39 designed to engage in hooks 5 on the missile. There is further provided a launching pad 40 substantially in the form of a footboard which the child 41 preparing to launch the missile holds rmly with his foot. The front end of the launching pad 40 has a seating 42 approximately duplicating the outline of the rear part of the missile which can be laid there (FIG. 5) to prepare it for launching. The base of the seating 42 is equipped with a loophole or port 43 open at the front and having a smooth lower surface, preferably sloping upwards towards the open end, In this port 43 a holding bar or tang 44 is inserted, preferably pivotably attached to the rear part of the missile and terminating in a head 45.
When the missile is arranged as described on the launching pad, the elastic cords of the catapult or sling are hooked to it and stretched. As the launching pad is held by the foot, the pull on the elastic cables causes the head 45 of the holding bar 44 to hold on the smooth lower surface of the port 43, supporting the missile, and the elastic cords can be stretched, raising the catapult 38 upwards, gripping it with both hands and giving the operator 41 the possibility of applying considerable force. When the elastic cords are stretched, it is suflicient to raise the foot holding down the pad 40 slightly, because the latter, under the action of the tension of the elastic cords, transmitted by the missile, the holding bar 44 and the head 45, tilts upwards and then the head 45 sliding over the lower surface of the edges of the port 43 assisted by the tilt of the latter towards the end, disengages itself from the port itself, emerging from its end and the missile, now released, in accelerated and launched by the sling.
With the launching device described, it is possible to achieve a more powerful launching action than usual and thus a greater peak trajectory and a more interesting game. At the same time, it compels the person launching the missile to take up a position in which he cannot be struck accidentally by the missile on taking o, as can easily happen with the usual launching means if the missile is inadvertently released with drawn catapult before it has been turned as required into the preselected launching direction.
Naturally many modications can be introduced in the device as described and illustrated, without thereby transgressing the scope of the idea of the invention; in particular, the external shape of the missile may be, if desired, of original or an imitation of real missiles, while the functional components described can be modified in their arrangement and dimensions and can be replaced by technically equivalent means.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. A toy in the form of a missile, comprising a xed body, a movable body hinged at the rear end of said xed body, at least an aerodynamic n connected to said movable body at the front end thereof, an aerodynamic presetting device capable of maintaining the missile closed during the first portion of the trajectory of the missile, and an elastic closing device opposing the action of said aerodynamic n, said closing device comprising a pulley pinned to said movable body, a ilexible cable secured to said fixed body and passing over said pulley, an anchoring element connected to said movable body, and an elastic rubber cable connected to said flexible cable and to said anchoring element.
2. A toy in the form of a missile, comprising a xed body, a movable body hinged at the rear end of said fixed body, at least an aerodynamic n connected to said movable body at the front end thereof, an aerodynamic presetting device capable of maintaining the missile closed during the rst portion of the trajectory ofthe missile, and an elastic closing device opposing the action of said aerodynamic n, said closing device comprising a pulley pinned to said movable body, a flexible cable secured to said Xed body and passing over said pulley, a rack having a plurality of catches hollowed in said movable body, an anchoring element inserted in one of said catches, and an elastic rubber cable connected to said flexible cable and to said anchoring element.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 994,490 6/1911 Wright 46-86 3,006,109 10/1961 BOeSe 46-86 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,252,962 12/1960 France.
RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Primary Examiner.