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Publication numberUS3223446 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 14, 1965
Filing dateDec 24, 1963
Priority dateDec 24, 1963
Publication numberUS 3223446 A, US 3223446A, US-A-3223446, US3223446 A, US3223446A
InventorsCoppock Kenneth E, Hallenbeck Virgil R
Original AssigneeGen Motors Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Convertible dust boot construction and securing means
US 3223446 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

D 4, 1965 K. cePPocK ETAL. 3,

OONVER'IIBLE DUST BOOT OONSTRUOTION AND SEOURING MEANS Filed Dec. 24, 1963 '2 Shuts-Shut I.

INVENTOR! l mef (5C5 ,waf' BY V/ry/Z 146 exzdec Ma Dec. 14, 1965 K. E. coPPocK ETAL 3,223,446

CONVERTIBLE DUST BOOT CONSTRUCTION AND SECURING MEANS Filed Dec. 24, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS Wad/Z ORNE Y United States Patent 3,223,446 CONVERTIBLE DUST BOOT CONSTRUCTHON AND SECURING MEANS Kenneth E. Coppock, Pleasant Ridge, and Virgil R. Hallenbeck, Royal Oak, Mich., assignors to General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich, a corporation of Delaware Filed Dec. 24, 1963, Ser. No. 333,191 16 Claims. ((11. 296-136) This invention relates generally to a convertible automotive vehicle and more particularly to the construction of a dust boot and to means for securing the boot to enclose a top storing well formed in the vehicle body.

In the past, button type snaps have generally been used to secure the several edges of the dust boot on cooperating buttons mounted on the vehicle body adjacent the top well opening. Minor variations in the assembled spacing of such snaps and buttons, however, make it diflicult to secure and tension the boot properly between the top well defining body members. Such manufacturing variations necessitate fitting each boot on a completed vehicle and often require relocation of various snaps on the boot to permit satisfactory engagement with the body mounted buttons. Shrinkage and distortion of the boot may also occur during storage or partial removal. Resulting deviations in snap spacing make the boot difficult to secure without substantial effort. The exposed buttons on the body also tend to collect dirt and corrosive agents during boot removal to permit actuation of the top to its raised position. Such corrosive dirt may subsequently foul and corrode the springs and sockets of the mating snaps.

The invention broadly contemplates an improved boot construction having relatively simple, inexpensive means for easily and adjustably attaching and detaching and for resiliently and smoothly tensioning the boot between spaced moldings secured to the vehicle body adjacent the Well opening. The resulting boot and cooperating boot securing means eliminate the critical spacing requirements of conventional snap-secured boots and permit the inexpensive manufacture of interchangeable boots without fitting and relocation of the boot securing means.

With regard to certain more specific aspects, the invention further contemplates and features the use of boot secured spring clips which are pivotally and deflectively cammed into horizontally opposed retaining engagement with the inner and outer flanges of a convertible body belt finish molding of smooth channel forming section and thus secure the reinforced side and rear edges of the boot against tensing forces resiliently and smoothly applied to the boot by opposing means permitting adjustable attachment and detachment of the forward boot edge relative to a transverse body member defining the forward Wall of the top receiving well.

The foregoing and other objects, advantages and features of the invention will be apparent from the following description of several illustrative embodiments, having reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective environmental view showing the installation of a dust boot on the top well portion of a convertible vehicle body in accordance with the invention;

FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken substantially in the plane indicated at 22 of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged partially exploded perspective view showing the mounting of a two-piece belt molding engageable clip on the rear underportion of the dust boot of FIGURES 1 and 2;

FIGURE 4 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view showing the adjustable forward attachment of the boot of FIGURES 1-3; and

ice

FIGURE 5 is a view similar to FIGURE 4 showing a slight modification of the means provided to forwardly secure and tense the dust boot.

Referring more particularly to FIGURE 1, an intermediate rear portion of a convertible type automotive vehicle body is indicated generally by the reference numeral 10. A body formed Well 12 opens transversely of the body between a rear seat back 14 and a belt line forming body panel 15 with linkage receiving cans on forward extensions 16 of the well laterally flanking the rear seat. This well is adapted to receive and store a conventional linkage supported foldable top partially shown at 17 in FIGURE 2. A dust boot 18 is provided to enclose the top well when the top is retracted to its folded down position. Made of a suitable wind and weather impervious fabric or plasticized sheet material, this boot slightly exceeds and thus overlies the peripheral dimensions of the top well opening.

As best seen in FIGURE 2, the transverse rear and outer side edges of the well opening are defined by a finish molding 20 secured by conventional means to a body belt line pinchweld 22 including the flanged edge of body panel 15. In accordance with the invention, this belt molding is preferably formed to provide a smooth upper portion extending between two depending and reversely bent flanges 24 and 26 defining continuous oppositely inclined surfaces or shoulders 28 and 30. These shouldered flanges are engageable by spaced spring clip assemblies 32 mounted on a relatively stiff webbing or laminate 34 suitably attached to and reinforcing the rear and side underedges of the boot. A compressible filler 36 is preferably interposed between the rear and side edges of the boot and the boot edge reinforcing web. In the illustrative embodiment, the web 34 is formed from a relatively stiff pliant plastic sheet material and has a plurality of slots 38 extending parallel to and spaced inwardly of its outer boot edge.

As shown in FIGURES 2 and 3, the belt molding engageable clip assemblies 32 each include a clip mounting plate 40 flanged to form opposing guide channels 42 and 44 subtending approximately half its length. The channeled end of each clip mounting plate is pierced to form an inclined ramp or limit flange 46 terminating in an abutment edge 48 closely spaced and parallel to the adjacent end of the mounting plate. In assembly, the guide end of each mounting plate is initially inserted through one of the webbing slots 38 as shown in FIGURE 3. The centrally apertured end of each plate is then pivotally secured by a rivet 50 to the underside of the webbing inwardly of the plate embracing slot. When the webbing 34 is subsequently secured to the boot, the flanged guide channel ends of the several backing plates are partially housed between the boot edge reinforcing webbing and the intermediate compressible filler 36. The compressible filler thus insulates the projecting edges of the clip mounting plates from the upper boot fabric and enhances the appearance of the installed boot.

A spring clip member 52 capable of boot retaining engagement with the belt molding is slidably mounted within the opposing guide channels of each mounting plate. This clip mounting arrangement permits limited angular and reciprocable adjustment of the several clips relative to the adjacent belt line molding. As best seen in FIG- URE 3, each spring clip member 52 comprises a relatively flat base portion 54 which is slidably mounted at one end in the opposing guide channels of one of the clip mounting plates 40. This guide mounted end portion is perforated at 56 to form a depending molding engageable spring arm 58 and a transverse end portion 60. The arms 58 and the clip end portion 60 are oppositely engageable with the mounting plate flange 46 to limit the reciprocable adjustment permitted between the members 40 and 52. The opposite end of the spring clip member 52 is provided with a depending spring arm 62 suitably formed for pivotal retaining engagement with the well adjacent inner flange of the belt line finished molding. The clip member 52 is centrally perforated at 64 intermediate its belt molding securing arms. This perforation embraces and permits limited movement of the clip member relative to the head of the mounting plate secun'ng rivet 50. Two laterally spaced and outwardly flanged arms 66 and 68 depend from the intermediate portion of the clip member adjacent the arm 62. These two arms are pivotally engageable with the upper portion of the belt molding during boot attachment and serve to limit depression of the clip member relative to the molding and thereby the flexure imparted to the molding engaging arms.

In securing the boot to the belt molding with the spring clip assemblies of FIGURES 1-3, the forward or inner boot arm 62 of each clip member is preferably brought into pivotal engagement with the well adjacent inner molding flange 26. In this position intermediate arms 66 and 68 of the clip member serving as fulcrums in pivotal engagement with the upper surface of the belt molding and the rear or outer arm 58 of the clip member normally engages the depending curvature of the outer molding flange 24. By depressing the lever arm formed by the cooperating guide channel and base portions of the backing plate and clip member, respectively, cammed flexure of the clip member 52 occurs until the rear or outer arm of the clip member snaps into retaining engagement with the shouldered outer flange of the belt molding.

The illustrative clip members may be alternatively snapped into retaining engagement with the belt molding by first pivotally engaging the rear arm of the slidable clip member with the outer flange of the molding. In this pivotally engaged position, the forward arm of the clip member is in camming engagement with the depending inner flange of the molding. By then depressing the boot opposite the molding engageable limit arms 66 and 68, the forward arm of the clip member may be deflected forwardly until it snaps into retaining engagement with the shouldered inner flange of the belt molding. It will be noted that this latter method of attaching the boot necessarily requires greater deflection of the clip member and a corresponding increase in manual effort due to the loss of the mechanical leverage obtained when the clip is secured in the preferred manner.

As shown in FIGURES 1, 2 and 4, a laminated edging strip 70 is secured to the forward edge of the main boot panel. This edging strip reinforces the forward extensions 71 of the boot for button snap attachment at 72 and 74 to the well extending cans 16 and reinforces the intermediate transverse forward edge 75 of the boot for attachment at 76 to a seat back mounting molding 78. As shown in cross section in FIGURES 2 and 4, the molding 78 has a depending flange suitably secured as shown to the seat back 14 and forms a channel 82 opening upwardly and transversely of the vehicle body. The channel opening is constricted to mount and retain a hollow head 84 formed on a depending flange 86 of a resilient T-shaped member 88 adapted to secure and evenly tense the transverse forward edge of the boot. The member 88 is formed preferably of a suitable resilient plastic or synthetic rubber material. A strip of nylon pile fabric 90 is bonded to the upper flange 92 of the member 88. As best seen in FIGURE 4, this piled fabric has a plurality of interwoven matted loops adapted to receive and provide interlocking engagement with a plurality of resilient hooks interwoven and depending from a cooperating strip of nylon fabric 94 suitably secured to the undersurface of the transverse intermediate portion of the boot edging strip 70.

Boot securing interengagement is effected between the resilient hooks and piled loops of the cooperating nylon fabric strips by depressing the intermediate transverse portion of the edging strip downwardly against the pile mounting upper flange of the resilient boot retaining member 88. Disengagement of the interlocked boot securing fabric strips may be easily effected to permit boot removal by simply peeling the forward boot edging strip 70 upwardly in the manner indicated in FIGURE 4. The boot secured strip of hooked nylon fabric 94 is preferably wider than the cooperating strip of matted pile fabric 90 on the upper flange of the resilient member 88. This differential in the width of the cooperating fabric strips permits horizontal adjustment in securing the transverse forward edge of the boot on the body mounted resilient member 88. Such forward boot attachment is preferably adjusted so that subsequent lever arm depression of the several spring clips 32 into retaining engagement with the belt molding, in the preferred manner indicated above, properly tensions the boot and deflects the depending flange 86 intermediate its channel mounted bead 84 and pile fabric mounting upper flange M. This deflection of the member 88 smoothly and evenly tenses the transverse intermediate portion of the boot forwardly of the belt molding engaged clips secured to the relatively stiff, reinforced rear underedge of the boot. The boot is also tensed transversely of the vehicle by similar depression of the clip 32 mounted on laterally opposite undersides of the boot into retaining engagement with the belt molding portions on opposite sides of the top well opening.

In the slightly modified form of the invention shown in FIGURE 5, the forward boot retaining molding or channel member is supported on the seat back 14 by a transversely spaced plurality of leaf springs 96. Rearward deflection of these channel mounting leaf springs accommodates depression of the several clips 32 into boot retaining engagement with the belt molding. Such leaf spring deflection is additive to and cooperates with the limited deflection imparted to the resilient member 88 to smoothly and evenly tense the installed boot intermediate the belt and seat back mounted moldings.

While the invention has been described with reference to several illustrative embodiments, it will be apparent that various modifications and changes might be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.

We claim:

1. In a vehicle body having a convertible top and a top housing well opening transversely of the body,

a dust boot for enclosing the well when the top is retracted therein and having an edge portion overlying a corresponding body edge defining at least one side of the well opening,

means on said body forming two vertically inclined shoulders extending parallel to said body edge with one of said shoulders being located adjacent said body edge and the other of said shoulders being spaced laterally outwardly of the body therefrom,

a plurality of spring clips mounted inwardly of the overlying edge of the boot at spaced intervals and said clips each having depending spring arms deflectable into opposed boot retaining engagement with the laterally spaced vertically inclined shoulders formed on the body, and said clips each having a depending arm intermediate said spring arms and engageable with said shoulder forming means to limit deflection of the clip relative thereto.

2. The combination set forth in claim 1 further including cooperating means interengageable to attach and detach a second edge portion of the boot spaced oppositely from the first-mentioned boot edge to a corresponding body edge defining the opposite side of the well opening, and

at least one of said cooperating means being operable to tension the attached boot smoothly against the shoulder engaged clips.

3. In the combination set forth in claim 1,

each clip having a lever arm extension for actuating one of said clip spring arms deflectively into and out of retaining engagement with the adjacent shoulder, the other of said spring arms being in pivotal engagement with the other clip retaining shoulder during such actuation.

4. In a vehicle body having a convertible top and a top housing well opening transversely of the body,

a finish molding secured to the body adjacent the rear and side edges of the top well opening and shouldered on laterally opposite sides thereof to form vertically inclined surfaces spaced inwardly and laterally outwardly of the rear and side edges of the body well opening,

a dust boot for enclosing the well when the top is retracted therein,

stifi webbing secured to and reinforcing transverse rear and side edge portions of the boot overlying said molding,

a plurality of spring clips pivotally mounted at spaced intervals on said webbing inwardly of the adjacent boot edge,

and said spring clips each having spaced depending spring arms deflectable into opposed retaining engagement with the laterally spaced, vertically inclined shoulder forming surfaces on said molding.

'5. In the combination set forth in claim 4,

said clips each having a lever arm extension for deflectively actuating one of said clip spring arms into and out of retaining engagement with the adjacent shoulder of the molding, the other of said spring arms being in pivotal retaining engagement with the other shoulder of the molding during such actuation.

6. In the combination set forth in claim 5,

said clips each having two intermediate laterally spaced depending arms pivotally engageable with the upper portion of the molding adjacent said other spring arm and operable to limit deflection of the clip relative thereto during lever arm actuation of the clip in a molding engaging direction.

7. In the combination set forth in claim 4,

cooperating means vertically interengageable to attach and detach the transverse forward edge of the boot to the transverse forward edge of the body well open- 111g at least one of said cooperating means being resilient and operable to tension the boot attached thereto smoothly against the molding engaged clips.

8. In a vehicle body having a convertible top receiving well opening transversely of the body,

a belt molding secured to the body adjacent the rear and side edges of the well and having depending reversely bent flanges forming shoulders spaced inwardly and outwardly of the body defined well,

a pliable dust boot adapted to overlie and enclose said body well when the top is in a well contained down position,

the transverse rear and lateral side edges of the boot overlying said belt molding being reinforced by a relatively stiff webbing secured to the adjacent undersurfaces thereof and having a plurality of spaced elongated perforations therein extending substantially parallel to the adjacent edge of the boot,

a plurality of backing members pivotally secured on the underside of the webbing inwardly of each perforation and forming guide means extending outwardly of the boot through the adjacent perforation and between the webbing and the boot edge portion secured thereto,

a spring clip member slidably mounted by the guide means of each backing member for limited angular and reciprocable adjustment transversely of the adjacent belt line molding and having spaced depending spring arms flanged for retaining engagement with the flanged shoulders of the belt molding,

and cooperating means vertically interengageable to attach and detach the transverse forward edge of the boot adjacent the transverse forward edge of said body well, at least one of said cooperating means being resilient and operable to smoothly tension the attached boot against the belt molding engaged clips.

9. In the combination set forth in claim 8,

said clip members each having two intermediate laterally spaced depending arms pivotally engageable with the upper portion of the belt molding and adapted to limit depression of the clip member relative thereto, and

said clip members each further having an extension slidab'le within the clip mounting guide means of its respective backing member and cooperating therewith to form a lever arm for actuating the outer depending spring clip arm deflectively into and out of retaining engagement with the flange formed outer edge and shoulder of the belt line molding.

10. In the combination set forth in claim 8, said cooperating means comprising a second molding mounted on the vehicle body and forming a channel opening upwardly adjacent the transverse forward edge of the well opening,

a resilient member mounted within the channel of said second molding member and having an upper flange extending parallel to said channel,

a first strip of interlocking fabric secured to the upper flange of said retaining member,

a second strip of cooperating interlocking fabric secured to the undersurface of said boot adjacent its forward edge,

One of said fabric strips having a plurality of interwoven flexible hooks projecting outwardly therefrom,

and the other of said fabric strips having a closed loop pile vertically interengageable with the flexible hooks of said one fabric strip to d-etachably and adjustably secure the forward boot edge against the tensioning forces normally applied to such fabric strip interengagement through said resilient boot retaining member.

11. In the combination set forth in claim 10, said cooperating means further including leaf spring means resiliently securing said second molding to said body for limited boot tensing flexure of the upper channel forming portion thereof toward the transverse forward edge of the body well opening.

12. In a motor vehicle body having a convertible top receiving well opening upwardly between a transverse rear seat back and a belt molding secured to the body adjacent the rear and side edges of the well,

said belt molding forming continuous clip retaining shoulders spaced inwardly and outwardly of the body defined well opening,

a second molding secured to said seat back adjacent the transverse forward edge of said body well opening,

a pliable dust boot adapted to enclose said body well when the top is in its folded down position and having stiflly reinforced transverse rear and lateral side edges,

a plurality of belt molding engageable clips,

means spacedly mounting said clips along the reinforced transverse rear and lateral side edges of the boot for limited angular and reciprocable adjustment transversely of the belt line moldings,

said clips each having two depending arms deflectable into retaining engagement with the flange formed shoulders of the belt molding and an intermediate depending arm pivotally engageable with the upper portion of the belt molding to limit depression of the clip member relative thereto,

and cooperating means for adjustably and detachably securing the transverse forward edge of the boot to said seat back secured molding and for resiliently and smoothly tensioning said boot in a substantially horizontal plane against the belt molding securing engagement of said clips.

13. In a motor vehicle body having a convertible top receiving well,

a belt molding secured to the body adjacent the rear and side edges of the well and flanged to form continuous clip retaining shoulders spaced inwardly and outwardly of the body defined well,

a pliable dust boot adapted to enclose said body well opening when the top is in its down position,

a plurality of spring clips spacedly secured adjacent the transverse rear and lateral underedges of said boot and having depending arms defiectable into boot retaining engagement with the shoulders on the belt molding,

a second molding mountable on the vehicle body adjacent the transverse forward edge of the well opening and forming a channel opening upwardly and extending transversely of the vehicle,

leaf spring means resiliently securing said second molding to said body for limited flexure of the channel portion relative to the transverse forward edge of the well opening, a

a strip of interlocking fabric secured to the undersurface of said boot adjacent its forward edge and having a plurality of interwoven hooks depending therefrom,

a resilient. boot retaining member having a lower bead slidably mounted and retained within the channel of said second molding member and having an upper fiantgie extending parallel to said channel mounted bea and a second strip of interlocking fabric secured to the upper flange of said retaining member and having a plurality of piled loops engageable with the hooked fabric strip secured to the forward undersurface of the boot to detachably and adjustably secure the boot against the tensioning forces normally applied to such fabric interengagement by the biasing action of said spring means.

14. In a motor vehicle body having a convertible top receiving well opening upwardly and transversely of body,

a pliable dust boot adapted to overlie and enclose the body well opening,

cooperating means for securing one of the transverse underedges of said boot to an adjacent well opening defining edge of the body,

a molding mounted on the vehicle body and forming a channel opening upwardly adjacent the opposite transverse body edge of the well opening,

spring means resiliently securing and biasing said molding channel portion toward the adjacent body edge of the well opening,

a resilient boot retaining member slidably mounted and retained within the channel of said molding member and having a horizontally disposed upper flange extending parallel to said channel,

a first strip of interlocking fabric secured to the upper flange of said retaining member,

a second strip of cooperating interlocking fabric secured to the molding and boot edge adjacent undersurface of the boot,

one of said interlocking fabric strips having a plurality of interwoven hooks projecting outwardly therefrom,

and the other of said interlocking fabric strips having a plurality of piled loops vertically interengageable with the hooked fabric strip to detachably and ad ustably secure the boot against boot tensioning forces normally applied through such fabric interengagement by the biasing action of said spring means.

15. In a motor vehicle body having a convertible top receiving well opening upwardly and transversely of bod a dust boot adapted to overlie and enclose the body well opening,

Cooperating means for securing one edge of the boot to a corresponding edge of the body well opening,

a boot retaining member mounted on the vehicle body adjacent the opposite edge of the body well opening,

a first strip of interlocking fabric secured to said boot retaining member,

and a second strip of cooperating interlocking fabric secured to the edge adjacent undersurface of the boot overlying said retaining member,

one of said strips having closely spaced outwardly projecting flexible hooks,

the other strip having a closed loop pile vertically interengageable with the flexible hooks of said one strip to adjust-ably and removably secure the boot against boot tensioning forces normally applied thereto.

16. A pliable dust boot adapted to overlie and enclose a convertible top housing well opening transversely of a vehicle body having continuous boot retaining flanges spaced laterally inwardly and outwardly of the body adjacent the rear and side edge of the body well opening, stiff pliable webbing secured to the undersurface of the boot and reinforcing the rear and side edges of the boot and having a plurality of spaced elongated perforations therethrough extending substantially parallel to the adjacent edges of the boot,

a plurality of spring clips each pivotally mounted on said webbing and having a lever arm portion extending outwardly of the boot through an adjacent perforation and between the webbing and the boot edge portion secured thereto for limited angular adjustment relative to the adjacent belt line molding,

said spring clip members each having spaced depending spring arms deflectable into retaining engagement with the flange shoulders of the belt molding and the lever arm portion thereof being operable in cooperation with the adjacent webbing and boot edge portion to alternately depress and lift the lever arm adjacent spring clip arm into and out of retaining engagement with the adjacent shoulder, the other of said spring arms being in pivotal engagement with the other clip retaining shoulder during such lever arm actuation.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,467,604 4/1949 Tinnerman et al. 24-259 X 2,537,928 1/1951 Churchill 24259 X 2,664,309 12/1953 Kavalar 296136 3,113,803 12/1963 Struble et al. 24205.135 X BENJAMIN HERSH, Primary Examiner,

A. HARRY LEVY, Examiner,

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2467604 *Sep 19, 1946Apr 19, 1949Tinnerman Products IncFastening construction
US2537928 *Jun 23, 1943Jan 9, 1951United Carr Fastener CorpMounting device for cable clamps
US2664309 *Oct 24, 1952Dec 29, 1953Ford Motor CoConvertible top boot construction
US3113803 *Apr 9, 1962Dec 10, 1963Struble AlbertHead rest cover
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3332717 *Sep 24, 1965Jul 25, 1967United Carr IncTop boot assembly
US3510165 *Apr 23, 1968May 5, 1970Gen Motors CorpTop boot installation
US4377307 *Nov 17, 1980Mar 22, 1983Santarelli Francis LSelf securing tonneau cover
US4930833 *Mar 3, 1989Jun 5, 1990Asc IncorporatedBoot cover for a convertible vehicle
US5100195 *Feb 7, 1991Mar 31, 1992Wickes Manufacturing CompanyInstallation of a convertible top cover on a vehicle
US5275458 *Apr 24, 1992Jan 4, 1994Custom Form Manufacturing, Inc.Tonneau cover assembly
US5460423 *Mar 11, 1993Oct 24, 1995Custom Form Manufacturing, Inc.Tonneau cover assembly and cross-bow clip
US6053558 *Oct 1, 1997Apr 25, 2000Penda CorporationCover assembly for the cargo area of a vehicle
US6145909 *Feb 2, 1999Nov 14, 2000Asc IncorporatedAutomotive vehicle bootwell and drain trough apparatus
US6824195Jul 24, 2002Nov 30, 2004Asc IncorporatedAutomobile convertible roof system having a flat-fold boot cover
Classifications
U.S. Classification296/136.5, 135/119, 24/561, 24/306
International ClassificationB60J7/20, B60J7/00
Cooperative ClassificationB60J7/202
European ClassificationB60J7/20C