US 3221882 A
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MAGNETIC-RESTRI CTIVE SEPARATOR Filed July 27, 1961 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORNEYS Dec. 7, 1965 s. G. FRANTZ 3,221,882
MAGNETIC-RESTRI CTIVE SEPARATOR Filed July 27, 1961 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 O N l!) INVENTR SAMUEL @.FRANTZ ATTORNEYS Dec. 7, 1965 A s. G. FRANTZ 3,221,882
MAGNETIC-RESTRICTIVE SEPARATOR Filed July 27. 1961 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 www am ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,221,882 MAGNETIC-RESTRICTIVE SEPARATGR Samuel G. Frantz, Princeton, NJ., assignor to S. G. Frantz Co., Inc., Trenton, NJ., a corporation of New York Filed July 27, 1961, Ser. No. 127,179 6 Claims. (Cl. 2113-223) This invention relates to improvements in Huid-particle separators and, more particularly, to improvements in separators which utilize combined restrictive (straining) and magnetic techniques for separating particles from a fluid such as oil. The invention also relates to improvements upon the separator of Patent 2,508,666 issued May 23, 1950 to the applicant herein.
It is one object of the invention to provide performance improvements in huid-particulate separators, specific objects being to improve efficiency, minimize pressure drop and to separate a wider range of particle type-s and sizes.
A further object of the invention is to reduce the maintenance burden associated with fluid-particulate separators by providing a construction which is readily checked, disassembled, cleaned and reassembled with relative ease.
A still further object of the invention is to impart automatic pressure relief, and provide` greater ruggedness and durability in such separators while at the same time promoting economy of manufacture thereof.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be set forth in part hereinafter and in part will be obvious herefrom, or may be learned 'by practice with the invention, the same being realized and attained by means of the instrumentalities and combinations pointed out in the appended claims.
Briefiy and generally, the invention provides a fluidparticulate separator comprising a stack of annular grids dished in alternate directions for parallel filtering of the fluid to be treated; the grids each have a plurality of specially formed passageways bounded by magnetized wall members having magnetic fiux concentration particularly at the edges thereof. The resultant magnetic forces together with the dimensions and configuration of the passageways provides effective separation of both ferrous and non-ferrous particles. The invention further comprises the deployment of said grid stack in novel casing and cover structures which facilitate both maintenance and operation of the separator. Further features of the invention relate to the configuration of said stack which provides both effective filtering and automatic pressure relief.
The invention consists in the novel parts, constructions, arrangements and combinations herein shown and described.
Serving to illustrate an exemplary embodiment of the invention are the drawings of which:
FIGURE 1 is an elevation view in section of the separator of the invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged fragmentary View taken along the lines 2 2 of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 3 is an exploded elevation view partly in section taken along the lines 3 3 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a View partly in section taken along the lines 4-4 of FIGURE 3, the grid interstices being exaggerated for illustration purposes;
FIGURE 5 is an exaggerated fragmentary plan view of one of the grids of the invention;
FIGURE 6 is a developed view of an alternate grid construction;
FIGURE 7 is a side elevation view of the tape of FIG- URE 6; and
FIGURE 8 is an elevation view in section of a modified form of the separator according to the invention.
As illustrated in the figures, the invention comprises a generally cylindrical casing 1, having an inlet port 2 and a diametrically opposing outlet port 3. Centrally disposed in the casing is an assembly comprising spaced coaxial permanent magnets 4a and 4b, of generally annular construction. Disposed therebetween is a coaxial array S of dished annular grids 5a and 5b. The grids are essentially in line contact at their inner and outer peripheries and the peripheral face of each grid is irnperforate.
The above arrangement defines an annular chamber 6 between the combination of magnets and grid stack, and the casing. Inlet port 2 communicates with this chamber while 'outlet port 3 communicates with the interior of the stack which defines a space 7 delineated by the grids and permanent magnets.
Fluid flow through the filter is as indicated by the arrows. The flow is generally radial through the stack 5, the particle-bearing fluid entering the convergent spaces between adjacent grids 5a and 5b, thereafter passing in axial direction through the grid passageways, thence t0 the divergent spaces between adjacent grids and into the chamber 7 from which fiow to outlet 3 occurs. It may be seen that the grids act in parallel.
Each grid as shown in FIGURES 2, 4, 5, comprises windings 13a of a substantially smooth tape alternated with windings 13b of irregular tape. One or more extra turns of winding 13a defines inner and outer enclosure bands 12a and 12b respectively. The winding 13b may have, for example, a dimpled, crimped, or embossed surface. Preferably, the smooth and rough windings are formed of respective single tapes wound in spiral configuration. The elevations on the irregular tape extend alternately in opposite directions. The tape arrangement serves to dene the interstices which characterize the grid structure when the tapes have been wound and joined. Each tape 13a and 13b is made of soft steel or similar magnetizable material, such as stainless chromium steel having high permeability and low coercive force.
One convenient way of forming the grids is to assemble and braze the tapes and thereafter impart the frustoconical configuration by an axial pressing operation. In one embodiment, the percentage open area thus provided by the grids is 40%. Larger percentages may be obtained by reducing tape thickness or by altering the surface contours of the irregular strip component.
As seen in FIGURES l-4, the stack 5 of grids is slideably disposed on a cage structure comprising a plurality of circumferentially displaced rods 9 joined at their ends by respective rings 10 and 11. The outer diameters of rings 10 and 11 are each greater than the inner diameter of the grids thus insuring retention of the grids in their proper order during disassembly procedures while, at the same time, permitting the grids to be separated and easily cleaned. Since the grids may be partially separated, all regions of the stack are accessible for this cleaning operation.
For facilitating access to the grid assembly and for other purposes noted hereinafter, means are provided comprising a cover assembly genreally indicated at 12. As embodied, this cover assembly comprises an upper generally circular plate 14 and a lower plate 15, spaced therefrom. Plates 14 and 15 also serve to define an outlet passageway 16 which communicates with port 3. The plates are interconnected by a plurality of connecting posts 18. The annular magnet 4b is mounted preferably in fixed relation on lower plate 15. Upper plate 14 includes sealing means, illustratively in the form of an O ring 20, which acts to seal the top opening in casing 1, while in threaded engagement with lower plate 15, is a magnet ferrule 30 which functions to secure magnet 4b to the lower plate.
Cover assembly 12 also includes releasable coupling means comprising a rod 22 having on its external end a clamping nut 23. The clamping nut has a diametric bore which aligns with a bore in rod 22 to form a passageway in which is inserted a handle 25. Coaxial with nut 23 on rod 22 is washer cup 27 conveniently provided with a sealing O ring 28 which contacts the upper face of cover plate 14. Rod 22 passes axially through plate 14 and is rotatable with respect thereto.
In axial alignment with rod 22 are connecting means adapted for connection thereto comprising a stator rod 32 which is installed in and fixedly secured to the base of casing 1. Rod 32 includes a reduced diameter section 34 which defines a rim which is seated in a recess in an annular magnet washer 36. The latter is nested inside cage ring 11, both of these components being seated in turn on a ferrule 39 which rests on the bottom of casing 1 within the interior portion of lower magnet 4a. Reduced section 34 of rod 32 is threaded in a bushing 40 4conveniently keyed to the base of casing 1 as by key 42. The rod 32 is keyed to the bushing as by key 43. The lower shoulder on rod 32 acts to retain washer 36, ferrule 39 and lower magnet 4a in position with respect to the base.
The upper end of rod 32 is threaded to engage with an axial threaded bore in the end of rod 22. When rod 22 is rotated into the engaged position relative to rod 32 by turning handle 25, cover assembly 12 is pulled down into the installed position (sealed relative to casing 1) and the annular magnet 4b compresses grid stack 5, thus insuring a sealing contact between adjacent contacting grids at the inner and outer peripheries thereof. For disassembly, the rod 22 is rotatably disengaged from rod 32 thus lifting cover structure 12 and permitting withdrawal of the cage structure and angulated grids loosely coupled thereto (see FIGURE 3). It may be seen from the above that, disassembly, cleaning and reassembly are simply and easily effected. For draining the separator, casing 1 is provided with a drain port 50 in the base thereof, the port being normally sealed as by a pipe plug 51.
The unique grid arrangement of the invention, in addition to providing effective straining and magnetic separation, also provides pressure relief. It may be seen that the grid arrangement is responsive to the pressure drop associated with fiuid fiow in such a manner that excess pressure tends to separate the inner contiguous peripheries of the grid elements. Normally, this action is prevented by the axial compressive force applied to the grids by way of the connective coupling of rod 22 to rod 32 which causes upper magnet 4b to mutually compress the grids between that magnet and magnet 4a. Should the pressure drop become excessive, however, this compressive force will be overcome. The adjacent peripheral sur-faces will separate causing the grids to provide bypass pressure relief. This action may be optimized by selecting a conical angle for the grids which will yield a sufiicient reactive elastic force to break the inner sealed surfaces when pressure drop reaches a predetermined value above normal.
The magnetic field originated by magnets 4a, 4b produces magnetization of the grids a, 5b. The resultant iiux converging at the edges of the grid tapes produces an effective and powerful attracting force for collecting ferromagnetic particles which thereby adhere to these edges. In addition, the magnets per se also attract and collect some of the particulate ferrous contaminants. The return ferromagnetic circuit of the separator includes plates 14 and 15 and casing 1, all of which are of steel, cast iron or other magnetizable material- The interstitial character of the grids provides an etiective straining action for non-magnetic materials, eg., lint, sand, non-ferrous metals and the like.
By way of providing exemplary data descriptive of one embodiment of the invention certain specifications are listed below:
Thickness 0.006". Open area 40%. Material Type 430 chromium stainless. Grid O.D 5%6". Grid I.D. 3". Number of turns per tape (approx.) 59. Cone angle, included* 165. Width of opening .005". Brazing Copper. Magnets:
Material Alnico-V. Ferrule 30 Brass. Ferrule 39 Babbitt. Casing:
Material Cast iron. Other materials:
Washer 36 Babbitt. Rings 10, 11 Brass. Rods 9 Brass. Rod 22 Brass. Rod 32 Brass.
*As formed by pressing in die; angle is larger when grids are compressed in assembly with magnets.
An alternate form of irregular tape profile is shown in FIGURES 6 and 7, where the edges of a tape 50 have been crimped to provide curvilinear elevations 50a and 50b extending in alternately opposite directions in a generally sinusoidal fashion. The irregular tape 50 is wound with a smooth tape (not shown) contact being made at the junction points defined by these elevations; the tapes are thereafter joined and the combination dished as hereinbefore described. By Way of modification, tape 50 may be crimped across its entire width.
A modified form of the separator, according to the invention, is shown in FIGURE 8. As embodied, this separator comprises a generally cylindrical casing 100, one end of which is threaded and of open construction. Disposed axially Within the interior of casing is a grid stack 101 comprising grids 102 constructed as described hereinbefore and disposed between magnets 104 and 105. Disposed axially in casing 100 and extending through the interior of stack 101 is a re taining structure comprising a cage assembly 106. Assembly 106 at one end seats on a ferrule 108, which is fixed to the base of casing 100 as by screw 109. Ferrule 108 serves to retain annular magnet in fixed relation with respect to the base of casing 100.
Cage assembly 106 comprises a plurality of circumferentially displaced rods 111 retained in a pair of rings 112 at opposite ends of the rods. The upper end of assembly 106 extends through the interior of magnet 104 and through a seat structure 114 to which magnet 104 is secured as by ferrule 115.
The threaded end of casing 100 is screwed into a cover or head assembly 120, normally retained in the system pipe line (not shown). An outlet port 121 is provided therein, which port communicates with lthe interior of stack 101 and magnets 104 and 105. An inlet port 122 is also provided in the head assembly and communicates with the annular space betwen the magnet-grid assembly and the walls of casing 100. The magnet 104 is attached by means of the ferrule 115 to coupling member 114 which is then permanently assembled by a press operation to integral rim 124 of head 120. When the casing 100 is screwed in to position in head assembly a compressive force is applied to the grid stack 101 by magnets 104 causing the adjacent inner and outer pen'pheries of the grids to form a pressure-responsive seal. For gaining access to stack 101, casing 100 is unscrewed, permitting withdrawal of cage assembly 106, and the grids loosely coupled thereto. Except in the particulars noted, the arrangement of FIGURE 8 is similar to the arrangement of FIGURES 1-5 and may include the grid arrangements shown therein or the grid arrangement of FIGURES 6, 7,
The separator of the invention may be employed in varied application including lubricant, cooling and hydraulic systems. In studying and practicing the invention, modifications to the exemplary structure will occur to those skilled in the art. The invention is accordingly not limited to the specic mechanisms shown and described but departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the accompanying claims without departing from the principles of the invention and without sacricing its chief advantages.
What is claimed is:
1. A magnetic-restrictive separator adapted to separate ferrous and non-ferrous particles from a uid, comprising an external casing having ports therein for the reception and discharge of said fluid, a stack of coaxial, generally frusto-conical opposing annular magnetizable grids disposed in said casing in paired relationship so as to define an annular chamber between said paired grids and the walls of said casing and a space in the interior of said stack, said chamber and said space communicating respectively with said ports, said stack including fluid permeable, internal grid support means extending beyond the ends of said stack with means thereon to loosely retain said grids when said separator is disassembled, said grids being freely separable from each other when said stack iS removed whereby both sides of said grid are accessible for cleaning While at the same the grids are maintained in their predetermined order, said stack being disposed in said casing so as to permit said iluid to flow in a generally radial direction between said chamber and said space and in parallel paths through said grids, and magnetic means in said casing at opposite ends of said stack for magnetizing said grids, said magnetic means being in releasable arrangement with said stack and support means whereby said stack and support means can be removed from the influence of said magnetic means without the need for disassembling said grids, said grids being compressed betWen said magnets and having suiicient rigidity to generally preserve said frusto-conical shape; said magnetization of said grids and the interstitial character thereof being adapted to separate said ferrous and non-ferrous particles from said uid.
2. A separator as set forth in claim 1 in which said grid support means include retention means at the ends of said grid support means to loosely retain said grids.
3. A separator as Set forth in claim 1 in which said grids comprise wound layers of a relatively smooth ferrous tape alternated with layers of roughly surfaced tape to form interstices in said grids.
4. A separator as set forth in claim 1 in which said magnetic means comprise a pair of annular continuous magnets on opposing ends of said stack, said magnets being exposed to said fluid.
5. A separator as set forth in claim 1 including coupling means and in which said grids are releasably urged into mutual con-tact by way of compression applied via said coupling means and said magnetic means, said grids having resilience operable in the presence of excessive pressure to overcome said compression and to separate whereby pressure relief is provided.
6. A separator as set forth in claim 1 in which said external casing comprises a return magnetic circuit.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,074,085 3/ 1937 Frantz 210-223 X 2,083,148 6/1937 Coulombe 210-356 2,482,321 9/ 1949 Copeland 55-520 X 2,490,635 12/ 1949 Kisch 210-223 2,508,666 5/ 1950 Frantz 210-222 2,887,230 5/1959 Sicard 210-222 FOREIGN PATENTS 566,307 7/ 1960 Belgium. 65,017 1/ 1956 France (Addition to No. 1,019,934). 630,915 12/ 1927 France. 667,362 10/ 1929 France. 1,083,008 6/1960 Germany.
352,038 7/ 1931 Great Britain. 691,388 5/ 1953 Great Britain.
REUBEN FRIEDMAN, Primary Examiner.
HARRY B. THORNTON, EUGENE BLANCHARD,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION Patent No. 3,221,882 December 7, 1965 Samuel G. Frantz It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
Column 5, line 35, after "same" insert u time Signed and sealed this 20th day of December 1966.
ERNEST W. SWIDER Anesting Officer EDWARD I. BRENNER Commissioner of Patents