US 3226866 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 4, 1966 M. c. KUczEwsKl DE PoRAY 3,226,866
APPARATUS FOR OBSERVING IMAGES 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 23, 1962 MARCEL CYPRIEN KUUEWSK! DE FORM ms AHorney Jan- 4, 1966 M. c. Kuczl-:wsKl DE PoRAY 3,226,866
APPARATUS FOR OBSERVING IMAGES Filed Jan. 25, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 MARCEL cYPmEN Kuczfwsm DEPOR/w E731 M. SW
[du AHornej gber of lamps, for example twenty-four lamps.
United States Patent APPARATUS FR GBSERVING IMAGES Marcel Cyprien Kuczewski de Poray, Rue des Quatre- Saisons, Rodez, `France ,FiledJam 23, 1962, Ser. No. 168,097 Claims priority, application France, June 27, 1961, 866,239, Patent 1,311,171; Aug. 17, 1961, 870,943
7 Claims. (Cl. 40-152.2)
Y The present invention relates to constant intensity illumination apparatus `which simulates a moving light source and which may be used for observing images or t pictures of the type having series of projections and .recesses orientated in different dire-ctions and disclosed,
. t In such apparatus the variation in the angle of incidence of the light rays can also be obtained by disposing lamps in fixed positions around the `picture and in lighting them in succession by means of a rotary switching device or commutator. A This apparatus, however, has serious disadvantages. Indeed, in order to reproducel a movement of continuous rotation it is necessary to use a rather larger num- Further, it is generally necessary to obtain an apparent rotational speed of the light zones which involves a rapid switch-` ing of the lamps.
Now, the thermal inertia of incandescent lamps is such that it is practically impossible Lwhen one lamp is energized at the same time as the pre- .ceding lamp is deenergized, to obtain incandescence quick -enough to achieve, in practice, a constant level of il` .luminatio-n of the picture. 'a succession of extinctions and `illuminations, that is, an `undesirable flickering which is `highly undesirable.
In practice, there is obtained The object of the. present invention is to provide an apparatus which avoids this disadvantage.
In accordance with the invention, the lamps are arranged 'in at least one series which comprises a suitable number of lamps. Within a particular series, the illumination progresses in a predetermined `direction loit travel from one end lamp of the seriesl to the otherend lamp.
Three adjacent lamps, the end lamps being considered ad- K sjacent to each other, are .always energized simultaneously and each successive lamp remains energized for a predetermined time interval which determines the speed of travel of the illumination along the series. An overlap is provided so that at one third and at two thirds of the way through the full time interval of energization of a particular lamp, the trailing oneof the three. adjacent lamps is deenergized and the leading adjacent lamp is energized by substantially instantaneous switching. As the light from the trailing lamp dies out, the light from the leading lamp builds up so that Ia constant level of illumination is continuously maintained. In this manner, undesirable flickering effects are avoided.
Further features and advantages of the invention will n be apparent from the ensuing description, with reference to the accompanying drawing `to which the invention is in no way limited.
r3,226,866 Patented Jan. 4, 1956 ICC In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of the apparatus according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. 1, an-d j l FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view of an example of the switching system of the apparatus;
The apparatus according to the invention comprises (FIGS. 1 and 2) a rectangular case 1 whose rear face is closed by a vertical wall 2 which supports a picture 3 held on this wall by any suitable means. The forward face of the case has a window 4 which is extended inwardly of the case by a passagewaybr light shield 5 through which the picture 3 can be observed in the direction of arrow F1. The forward wall l6 surrounding the window 4 acts asV a support for electric lamps secured to the rear face of this wall within the case; FIG. 1 shows twelve lamps carrying the reference numerals 7a-7l. These lamps can be of the incandescent type or of the iiuorescent type; they are shielded or masked oli from the View of the observer by the shield 5 but illuminate the picture at angles of incidence determined by the position of each lamp with respect to the picture 3.
The rear wall 2 or` the forward wall 6 can be detachable or otherwise arranged so as to permit access to the inner face of the wall 2 for conveniently placing the picture in position or replacing it by another picture.
Current is suppliedto the lamps by an electric sourcethe alternating current mains supply for examplethrough the medium of a commutator or rotary switching device which isv arranged in such a manner that the illumination or lighting of the' picture obtained is similar to that which would be obtained from rotation of the group of four diametricaally opposed lamps 7a, 7d, 7g,
`7]', Vif these four lamps were fixed to a common support mounted for rotation about the horizontal central axis 'of the apparatus.
This switching device can be located in any position in the apparatus or even outside the apparatus, and is connected to the lamps merely by electric connections. For this reason it has not been shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
The switching circuit shown in FIG. 3 is arranged to control a total of twenty-four lamps instead of the twelve lamps 7aV through 7l shown in FIG. 1. By placing six lamps in each of the vertical and horizontal rows of FIG. l instead of the three lamps shown, the switching circuit of FIG. 3 may be utilized without modification. Each of the series of circles 101 through 106 represents a group of four lamps connected in parallel, the four lamps being thus shown for simplicity of illustration. When placed in the arrangement of FIG. l, each of the end lamps of the parallel connected group 101 will beadjacent to an end lamp of group 106 of an adjacent horizontal or vertical series, as the case may be. In this manner, the illumination will travel from one vertical or horizontal series to the next series in an uninterrupted manner.
Each of the groups of lamps 101406 is connected by the upper one of its terminals to one of the terminals S1 of the supply source S (for example the electric mains supply); the other terminal is connected to the apparatus in the manner described herein-after.
The apparatus comprises a rotary cam 107 comprising a Iprojection or cam rise 108 having an angular extent of round the periphery of the cam. Arranged around this `cam are single-poledouble-throw snap-action or microswitches having a quick circuit transfer action, namely mieroswitches 109, 110 and 111. rIhe switch 109 comprises a resiliently biased movable switch arm 109a carrying a cam follower push-button 10%, and a moving Contact 109C being capable of bearing selectively against an outer fixed contact 109-1 or against an inner fixed Contact 10Q-4, depending on whether the cam follower button 109b is actuated or not.
The microswitches 110 and 111 comprise similar elements carrying similar reference characters and in particular outer fixed contacts 110-2, 111-3 and inner fixed contacts 110-5, 111-6.
rIhe free terminals (which are not connected to the terminals S1 of the source of the supply) of the groups of lamps 101 and 104 are respectively connected to the fixed contacts 109-1 and 109-4; similarly, the free terminals of the groups of lamps 102 and 105 are respectively connected to the fixed contacts 110-2 and 110-5 and the free terminals of the groups of lamps 103 and 106 are respectively connected to the fixed contacts 111-3 and 111-6.
The terminal S2 of the source of supply is connected to a conductor 112 which is connected to the three moving switch arms 109a, 110a, and Illa.
The three reversing microswitches are spaced angularly apart about the axis of the cam at angles a equal to 60.
The apparatus operates in the following manner:
Let it be assumed that the cam rotates in the direction of arrow F.
In the position shown in the drawing, the microswitches 109 and 11i) are actuated, that is, the outer contacts of these microswitches are closed and the groups 101 and 102 are supplied with current. The microswitch 111 is unactuated and its inner contact is closed and the group 106 is energized.
If, in starting from this position, the cam effects successively five partial rotations of 60, it is clear that owing to the action of the projection or cam rise on the carn follower 4push-buttons of the switches the groups of lamps will be lit up in succession in the following sequence of combinations:
Successive angular Lamp groups displacements of 60: energized After a further angular displacement of 60 the lamps lit up will be in groups 106, 101 and 102, or in other words, the initial position shown in FIG. 3 is resumed.
It can be seen that in any case each sector always comprises three energized lamps; at the moment of' extinguishing the trailing one of these lamps a leading adjacent lamp is energized, these two operations occurring almost simultaneously. The switching operation involves only one third of the total current drawn by the lamps and is effected rapidly. The fluctuation of the illumination level is therefore very slight and practically imperceptible.
The sequential switching of the lamps produces an effect similar to that produced by mechanical rotation of a group of three adjacent continuously energized lamps.
Although specific embodiments of the invention have been described, many modifications and changes may be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
In respect of certain images or pictures in which the representation of the movements permits a certain discontinuity, the rotary switch device can be replaced by a switch device which is displaced along a straight line in one direction or in both directions, depending on the nature of the movements to be represented.
Having now described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A device for producing illumination of an object, the direction of incidence of said illumination upon said object being constantly changing to simulate illumination by a light source traveling in a generally circular path, said device comprising: a plurality of series of regularly arranged light sources generally peripheraily surrounding said object, energization of an end source of a particular series simultaneously with an adjacent end source of an adjacent series vbeing quantitatively equivalent to the energization of two adjacent sources within one of said series; a common energizing circuit for all of said sources; and cyclically operative switching means, said switching means comprising circuit control means simultaneously and sequentially energizing successive corresponding single lamps in each series simultaneously with an adjacent lamp, said switching means susbtantially instantaneously transferring energization from an adjacent lamp behind said single lamp to a lamp ahead of said single lamp while maintaining said single lamp energized, one of said adjacent lamps when said single lamp is an end lamp, being a lamp in an adjacent series.
2. A device according to claim 1, wherein said switching means simultaneously energizes three adjacent lamps.
3. A system for producing illumination of an object which illumination simulates illumination by a light source traveling in a closed path extending generally around said object, said system comprising: at least one series of uniformly spaced lamps arranged around said object; an energizing circuit for said lamps; cyclically operative switching means comprising separate contact means controlling each lamp, and actuating means included in said switching means causing said Contact means to energize each lamp of said series to be energized for a predetermined constant time interval by connection thereof to said energizing circuit, said actuating means `producing the simultaneous energization of a plurality of adjacent lamps within said series, the two end lamps being controlled as adjacent lamps, said contact means including transfer contact means operative to deenergize the trailing lamp of said simultaneously energized lamps effectively simultaneously with the energization of an adjacent leading lamp while maintaining a particular lamp adjacent to one of said last named lamps energized, said transfer contact means being operative at a predetermined fractional portion of said time interval of energization of said particular lamp.
li. A system according to claim 3, wherein the number of simultaneously energized lamps is three and in which said particular lamp is adjacent to said trailing lamp, said fractional portion being two thirds.
5. A system according to claim 3, wherein said transfer contact means is formed by a plurality of snap-action switches, said switching means comprising continuously operative cam means sequentially actuating said transfer contact means.
6. A system for producing illumination of an object the direction of incidence of said illumination upon said object 'being constantly changing to simulate illumination by a light source traveling in a generally circular path, said system comprising: continuously operative cam means; a plurality of regularly angularly spaced snapaction transfer contact means sequentially actuated by said cam means, each contact means comprising two spaced stationary contacts and a movable contact selectively engageable separately with either one of said stationary contacts; a plurality of lamps, one terminal of each lamp being connected to one of said stationary contacts; and an energizing circuit comprising a conductor connected to the other terminal of each lamp and a further conductor connected to all of said movable contacts,
said lamps being arranged around said object in at least one regularly spaced series, said contact means being operative to energize each lamp within a .particular series consecutively for a predetermined uniform time interval and to produce the simultaneous illumination of a plurality of adjacent lamps within said series, each transfer contact means, when actuated, causing the deenergization of a lamp in trailing position with respect to said particular lamp substantially simultaneously with the energization of another lamp in leading position with respect thereto.
7. A system according to claim 6, further comprising an enclosure having spaced front and rear walls, said -front Wall having a window formed therein, said object being mounted'on said rear Wall; and light shield means extending around said window interiorly of said enclosure, said lamps being mounted on said front Wall and surrounding said light shield means interiorly of said enclosure.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS FOREIGN PATENTS 240,993 10/ 1925 Great Britain.
EUGENE R. CAPOZIO, Primary Examiner.
EDWARD V. BENHAM, JEROME SCHNALL,