US 3219555 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. M. POINDEXTER ETAL 3,219,555
Nov. 23, 1965 DISTILLATION UNIT WITH STILL SUPPORTED CONDENSER Filed Jan. 12, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. I
INVENTORS. ALLAN MOORE POINDEXTER ART 29R E. ADAMI l/IIIA ATTORNEY 23, 1965 A. M. POINDEXTER ETAL 3,219,555
DISTILLATION UNIT WITH STILL SUPPORTED CONDENSER Filed Jan. 12, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 JNVENTORS: ALLAN MOORE POINDEXTER E. ADAMI ARTHUR ATTOR NEY United States Patent Jersey Filed Ja 1962 S9 N0- 1 5,311
4 Claims. (Cl. 202-494) This invention relates in general to distillation units, commonly referred to as evaporators, for converting sea water into fresh water for drinking and general purpose use; and, more particularly, this invention relates to evapora-tors for use on smaller vessels.
An object of this invent-ion is to provide a small, rugged and light evaporator unit for use on smaller vessels.
Another object of this invention is to provide a completely self-contained small evaporator unit which operates on waste heat obtained from cooling water drawn from an internal combustion engine manifold.
A further object of this invention is to provide adistillation apparatus which has a greater output per cubic foot of space occupied.
A :still further object of this invention 18 to provide a distillation apparatus having fewer parts so that it may be more easily assembled, disassembled, installed and repaired.
Yet a further object of this invention is to provide a small evaporator unit having identical evaporating and condensing coils.
Still another object of this invention 15 to provide an evaporator unit for use on smaller vessels which will be less aflected in its operation by the roll and pitch of the vessel.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a less expensive and more corrosion resistant sea water distillation apparatus.
Many other objects, advantages and features of invention reside in the construction, arrangement, and combination of parts involved in the embodiment of the invent on and its practice as will be understood from the following description and accompanying drawing wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a vertical section taken through the distillation apparatus of this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a longitudinal section through a combination condenser inlet and support tube and associated fragments of the distillation apparatus;
FIGURE 3 is a vertical section taken on line 33 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a vertical section taken on line 44 of FIGURE 3;
FIGURES 5 and 6 are horizontal sections taken on lines 5--5 and 66 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 7 is a horizontal section taken on line 77 of FIGURE 1 with the heating coil partly broken away;
FIGURE 8 is a vertical section taken through a turn of a coil;
FIGURE 9 is a side view of an end of a coil; and
FIGURE 10 is a side view of another form of an end of a coil.
Referring to the drawing in detail, FIGURES 1 and 7 show the base 10 which is designed to be molded in a single piece in a two part mold from a suitable plastic such as a fiberglass reinforced molding compound. The periphery of the base 10 is formed into the slightly tapering annular flange 11. Extending inward from the top of the annular flange 11 is a shoulder 12. Side walls 13 extend downward from the inner edge of the shoulder 12 to support the bottom portion 14 at a lower level than the shoulder 12.
Referring further to FIGURES 1 and 7, a slightly tapering cylindrical cover 16 has a lower outwardly extending flange 17 and a top wall 13. The cover 16 is molded from a suitable plastic material and is secured to the base 10 with a pressure tight gasketed joint by means of bolts 19 or other suitable fastening devices, which extend through the shoulder 12 of the base and the flange 17 of the cover. A shroud 20 may be slipped over and dropped downward about the cover 16 to hide the fastening devices 19 and improve the exterior appearance of the installed evaporator.
Referring now to FIGURES 1 and 2, a boss 22 extends downward from the bottom portion 14 of base 10. A condenser inlet and support tube 30 is formed of arsenical admiralty brass or other suitable material and the tube 30 is inserted downward through the boss 22. A flange 31 is spun to extend from tube 30 and seat on top of the bottom portion 14. A second flange 32 is spun near the top of tube 30. A plastic product pan 34 is slipped downward about tube 30 and rests upon flange 32. As shown in FIGURES 1, 6 and 7, a distillate and support tube 36 and a support tube 38 also extend between the base 10 and the product pan 34. The tubes 36 and 38 are formed in the same manner as tube 30 and have flanges corresponding to the flanges 31 and 32 to correctly position and support the product pan 34 above the base 10. Thus the tubes 30, 36 and 38 support the product pan 34 like three legs.
Referring now to FIGURES 1 and 6, a splash plate 40 is positioned directly below the product pan 34. The splash plate 40 has the two radial arms 44 and 45 extending outward from it. The outward facing notches 41, 42 and 43 are formed in the ends of arms 44 and 45 and on the edge of plate 40. Referring again to FIGURE 2, it may be seen that tube 30 has a constriction 28 formed in it a short distance below flange 32. The notch 43 of plate 40 fits within the constriction 28. The tubes 36 and 38 contain similar notches to correctly position the splash plate 40 beneath the product pan 34. Plate 40 may contain a number of small drain apertures 46 and a notch 4-7 to accommodate the condenser drain tube 48. As shown in FIGURES 1 and 5, the product pan 34 has a circular wall 50 extending upward about a large aperture formed in its central portion. Within the circular wall 50 there is packed a stainless steel mesh 52 or other suitable water droplet separating material. The outer edges of the drain pan 34 form an upturned flange 53. A rubber gasket 54 extends about flange 53 and provides a fluid tight seal between the product pan 34 and the cover 16.
Referring further to FIGURE 2, an O ring 55 or other suitable packing is held in place by a member 56 so that a fluid tight seal is provided about the tube 30. Similar seals are provided about the upper ends of the tubes 36 and 38. A rubber collar 53 is slipped upward about the bottom of tube 30 and the boss 22. Clamps 59 clamp the rubber collar to the boss 22 and about the tube 30 to provide a pressure tight seal about the tube 30 as it emerges from the base 10. Tube 36 is also sealed as it passes through base 10 in a similar manner, however, the support tube 38 may be closed or plugged at the bottom and not pass completely through the base 10.
Referring now to FIGURES 1, 8, 9 and 10, a heating coil 69 having an inlet tube 61 and an outlet tube 62 is mounted above the bottom portion 14 of base 19. Small chocks 63 may be molded to extend upward from portion 14 to support the turns of heating coil 60. A condensing coil 64 having the inlet tube 65 and the outlet tube 66 is supported above the product pan 34 on the chocks 67 and the vacuum drain dam 68. The chocks 67 and the vacuum drain dam 68 may be molded integrally with the product pan 34. The coils 60 and 64 are identical and they are formed from two pieces of metal 70 and 71 which are pressure welded at suitable locations 72 and then expanded by hydraulic pressure. The expansion forms the internal passages '73. Suitable end manifold passages 74 are formed at the ends of the coils to connect the longitudinal passages 73. These passages 74 may then have suitable inlet or outlet tubes 76 and 77 welded or otherwise secured to communicate with them.
As shown in FIGURES 1, 3 and 4, the bottom portion 14 of the base 19 has a raised portion 80. Side walls 82 extend above a part of the raised portion 80. A cover plate 84 is glued or otherwise secured to the side walls 82 and has a tube 85 extending upward from its center portion. The condenser drain tube 48 communicates with tube 85 and leads into the compartment 86 formed by the raised portion 80, side walls 82 and the cover plate 84. Two eductor nozzles 87 are screwed or otherwise secured within the raised portion 80. Extending downward between the eductor nozzles 87 is a partition 88. When the bottom cover plate 89 is fixed below the raised portion 80, the partition 88 forms the two compartments 90 and 91. Two tubes 92 and 93 lead from beneath each eductor nozzle 87 to create a vacuum within the compartments 90 and 91.
As shown in FIGURES 4 and 7, two tubes 94 and 95 extend upward from the compartments 90 and 91 outside the side walls 82. Tube 95 extends upward for a few inches above base It) and then terminates, while tube 94 extends upward and has connected to it the vacuum drain tube 97 which is shown in FIGURE 6. A cylindrical plastic splash guard 98 is supported on suitable chocks 99 which may be molded onto the bottom portion 14 of the base 10.
This apparatus operates in the following manner. The inlet tube to the heating coil 60 is connected to a hot water source such as the cooling water manifold of an internal combustion engine. This hot water at a temperature of about 180 degrees F. is circulated through the heating coil 60. A pump (not shown) forces cool sea water under pressure into the condenser inlet and support tube 30 from which the cool sea water flows through the condensing coil 64. Water from coil 64 then passes through the condenser discharge tube 48 into the compartment 86 as shown in FIGURES 3 and 4. From compartment 86, water jets through the eductor nozzles 87 into the tubes 92 and 93 to create a partial vacuum in the compartments 90 and 91. A small nozzle 100 is mounted on the cover plate 84 and it directs a small stream of water from compartment 86 onto base within the apparatus. Sea water from nozzle 100, which has been slightly warmed by passing through coil 64, fills the bottom of the evaporator until its level rises to the top of tube 95 as shown in FIGURE 1. Then water which is not evaporated by the heating coil 60 is drawn downwards through the top of tube 95 which thus maintains a constant level of sea water within the evaporator. Tube 94 leading to compartment 90 is connected to the vacuum tube 97 which leads to the aperture 101 within the vacuum drain dam 68 as shown in FIGURE 5. Thus the vacuum drain tube 97 creates a partial vacuum within the apparatus so that the heating coil 60 will vaporize sea water at a temperature of 125 degrees. The vacuum drain tube 97 also removes non-condensable gases from the apparatus. The tube 97 and the tube 48 may be of rubber or a like material and they may be connected within the apparatus by means of suitable clamps. Water vapor passes through the mesh 52 which separates out any droplets carried along with the vapor. The splash plate 40 prevents any slugs of water from directly striking the mesh 52 and then being carried over into the condenser.
As water vapor contacts the cooling coils 64, it condenses on top of the product pan 34 to fiow into the aperture 102 shown in FIGURE 5 and then it flows down the distillate and support tube 36 from which it may be drawn off for use. Distillate cannot flow into the vacuum drain tube 97 because the clam 68 surounds the aperture 101 and keeps water from flowing into aperture 101. A suitable checking device (not shown) must be associated with tube 36 to prevent air at atmospheric pressure from flowing back into the apparatus through the tube 36.
This invention enjoys many advantages. The constant feed of sea water through nozzle prevents the brine solution about the heating coil 60 from reaching too high a concentration or level of salinity so that this feature tends to prevent the formation of scale. The coils 60 and 64 prevent smooth, contiguous surfaces which are easily wiped clean and which tend to inhibit scale formation. The entire apparatus may be easily disassembled for cleaning or repair by merely undoing the bolts 19 and removing the cover 16. The compact construction enables a greater and more efficient production of potable water with an apparatus of less weight which occupies a smaller volume.
While this invention has been shown and described in the form known, it will nevertheless be understood that this is purely exemplary and that modifications in the construction, arrangement and combination of parts may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention except as it may be more limited in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus for the conversion of sea water to drinking water comprising, a housing formed of a base and a cover sealed thereto, an evaporator system for vaporizing sea water enclosed in the lower portion of said housing, said evaporator system comprising a hot heat exchange surface, connected passages for conducting hot water therethrough in contact with said hot heat exchange surface and means for exposing sea water to said hot heat exchange surfaces for vaporization, a condenser system for the condensation of vapor and collection of distilled water enclosed in the upper portion of said housing, said condenser system comprising a vapor filter for entrapment of entrained liquid passing therethrough, a cold heat exchange surface surrounding said filter, connected passages for conducting cold water therethrough in contact with said cold heat exchange surfaces and means for collecting distilled water condensed on said cold heat exchange surfaces and an eductor system located within said housing for draining cold water from said condenser system and simultaneously creating a vacuum within said housing, said eductor being mounted on the base and including first and second compartments each containing an eductor nozzle evacuating said compartments, said eductor nozzles extending into orifices through which said eductor nozzles evacuate, a third compartment mounted above and coupled to said first and second compartments, a condenser drain tube leading to said third compartment, a water levelling tube extending a short distance upward from said first compartment, and a pipe connection from said second compartment to the means for collecting distilled water in the condensing system whereby vacuum created by said eduction of cold water is communicated to the interior of said apparatus so that evaporation can be accomplished at less than 212 F.
2. The apparatus according to claim 1 in which said third compartment contains an orifice extending into and communicating with the evaporator system for filling said evaporator with cold sea water drained from said condenser.
3. The combination according to claim 1 wherein both condenser and evaporator heat exchange surfaces com- References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 534,412 2/1895 Vinton. 616,277 12/1898 Todd et al.
Fcurness 202205 X Hapgood 20289 Kirgan. Waddill 202205 NORMAN YUDKOFF, Primary Examiner.
GEORGE D. MITCHELL, Examiner.