|Publication number||US322496 A|
|Publication date||Jul 21, 1885|
|Publication number||US 322496 A, US 322496A, US-A-322496, US322496 A, US322496A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
(No Model.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 1..
W. STANLEY, Jr.
MULTIPLE INGANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMP. No. 322,496. Patented July 21, 1885..
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MULIIPLEA INGANDESGBNT ELEGTRIGLAMP. I
No. 322,496. Paigented J-111y2l., 1885.
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IEEE! Bl 'Ba B3 Maij/U6@ f4 l William Stanley J7'. BYHIS ATTORNEY CQJMmQfZ UNiTED STATES PATENT OFFICE.'
WILLIAM srANLEY, Jn., or rirfrsEUEG, PENNSYLVANIA.
MULTIPLE INCANDESCENT ELECTRIC LAMP.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 322,496, dated July 21, 1885.
Appiienin nieu .my ii, i884. (No moda.)
To all whom it 7mm/f concern:
Beit known that I, WILLIAM STANLEY, J r.
Aa citizen of the United States, residing in the l the light.
The object of the invention is to provide means for introducing into circuit in succession individual members of groups of incandescent lights located in series in an electric circuit, the first member of each group being supplanted when it has become exhausted by the second, and the second in like-manner by a third, and so on throughoutthe group, so that the number of lights iii circuit is always the same. This system differs from others in that it is intended to run the lamps at a higher degree of incandescence than is ordinarily employed, so that the carboiis are liable to be consumed in a limited time. The lamps are grouped in any convenient manner Within a suitable inclosiiig or surrounding open globe. The electric current for supplying the sameis normally led to the first lamp independently of the remaining lamps in the group, these" being respectively included in normally-interrupted branch circuits. A shuntconduct or of high resistance connects the conductors leading to and from feach of the incandescent lamps, and in each oi' these shunt-conductors there is included an electro-magnet. These electro-magnets are respectively designed to control the connections of the,u interrupted branch circuits in a manner which will hereinafter appear. So long as the first lamp in the series is in action the amount of current traversing the shunt-circuit, and thus the coils of the corresponding electro magnet, is insuicieiit to actuate an armature which is applied thereto. When, however, the lamp becomes exhausted, the iilanient havingbecome broken or so far consumed as to render its resistance abnormally great, there will be a rise of electro-motive force, and consequently a greater portion of the current will traverse y of current. e is also correspondingly decreased on account the shiint-circuit and the electro-magnet will become vitalized sufficiently to attract its armature. completes the mainline connections from the conductor leading to the first lamp through the branch conductor, in which the second This movement of the armatureV lamp is included. A shunt-circuitis thus established around the first or exhausted lamp, and the second lamp is caused to supplant the same. A second coil is applied to each electro-niagnet, and this coil is included in the branch conductor leading to the succeeding lamp in the series. This second coil serves to fully vitalize the electro-magnet, and to both insure that the armature shall be drawn for- Ward and be held in its position adjacent to the electro-magnet. In like manner the successive lamps iii each group are brought in circuit and replaced as their filaments are successively consumed.
It will be understood that this invention is especially adapted to be employed in connection with electric lights which are run at such high temperature that they have but a short life, for by means of it as many lamps maybe grouped together as are required for maintaining a constant light for any desired time. One advantage of considering the iilameiit as combustible and running it so as to give a light of high candle-power is that after a carbon iilament reaches a moderate degree of incandescence a given increase of light is obtained with less than a corresponding increase The electrounotiveforce required of the decrease of resistance, and a consequent economy of Working-force results; or, in other Words, there exists an economy in the use of energy, so far as the current is concerned, when the lamps are run at a very high temperature, although the life of the lamp is necessarily shortened thereby. 'In practice, however, I find that to produce a given amount of light there is greater economy in running 'the lamps at such a high temperature as to consume them in a comparatively short time than to run them at a low temperature, and thereby increase the electro-motive force which is required to obtain agiven amount of candlepower. c i
The invention also involves certain minor roo armature-lever.
features, which will be hereinafter fully de scribed in connection with the drawings.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is an elevation, partly in section, of a group of lights and the circuit-controlling devices, and Fig. 2 is a diagram illustrating the organization of the circuits. Fig. 3 is a front elevation, partly in section, of a fixture forsupporting the lamps.
Referring to the drawings, A represents a suitable inclosing and supporting case for the circuit-controlling mechanism, and the lamps themselves are represented at B, B2, and B3. They are supported in any suitable manner upon suitable sockets,0, C2, and C3, which extend from the lower portion, a', of the frame A. p A main-line conductor, l, leads to lamp B. A conductor, 2, leads from this lamp to the outgoing conductor 3. `With conductor 2 there are also connected conductors 4f and 5. which respectively lead from the lamps B2 and B3: The conductors 6 and 7, leading to the lamps B2 and B, respectively, extendfrom two contact-points, d and cl2, which are respectively connected through the coils of two electromagnets, D and D2. Normally the conductors 6 and 7 are not placed in circuit with the mainline, for the reason that the contact-points e and e2, which are respectively applied thereto, and which are carried uponthe armaturelevers E and E2 of the electro-magnets, are not in contact with the corresponding points, d and d2. When, however, either of the electro-magnets becomes vitalized, the corresponding armature,E,is drawn forward,and the contact-point e or e2 places the conductor 6 or 7 in circuit through the corresponding For this purpose the armature-lever Eis connected through a conductor, 8, with the conductor 1, leading to the lamp B, and the armature-lever EZ is in like manner connected through a conductor, 9, with the conductor 6, leading to the lamp B2. Normally, therefore, the current enters through the conductor l, traversing the filament b of lamp B', and passing then through the conductor 2 directly to the outgoing conductor 3. Vhen, however-,the lainent b has become so far consumed as to render the lamp useless, itis neeessary that some means be provided for substituting the second lamp, B2. To do this it is necessary only to vitalize the electro-magnet D. For this purpose a shunt-conductor, 10, extends from the conductor 8 to one terminal of a second coil, which is applied to the electro-magnet D. AA conductor, 11, leads from the remaining terminal of this second coil to the outgoing conductor 3. Vhen, therefore, the filament b, by reason of its consumption, offers an abnormally great resistance to the current, a sufficient portion of the current will be forced to traverse the conductors 10 and 11 to vitalize the electro-magnet D, and thus place the contact-point e in connection with the point d. The main-line connections will then be completed through the conductors 1 and 8, including the coils of the electromagnet D', to the conductor 6, and thus through the lilament b2 of the lamp B2, thence through the conductor 4 to the outgoing conductor 3. The second lamp will thus be placed in circuit, and its connections will remain complete by .reason of the current traversing the coils of the electro-magnet D. The current which thus traverses the second coil of the electromagnet by way of the points d and e serves to hold the armature securely in position, thus maintaining the contact secure.
For the purpose of insuring that the armatures E may not fall away from their electromagnets by reason of any temporary interruption of the main-line connections, a hook or catch, y, is preferably applied to each in such manner that it will engage the corresponding armature-lever and hold it in its position adjacent to the magnet when it has been vitalized. Vhen a burned lamp is replaced by a fresh one, it is necessary to withdraw the hook y from the corresponding armature-lever, and allow it to fall away from its magnet. In order to do this conveniently,a door or slide may be placed in the top or side of the case A.
For the purpose of placing a third lamp in series in the same manner when the second lamp B2 has become exhausted, a conductor, 12, leads from the conductor 9 to the second coil, which is applied to the electro-magnet D2, and a conductor, 13, leads from the remaining terminal of this coil to the conductor 3. The operation of cutting out the lamp B2 and substituting the lamp B? is precisely sim ilar to that just described in connection with the lamp B. Vhen the lamp B3'has become exhausted,a succeeding lamp, providing more than three lamps are contained in the group, is in like manner placed in'circuit, or if the lamp Bi is the last in the group, then the connections ofthe mainline are established independently of the lamps in the following manner:
A third electro-magnet, D3, which is similar in construction to the magnets D and D2, has
rone of its coils included in the conductor 16,
leading from the contact-point d3 to the conductor 3. The contact-point e3 of this electro` magnet is connected, by means of a conductor, 17, with the conductor 7, leading to the lamp B3. A shunt conductor, 14, leads to the second coil of the electro-magnet D, and the conductor 15 leads from the remaining terminal of this coil to the outgoing conductor 3. This conductor, like the corresponding conductors described with reference to the magnets D and D2, normally offers sufficient resistance to the current to prevent a sufficient amount ofthe current to magnetize the electro-magnet from traversing its coils. When, however, the filament b3 offers an abnormally great resistance to the current,the magnet B3 becolnes vitalized by reason ofthe current caused to traverse the conductors 14 and l5. The connections of the shunt-circuit 17 and 16 are thus completed and. the lamp B3 is cut out of IOO IIO
circuit. The main-line connections are thus complete directly from the con ductor 2 through the electro-magnets to the conduct-or 3.
If it is so desired, an artificial resistance may be placed in the conductor 14,i'or the purpose of rendering the total resistance of the main line uniform, whether one of the lamps Bis in operation or the entire number is cut out.
For the purpose of rendering the contacts established by the means of the levers E as perfect as possible, I prefer to construct the points d in the form of metallic brushes which project downward toward the corresponding points, e, and these lastlnamed points are elongated so that when the armature lever is actuated they will be forced a considerable distance into the contact-brush, thus forming a reliable electrical connection.
The lamps B are, for convenience, inclosed within a suitable globe or shield, F, of transparent' or semi-transparent material. The
under surface of the plate a of the frame A' may, if desired, be coated with a reflecting material for the purpose of deriving from the lights as great an effect as possible;
In Fig. 3 I have illustrated mechanism whereby the lamps may be conveniently supported in a frame, H, upon a pillar, G, for the purpose of street illumination, for example.
When it is desired to remove the case A for the purpose of substituting new lamps for the lamps B,which have become exhausted, it is desirable that the connections of the main line should be maintained complete. For this purpose the case A is provid ed with supporting-rings 7c and k2, to which the conductors I and 3 are respectively attached. Suitable hooks, m m2, are supported from the top of the frame H for the purpose of receiving the rings 7c and k2. The hooks m andmz are respectively connected with theincoming and outgoing portions ofthe mainline L and L2, respectively. A contact-brush, n,which is similar to the contacts d, is also connected with the outgoing main line L2, and a point, n, which is similar to the points e, is connected with the portion L ot' the main line. The point n2 is carried upon an arm, n.3,which is attached to the hook m. 'This hook is carried upon a rod, p', eX- tending through a spiral spring, r,which is secured to a head, r', placed above the spring. So long as no weight is applied to the hook the spring i' holds the point n2 in contact with ture, thus hiding it from View.
conductor 1,while its contact-point w` is co`nnected with the conductor 3.
For convenience in indicating which of the lamps have been burned,\so that the inspector may know the condition of any of the groups, even while the current is not upon the line, I propose to employ an indicating device, such as illustrated in Figs. l and 3. This device consists merely ofaseries of drops, t', t2, andt, which normally stand in front of corresponding apertures formed in the case A. When, however, any armature E is actuated, the corresponding drop is released and falls from before theaper- The drops will, therefore, remain in their concealed position until they are replaced by the inspector after having replaced the exhausted lamps by new ones. Any suitable form of catch may be employed for normally holdingthe dropst in place and for releasing them when the corresponding armature-lever is drawn toward its l the remaining lamps of said group are respectively included, a shunt-circuit around each of said lamps, and an electro-magnet included in each of said shunt-circuits, and a circuit-clos ing dev ice, under the control of each of said electro-magnets, which serves to complete the connections of said main line conductor IOO through a succeeding lamp in said group when *u a preceding lamp becomes inoperative.
2. The combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a group of incandescent electric lamps and a mainline conductor normally connected through the first lamp of said group, of normally-interrupted branch" conductors, respectively including the remaining lamps in said group, a shunt-circuit around each-of said lamps, an electromagnetincluded in each of said shunt-circuits, each of which electro-magnets becomes `vitalized when the lamp to which it is applied becomes inoperative, a circuit-controlling device controlled by each of said electlomagnets, which device serves to complete the main-line connections through the branch conductor, including the succeeding lamp of the group when said electro-magnetis vitalized, and a second magnetizingcoil applied to each of said electro-magnets and included in the corresponding branch conductor, whereby the vitalization of said electromagnet is maintained whenonce established. x
3. The combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a group of incandescent electric lamps and a main-line conductor for supplying electricity thereto, of normallyinterrupted branch conductors in which said lam ps are respectively included, a circuit-con` trolling device included in each of said branch conductors, ashunt-circuit around each of said lamps, and an electro-magnet included in each of said shuntcircuits, which electro-magnet serves, when vitalized, to complete the circuiteonnectious of the main line through a succeeding lamp in said group, substantall5T as described.
4. rlhe combination, substantially as hereinbefore set forth, with a series of incandescent electric lamps, and a magnet and switch mechanism for substituting for each lamp as it becomes exhausted a succeeding lamp, of an automatically-operated indicating device, whereby the number of lamps which have be- 2o come exhausted -is indicated.
5. The combination, substantially as here inbefore set forth, with a group of incandescent electric lamps, of an electric conductor normally connected through one of said lamps, A
S. HOWARD SPRAGUE, JNO. F. WrLcoX.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4677533 *||Sep 5, 1984||Jun 30, 1987||Mcdermott Julian A||Lighting fixture|