US 3223436 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 14, 1965 H. v. BECKER 3,223,435
METHOD OF BINDING BOOKS AND PRODUCT THEREOF Filed April 22, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.5.
INVENTOR. HoLus V. BECKER AHovnm s Dec. 14, 1965 H. v. BECKER 3,223,436
METHOD OF BINDING BOOKS AND PRODUCT THEREOF Filed April 22, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. HOLLIS \l. BECKER AHovne s Fig. 11
United States Patent 3,223,436 METHOD OF BINDING BOOKS AND PRODUCT THEREOF Hollis V. Becker, 2253 N. Graham St., Indianapolis, Ind. Filed Apr. 22, 1963, Ser. No. 274,440 2 Claims. (Cl. 281-21) This invention relates to a book binding construction and method.
One problem present in the binding of books is the providing of a structure in which the back or spline of the book is securely attached to the pages and in which the back or spline is flexible. It is desirable that the back or spline be flexible in order that the pages can be easily separated for viewing the various pages and in order that the separation of the pages does not crack the binding. When the book becomes warm, there is danger with certain proposed bindings that the attachment of the pages to the back or binding will loosen or become deformed. When the book becomes cold, there is danger with certain proposed bindings that the binding will crack.
Consequently, one object of the present invention is to provide an improved book binding and method of making the same, said binding remaining flexible at low temperatures and retaining its highly adherent nature and physical strength at high temperatures.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method of book binding which is relatively convenient and easy to use and which produces a superior product.
Related objects and advantages will become apparent as the description proceeds.
One embodiment of the book construction of the present invention might include a book having a plurality of pages. A web of polyethylene is adhered to the edges of the pages and defines a binding for the book.
One embodiment of the method of binding of the present invention might include the steps of extruding a web of heated plastic such as polyethylene directly onto the edges of a plurality of pages, placing a layer of scrim over said plastic, firmly gripping the plurality of pages adjacent and parallel to said edges by means of a pair of pressure plates, and rocking a roller against said scrim and pages to Work the plastic into firm adhesion with said pages.
The full nature of the invention will be understood from the accompanying drawings and the following description and claims.
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of a plurality of groups of pages and also of apparatus used in the method of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of one of the groups of pages of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged vertical section taken along the line 33 of FIG. 1 in the direction of the arrows.
FIG. 4 is a side elevation similar to FIG. 1 but showing an alternative method of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a horizontal section taken along the line 55 of FIG. 4 in the direction of the arrows.
FIG. 6 is an enlarged section of one of the groups of pages of FIGS. 4 and 5 showing a further step in the method of the present invention, the step of FIG. 6 being subsequent to the step of FIGS. 4 and 5.
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a die used in a further alternative method of applicants invention.
3,223,436 Patented Dec. 14, 1965 FIG. 8 is a view similar to FIGS. 1 and 4 showing one of the steps of the method of FIG. 7.
FIGS. 9 and 10 are perspective views showing further possible or alternative dies usable in connection with the present invention.
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary view similar to FIG. 1 of an alternative embodiment of the invention.
For the purposes of promoting an understanding of the principles of the invention, reference will now be made to the embodiment illustrated in the drawing and specific language will be used to describe the same. It will nevertheless be understood that no limitation of the scope of the invention is thereby intended, such alterations and further modifications in the illustrated device, and such further applications of the principles of the invention as illustrated therein being contemplated as would normally occur to one skilled in the art to which the invention relates.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, the present invention may be practiced with either the patent type of binding or with the Smyth (spline sewn or backbone sewn) type of binding. In FIGS. 1 and 3, the invention is shown as being practiced with the patent type of binding in which the backing of the book is secured directly to the individual pages of the book. In FIG. 1, there is illustrated a plurality of groups 16 of pages or signatures 11. The signatures are made up of single pages which are folded a number of times to produce pages of the size desired in the book. The four edges of the signature are cut otf leaving a plurality of pages which are unconnected to one another. A plurality of such signatures are assembled or stacked as illustrated in FIG. 2 and are then gripped between pressure members 12 for movement along the surface 15. It can be seen that the groups 10 of pages are contiguous to one another so that the layer 16 of binding material is deposited on the groups and there is no excess between the groups.
An extruder 17 is provided for extruding the layer 16 of plastic directly onto the edges 20 of the pages. The extruder 17 is conventional with the exception of its head 21 and may be, for example, 1% inch Thermoplastic Extruder, 16:1 L/D Ratio with polyethylene screw manufactured by the Frank W. Egan & Company, S. Adamsville Road, Somerville, New Jersey, or may be a 1%. inch Extruder for Thermoplastics, Model #55, 20:1 L/ D Ratio with an A109PT Series polyethylene screw manufactured by the National Rubber Machinery Company of Akron, Ohio.
A suitable extrusion head for use with the extruder 17 is illustrated in FIG. 9. It can be seen from FIG. 9 that the head 21 has a long, flat, slot-like orifice 22 through which the layer 16 of plastic is extruded. The orifice forms the terminal end of an extrusion passage 23 which initially has a circular cross section and tapers.
into the long slot-like orifice 22.
One of the important features of the present invention is the use of polyethylene as the plastic layer binding the book or forming the back thereof. Thus, the layer 16 may be formed of polyethylene which is rolled into the edges of the pages by a pressure roller 25. The roller 25 may be rotatably mounted a fixed distance from the surface 15 or may be mounted by springs 24 (as shown in the mounting or roller 25' in FIG. 11) to exert a constant force against the layer 16 and groups of pages. Preferably, prior to the deposition of the layer 16 upon the groups of pages, there is accomplished an abrading operation upon the edges 20 so that the polyethylene layer is more firmly adhered to the pages. This abrasion may be accomplished by any conventional means or by a powered roller 24 having sharp projections 24 on its outer periphery. The roller 25 is heated and has an external surface 26 of highly polished chrome to inhibit any sticking of the plastic to the roller. Adjacent the roller 25 is mounted a trimming structure 26. This structure includes a transversely extending rod 27 having mounted thereon by thumbscrews 30 a pair of depending elements 31. The elements 31 trim the excess material 32 from the sides of the layer 16 as the groups 10 of pages are moved rightwardly as viewed in FIG. 1 by the pressure members 12.
The groups of pages are bound together by the above procedure. If desired, subsequent steps such as attachment of a hard case or soft cover can be accomplished.
Referring to FIG. 4, an alternative embodiment of the invention is illustrated, said alternative embodiment including the use of scrim to reinforce the binding and also including the use of a Smyth binding.
Referring to FIG. 6, the signatures each include a plurality of pages 41 which are connected together by saddle stitching 42 in conventional manner, said stitching being along the edges 45 of the pages with the other three edges of the pages free and unconnected. The groups of signatures are held in adjacent relation in similar fashion to that above described by pressure members 46 and are moved rightwardly across supporting surface 47. Below the supporting surface 47 is mounted an extruder 50 positioned to extrude a layer 51 of plastic upon a web 52 of scrim. As the scrim passes over a heated roller 55, plastic is extruded onto the scrim. The scrim with the plastic layer thereon is supported by a roller 56 prior to the passage of the scrim into a guide or die 57 mounted on supporting structure 60.
The movement of the scrim 52 is coordinated with and equal to the movement of the groups 61 of signatures 40. As the scrim and plastic move into the guide 57, they are forced against the outer surfaces 62 of each group in the manner shown in FIG. 6. Rollers 65 mounted on the structure 60 insure that the longitudinal edges of the plastic and scrim are thoroughly adhered to the surfaces 62 of the groups 61.
After the steps illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5 have been accomplished, the various groups of pages move on to be gripped by pressure plates 66. A roller 67 having a barrel shape is mounted for rotation beneath the moving groups 61. The roller 67 is mounted in such a manner that it rocks between the dotted line positions illustrated in FIG. 6. The roller is also heated so that as it rolls and rocks across the outer surface of the scrim 52, the plastic is worked into firm adhesion with the signatures 40. The machinery of which the pressure plates 66 and the roller 67 are a part is conventional and is manufactured, for example, by Smyth Manufacturing Company of Bloomfield, Connecticut. Model No. M38 is suitable for this application. It should be pointed out, however, that suitable heating means will be incorporated in the roller 67. Such a heating means is indicated in FIG. 6 by the fragmentary rectangle 70.
Subsequent to the above described steps of the alternative method, a further step might include the attaching of a cover to the groups 61 by conventional methods.
The above described alternative processes included direct extrusion of plastic to the upper edge of groups of pages and extrusion of a web of plastic onto a roller which carries the web to the book spline. A third alternative method of the present invention can be identical to either of the above described methods except for the differences illustrated in FIG. 8. In the alternative method of FIG. 8, the plastic is extruded directly onto the bottom of the groups 80. A die 81 is so formed that the groups wipe against upwardly projecting portion 82 of the die.
One important feature of the present invention is the extrusion of plastic directly onto a plurality of pages or signatures to form a book binding. This plastic can be any of the following: polyethylene, modified polyethylene, other polyolefins and modified polyolefins, vinyl-derived homoand copolymers, vinylidene-derived achieving intimate adhering contact with the paper stock. polymers and copolyrners and other thermoplastic resins, or other thermoplastic material.
Preferably, however, the plastic extruded onto the pages is polyethylene. The possible thickness of the final web 51 or 16 is .005 to .150". Preferably, however, the thickness of this web is between .020 and .060". The thickness depends upon the following desirable properties: flexibility of hinging, strength of hinging and achieving intimate adhering contact with the paper stock. If flexibility of hinging is not extremely important, the thickness of the web might be increased, for example, to increase the strength of hinging, In like manner, other variations in thickness of the web might be effected in order to emphasize desired ones of the above properties.
As mentioned, the preferred plastic for use in the present invention is polyethylene. This is true because of the desired property in polyethylene whereby it is flexible at low temperatures and remains firmly adherent at high temperatures. The density of the polyethylene can vary between .915 pound to .940 pound per cubic inch with a preferred range of .915 to .926 pound per cubic inch. The melt index of the polyethylene can vary between 1 and 50 but is preferably between 1.5 and 35. The density and melt index of the polyethylene are selected according to the following considerations. The polymer melt should have low viscosity under application conditions in order to achieve maximum contact with the pages and/ or signatures and maximum penetration into the paper. The physical strength of the polyethylene under service conditions should be sufficient to resist sag (creep under load at moderately elevated temperatures). The polyethylene should not be brittle at low temperatures and should remain flexible as above mentioned. It has been found that the above ranges accomplish these desired results.
The extrusion conditions used in the above described process with polyethylene should range between a temperature of 220 F. and a temperature of 800 F. In other words, the temperature of extruded material at the point of extrusion should be between the above values. A preferred range of values, however, would be between 600 F. and 750 F. The selection of extrusion temperature is based upon the fact that at higher operating temperatures, the viscosity of the polyethylene is reduced whereby maximum contact with and around and penetration into the paper is effected. The high processing temperatures suggested as preferred also cause a partial oxidation of the polyethylene which increases the specific adhesion of the polyethylene to the paper fibers and coatmgs.
From the above description, it will be evident that the present invention provides an improved book binding and method of making the same, said binding remaining flexible at low temperatures and retaining its highly adherent nature at high temperatures. It will also be evident that the present invention provides a method of book binding which is relatively convenient and easy to use. It has been found that the use of the present invention with a patent type binding produces a superior product of the functional quality of a spline sewn or backbone sewn binding.
As pointed out at lines 412, column 4, the term plastic used at various locations throughout the application is intended to mean thermoplastic or thermoplastic material,
1. The method of continuously binding books comprising extruding a continuous Web of polyethylene having a density of from 0.915 to 0.940 pound per cubic inch and a melt index of from 1 to 50 onto the edges of a plurality of assembled pages, the extrusion temperature of the polyethylene being within the range of from 600 to 750 F., whereby partial oxidation of the polyethylene is obtained and the adhesion of the polyethylene to the paper is increased, firmly gripping each assembly of pages adjacent and parallel to said edges, and causing a roller to roll against the polyethylene and pages to work the polyethylene into firm adhesion with said pages.
2. The method of bonding books comprising extruding a continuous web of polyethylene having a density of from 0.915 to 0.940 pound per cubic inch and a melt index of from 1 to 50 onto the edges of an assembly of pages, the extrusion temperature of the polyethylene being within the range of from 600 to 750 F., whereby partial oxidation of the polyethylene is obtained and the adhesion of the polyethylene to the paper is increased, and causing a roller to roll against the polyethylene and pages to work the polyethylene into firm adhesion with said pages.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS JEROME SCHNALL, Primary Examiner.
LAWRENCE CHARLES, Examiner.