US 3223775 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 14, 1965 D. E. NUGENT CONDUCTIVE CLIP Filed March 29, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet l w ilnz/evzizw DazzzL /Jfgaz /TW? M Dec. 14, 1965 D. E. NUGENT 3,2
CONDUGTIVE CLIP Filed March 29, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent 3,223,775 CONDUCTIVE CLIP Daniel Eugene Nugent, 1924 Greendale Ave., Park Ridge, Ill. Filed Mar. 29, 1963, Ser. No. 269,105 1 Claim. (Cl. 174-84) This invention relates to electrically energized radiant heating panels and, more particularly, relates to conductive clips for electrically connecting the panels to a source of power. The heating panels may be used as components in wall and/ or ceiling building construction and may be of the type, for example, as disclosed in United States Letters Patent 2,803,566 to Smith-Johannsen.
In ceiling radiant heating construction a plurality of laminated heating panels each with an innerlying laminate of electrically conductive materal, are arranged as components of a ceiling. In each heating panel there is a pair of electrically conductive tapes or ribbons lying in contact with the conductive material along one dimension of the panel and spaced apart in parallel substantially by the other dimension of the panel. In conventional construction the heating panels are supported from the ceiling surface in a group arrangement to form a central raceway which carries there-in the electrical Wiring by means of which the heating panels are supplied with heat generating electric current. The conductive tapes or ribbons in each of the panels terminate at the raceway and are joined at the edge of the laminate by means of connectors to the electrical wiring.
It is an object of this invention to provide new and improved connectors or conductive clips for electrically connecting the heating panels to the conduit and which are specifically adapted to prevent the hazardous practice of stripping and connecting to a non-terminal portion of the conduit or wire.
Another object of the invention is to provide new and improved conductive clips for electrically connecting the heating panels to the wires without splicing the wires together or otherwise making wire-to-wire interconnections.
Another object of the invention is to provide a clip having a pair of tubular portions of which each tubular portion is adapted to receive the terminal end of a conductive wire. The electric current thereby has multiple flow paths at each clip in that current flows into the clip at one tubular portion and thence to the conductive material to which the clip is attached and also to the wire running from the other tubular portion to another clip and heating panel.
Other objects and features pertain to the particular arrangements and structure whereby the foregoing objects are attained. The invention, both as to its structure and manner of use will be better understood by reference to the following specification and drawings forming a part thereof wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a ceiling comprising heating panels connected to a source of power by a plurality of clips;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged view of a portion of FIG- URE 1 showing a clip in operative position and a clip that is partially installed;
FIGURE 3 is a cross sectional view of the construction along line 33 in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view of a clip prior to positioning in the ceiling in FIGURE 1; and
FIGURE 5 is a plan view of a clip blank illustrating how the clips may be formed.
Referring to the drawings, in FIGURE 1 a plurality of heating panels 20 are arranged in coplanar relation as components of the ceiling and are fastened with insu- 3,223,775 Patented Dec. 14, 1965 lated nails 22 to a frame member 24. Filler panels 26, arranged in coplanar relation with each other and with the heating panels, are fastened with nails or suitable fasteners to another of the frame members 24. Backing panel 30 is suitably fastened to Wood braces 32 which are secured in turn to the adjacent frame members. Backing panel 30 is contiguous to the back surfaces of panels 20 and 26 and forms, in combination with end panels 34 (one of which is illustrated), a raceway 36. Upon installation and connection electric wires 38 and clips 40 to the panels 20, in a manner as is described hereinafter, surface panels 42 are secured to panels 20, 26 and 34 by adhesive, for example, to close the raceway and serve as a ceiling surface for decoration with paint or other finishing materials.
The panels 20, 26, 30 and 34 may be conventional plaster board units having gypsum cores with paper layers laminated to the opposite sides thereof. Additionally, the panels 20 are constructed so as to have an overlying laminate 44, as best seen in FIGURE 3, comprising outer layers 46 and 47 of asbestos paper and an inner layer 48 of a suitable electrically conductive material. An example of a suitable conductive material is disclosed in US. Letters Patent 2,803,566, to Smith-Iohannsen. In contact with the conductive layer 48 in the laminate 44 are a pair of conductive tapes 50 and 51 spaced apart at opposite edges of panels 20 to carry electric current to the conductive layer 48.
Interpretations of the requirements of Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., and the National Electric Code require that heating panels 20 be connected within the raceway to electrical wiring by means other than intermittently stripping insulation from wiring and connecting to wiring or splicing or making any wire-to-wire connections To effect compliance therewith, connection is made to the panels by means of clips 40 each comprising a folded member 60 and a pair of tubular portions 52 and 54 extending longitudinally outward and laterally away from member 60 as best seen in FIGURES 2, 3 and 4. The tubular portions 52 and 54 receive wire ends 56 and 58 respectively, thereby connecting a conductive element to the wiring without stripping or splicing.
FIGURE 2 illustrates a method of placing the clips in operative position. Wire ends 56 and 58 are placed into tubular portions 52 and 54 respectively, of the clip 40 and secured thereto by crimping, crushing or otherwise deforming the tubular portions into gripping contact with the wire ends. Standard terminal pliers such as those manufactured by the Thomas and Betts Co. of Elizabeth, New Jersey, have been found suitable for such crimping operation. A corner of laminate 44 is then lifted from a heating panel and a folded member 60 of the clip 40 is slipped over the laminate. Folded member 60 comprises a pair of clamping portions 62 and 64 hinged and folded along a transverse line with the clamping portions 62 being provided with a plurality of long tines 66 struck therefrom in registry with a plurality of apertures 68 in clamping portion 64. After the folded member is slipped over the corner of the laminate, the clamping portions are placed in operative position by causing the tines 66 of the clamping portion 62 to pierce the laminate, including a conductive tape 50 and pass through the apertures 68 in the clamping portion 64. Conventional pliers may be used to turn the ends of the long tines into a locking position whereby the clip is mechanically, as well as electrically, secured to the conductive element. Additionally, clamping portion 62 is provided with a plurality of short tines 70 that are caused to dig into the laminate through the conductive tape 50 and to the depth of the conductive layer 48, as shown in FIGURE 3 when the clamping portions are operatively positioned, thereby providing additional electrical contact.
FIGURE 5 illustrates a method of forming the clips from a strip of sheet material such as .022" tin plated brass of good electrical conduction properties. First a blank may be stamped and slit to the configuration illustrated. Clamping portions 62 and 64 are then bent over on each other, and, tubular portions 52 and 54 are formed in a complete cylinder by inserting tabs 72 and 74 into slits 76 and 78 respectively. Thus the installer is prevented from tap stripping a wire and slipping the tubular portions over the Wire. Wing or connecting portions 80 and 82 connect the tubular portions to what would be the opposite lateral edges of clamping portion 62 and, are of such dimensions so as not to cause restriction in flow of electric current therethrou'gh away from the lateral edges to which they are connected. Although the clamping portions are illustrated in FIGURES 2 and 4 as angularly disposed to each other when in non-operative position, it is understood, of course, that they may be left in coplanar relation when manufactured and suitably bent on a job site.
While an embodiment of this invention has been described and illustrated, it is understood, of course, that the invention is not so limited, since modifications may be made and it is contemplated, therefore, by the appended claims, that any such modifications as fall within the true spirit of the scope of this invention are therefore covered.
What I claim is:
A connector for connecting electrical wires to electrically conductive interlying material in the laminate of a heating panel and interconnecting the wires comprising:
a unitary electrically conductive metal clip;
said clip having a pair of planar clamping portions hingedly secured to one another and adapted to abut opposing sides of a heating panel laminate and clamp the laminate therebetween;
at least one of said pair of clamping portions having a plurality of elongate tines projecting therefrom, said elongate tines being Widely spaced interiorly over said one clamping portion and projecting toward the other of said clamping portions,
the other of said pair of clamping portions having apertures therein correspondingly spaced and in alignment with said elongate tangs to receive said elongate tines therethrough,
said elongate tines being sufiiciently elongate to extend through the laminate and then through said apertures and to provide a sufficient extension beyond said apertures for bending over to securely clam said pair of said clamping portions together,
a plurality of spaced and staggered abbreviated tines projecting interiorly from at least one of said pair of clamping portions toward the other of said clamping portions, said abbreviated tines projecting sufficiently to only partially penetrate the laminate to make electrical engagement with the electrically conductive material therein;
a pair of tubular portions each adapted to receive and secure therein an electrical Wire;
and a connecting portion connecting said pair of tubular portions to each other and to said pair of clamping portions in spaced relation to said clamping portions.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,248,829 12/1917 Dick 31726O 2,089,686 8/1937 Clark et a1 317-230 2,445,587 7/1948 Sims 339220 X 3,138,658 6/1964 Weimer 17494 FOREIGN PATENTS 626,837 7/ 1949 Great Britain.
OTHER REFERENCES The Tap That Tops Them All, published in Electrical World, Aug. 17, 1959, page 32.
ROBERT K. SCHAEFER, Primary Examiner.
0 JOHN P. WILDMAN, JOHN F. BURNS,'Examiners.