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Publication numberUS3227652 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 4, 1966
Filing dateNov 18, 1963
Priority dateNov 18, 1963
Publication numberUS 3227652 A, US 3227652A, US-A-3227652, US3227652 A, US3227652A
InventorsAckerman Arnold W
Original AssigneeAnderson Oil And Chemical Comp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Lubricating compositions
US 3227652 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Jan. 4, 1966 3,227,652 LUBRICATING COMPOSITIONS Arnold W. Ackerman, Middletown, Conn, assignor to Anderson Oil and Chemical Company, line, a corporation of Connecticut No Drawing. Filed Nov. 18, 1963, Ser. No. 324,239 8 Claims. (Cl. 252-495) This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application Serial No. 784,453, filed January 2, 1959, now abandoned.

This invention relates to fluid lubricating compositions and, more particularly, to water-base lubricating and cooling fluids which are suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations. The invention is based on the discovery that small quantities of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of not less than 100,000, when incorporated either in water-base chemical or in Water-base soluble-oil lubricating compositions, are capable of increasing the viscosity and imparting hydrodynamic lubricity to these lubricants without diminishing their inherent cooling properties, chemical lubricity, or altering their superior extreme pressure, antiwear, and antiweld properties.

Water-base chemical lubricating compositions, which are designated as such because they usually contain only boundary lubricants to impart chemical lubricity, were primarily developed as substitutes for oil lubrication in high-speed machining operations, where boundary lubrication is suflicient and rapid dissipation of the high frictional heat generated is of paramount importance. Although waterbase chemical lubricating fluids possess chemical lubricity as well as excellent extreme pressure, antiweld, and antiwear properties, these fluids are inferior to compounded cutting oils for many types of slow-speed and heavy-duty machining operations, such as threading, tapping, and broaching, which require hydrodynamic or quasi-hydrodynamic lubricity. Other water-base lubricating fluids possessing both quasi-hydrodynamic lubricity and chemical lubricity, such as the soluble-oil lubricating compositions which are composed primarily of stabilized oil-in-water emulsions of a petroleum-base oil and a boundary lubricant, have also proved interior to cutting oils for slow-speed machining operations. Where, however, a small quantity of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of not less than 100,000 is dissolved in either a water-base chemical lubricating fluid or in a water-base soluble-oil lubrieating fluid, both of which contain boundary lubricants, the lubricating properties of the water-base fluids are improved to such a great extent that they are superior to cutting oils for all types of metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations.

Therefore, up until the time of the present invention, the water-base lubricating compositions mentioned above were advantageously used primarily only in certain industrial applications, such as high-speed machining operations wherein two fundamental requirements were of primary importance: (1) rapid dissipation of high frictional heat, and (2) extreme pressure, antiweld, and antiwear properties (a function of the boundary lubricant additive). In heavy-duty machining operations only the cutting oils could be used. These cutting oils, unfortunately, lack some of the advantageous properties associated with waterbase lubricants. For example, the cutting oils are less eflicient coolants than the water-base lubricants. This cooling property of the water-base lubricants contributes to dimensional accuracy, comfortable handling of work, and reduction of gross heat strain.

It was hoped that one day it would be possible to obtain a new, versatile type of lubricant, which possessed not only all the advantages of the cutting oils, but also all the advantages of the water-base lubricants. The present invention provides such a lubricant for the first time. Although it is still a water base lubricant, having the advantageous properties of the usual water-base lubricants, it also possesses all the advantageous features of the cutting oils and can be used as an improved replacement for the cutting oils.

This new modified water-base lubricant is achieved by merely adding the ethylene oxide homopolymer mentioned above to a water-base lubricant. Unexpectedly, such addition of the homopolymer does not diminish the inherent desirable properties of the water-base lubricant. Instead, the step of adding the homopolymer simply increases the viscosity of the water-base lubricant and this increase in viscosity is all that is needed to give the water-base lubricant all of the additional desirable properties attributable to cutting oils. It was completely unexpected that such a combination of properties in a lubricant could even be achieved, particularly by such a single simple stop. And it was also completely unexpected that this single simple step would impart to a water-base lubricant an entirely new use in that it can now be used in an area Where only cutting oils heretofore were useful.

The water-base lubricants to which the ethylene oxide homopolymer of this invention is added, are of course well-known. Although these lubricants have at times contained various polymers with low molecular weights, these low molecular weight polymers were used only as boundary lubricants and were not used for the purpose of increasing the viscosity of the water-base lubricants. There had been no reason to increase the viscosity of the water-base lubricants heretofore, because it was not known that the viscosity could be increased Without sacrificing the inherent advantageous properties of the water-base lubricants. Indeed, it was not even believed that it would actually be advantageous to increase the viscosity of the water-base lubricant.

It had been previously proposed to employ a low molecular polymer in a water-base lubricant system, the polymer functioning as a boundary lubricant. The polymer was not meant to, and did not, functionas a viscosity-increasing agent. In fact, the use of low molecular weight polymers had a negligible effect on viscosity as far as the present invention is concerned. For example, a 2% water solution of a polyethylene glycol polymer (manufactured by Union Carbide Corporation under the trade name Carbowax, and having a molecular weight of about 6000) at F. has a viscosity of only about 1.12 centistokes, whereas the viscosity of a 2% water solution at 100 F. of the ethylene oxide homopolymer of the present invention may have a viscosity of from 40 to 12,000 centistokes. The difference in viscosity between the lubricants of this invention and the previous lubricants which contained low molecular weight polymers as boundary lubricants is not a difierence in degree, but a difference in kind. Itis because of this difference that a new lubricant is achieved. The new lubricant possesses entirely new properties which permit, for this first time, a water-base lubricant to be used as a complete substitute for cutting oils. See, for example, Beaubien Patent No. 2,825,693, wherein low molecular polymers are employed as boundary lubricants, that is, to impart extreme pressure, antiweld, and antiwear properties to the lubricant. This type of lubricant, as described above, would have an extremely low viscosity as compared to the present water-base lubricant. It would therefore possess only the advantages of a water-base lubricant rather than the advantages of both a water-base lubricant and a cutting oil.

The invention, therefore, provides an improved waterbase fluid lubricating composition which is adapted to provide, upon dilution with water, lubricating fluids suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations. Basically, this lubricating composition comprises a major amount of water, a minor amount of a boundary lubricant suificient to impart chemical lubricity to the composition, and a minor amount of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular Weight of not less than 100,000 sufificient to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition. These waterbase lubricating compositions, as well as the lubricating fluids prepared by further dilution of the composition with Water, possess both chemical and hydrodynamic lubricity. The general lubricating properties of the water-base lubricating compositions of the invention and of the lubricating fluids prepared from them by further dilution with water have been found superior in every respect to those of compounded cutting oils, allowing the waterbase lubricants to be substituted for cutting oils in a variety of slow-speed and heavy-duty machining operations which heretofore have required oil lubrication.

Any water-soluble homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of not less than 100,000 may be employed in the preparation of the water-base lubricating compositions of the invention. Particularly satisfactory results have been obtained by using water soluble homopolymers of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of from 100,000 to 4,000,000. These high molecular Weight polymers are generally prepared via the polymerization of ethylene oxide in the presence of a catalytic amount of an alkaline earth carbonate, such as strontium carbonate, barium carbonate, or calcium carbonate. X-ray diflraction patterns of these high molecular Weight polymers show them to have a high degree of crystallinity. Although these poly(ethylene oxide) polymers may be employed over a very wide range of concentrations, they are preferably used in an amount in the range from about A to about percent by Weight of lubricating composition. A particularly satisfactory range for general use is from 1 to 2 percent by weight.

The high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide)s may be incorporated in either water-base chemical or in water-base soluble-oil lubricating compositions, both of which contain one or more boundary lubricants. The water-base chemical lubricating fluids are generally composed of a major amount of water and a minor amount of a water-misicible chemical lubricating mixture which, in turn, contains a boundary lubricant suflicient to impart chemical lubricity to the composition. Basically, the chemical lubricating mixture consists essentially of three components, namely a boundary lubricant, a corrosion inhibitor, and an antifoam. Typical chemical lubricating mixtures are usually composed of (1) from 50 to 95 percent by weight of a water soluble boundary lubricant, such as the nonionic and anionic surfactants or mixtures of both types of surfactants, (2) from 1 to percent by weight of a corrosion inhibitor, such as borax; sodium nitrite; alkanolamines such as diethylanolamine and triethanolamine; allranol amides such as those manufactured by the Geigy Chemical Corporation under the trade name Alrosol; and condensation products of diethanolamine with fatty acids such as lauric acid, and (3) from about 0.01 to about 1 percent by weight of an antifoam, such as a dimethylpolysiloxane or similar silicone antifoam or fatty acid esters or higher alcohols (e.g. methyl stearate, tricresyl phosphate, C C alcohols). Although a large number of anionic surfactants have been used as a boundary lubricant, including phenolates, carboxylates, and sulfonates, particularly satisfactory results have been obtained by using Water-soluble soaps, such as sodium oleate, as the boundary lubricant in the chemical lubricating mixture. Various other types of boundary lubricants, in particular the Water soluble sulfurized fatty acids or their derivatives as Well as chlorinated hydrocarbons and fats, have also been used in the chemical lubricating mixture in conjuction with a surfactant, and when so used are generally employed in amounts up to about 10 percent by weight of the chemical lubricating mixture. In addition to the three essential components, namely the boundary lubricant, corrosion inhibitor, and antifoam, the chemical lubricating mixture may also contain from 1 to 5 percent by weight of a germicide, such as sodium o-phenyl-phenoxide or methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, to stabilize it and the fluid in which it is employed against fungal or bacterial growth.

Preparation of a basic chemical lubricating fluid, to which the poly(ethylene oxide) is added to form the lubricating composition of the invention, is accomplished by dissolving the chemical lubricating mixture in from 20 to 100 parts by weight of water. Lacking hydrodynamic lubricity, the viscosity of these water-based chemical fluids is almost as low as that of water. Dissolving from /4 to 5 percent by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight ranging from 100,000 to 4,000,000 in the lubricating fluid not only increases the viscosity but contributes hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition, allowing it to be used as a lubricant for all types of metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations. Lubricating fluids, prepared by further diluting this composition with from about 10 to about 100 times its weight of water, still possess adequate chemical and hydrodynamic lubricity for slow-speed or heavy-duty machining operations and are consistently found to be superior lubricants to cutting oils.

Similarly, the lubricating properties of water-base soluble-oil lubricating fluids are also improved when a small quantity of the poly(ethylene oxide) is dissolved in the fluid. The water-base soluble-oil lubricating fluids are generally composed of a major amount of water in which there is emulsified a minor amount of a soluble-oil lubricant, the amount being suflicient to impart both cooling and chemical lubricity to the composition. The solubleoil lubricant consists essentialy of three components, namely a mineral oil, an emulsifying agent, and a coupling agent. Typical soluble-oil lubricants usually consist of from to percent by weight of a petroleum oil, generally oils having viscosities at about Saybolt seconds at 100 F. and from 10 to 20 percent of a combination of emulsifying agents and coupling agents. Satisfactory emulsifying agents include the fatty acid soaps, naphthenate soaps, and oil-soluble mahogany soaps as well as nonionic, anionic, and cationic emulsifiers, all of which also function as boundary lubricants. Coupling agents which may be used include alcohols, glycols, and glycol ethers. In addition to these three basic components (petroleum oil, emulsifying agent, and coupling agent), the solubleoil lubricant may also contain small amounts of Water, antifoam, and germicide.

A basic soluble-oil lubricating fluid is prepared by forming an oil-in-water emulsion of the soluble-oil lubricant in 10 to 50 parts by weight of water. The addition to this fluid of from A to 5 percent by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular wei ht ranging from 100,000 to 4,000,000 increases the viscosity of the fluid and contributes hydrodynamic lubricity to it, transforming it into an improved lubricating composition for any type of metal-forming, grinding, or machining operation. This composition may be further diluted, in turn, with Water without materially diminishing its lubricating properties.

The following non-limitative examples are illustrative of the water-base lubricating compositions of the invention. Many modifications will be obvious to those skilled in the art without departing from the inventive concept.

Example 1 Water-base chemical lubricating compositions which contain only boundary lubricants have generally proved to be inferior to compounded cutting oils for many types of slow-speed or heavy-duty machining operations, notably threading, tapping, and breaching, even though the waterbase lubricants are known topossess excellent extreme pressure, antiweld and antiwear properties and to be more efficient coolants than cutting oils. The addition of only a small quantity of a poly(ethylene oxide) having an average molecular weight of not less than 100,000 to Waterbase lubricating composition, the quantity of the polymer being suflicient to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the mixture, improves the lubricating properties of the Water-base fluid to a point Where it is superior to cutting oils when used in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations.

A water-base chemical lubricating composition was prepared by dissolving 4 parts by weight of sodium oleate, 1.5 parts by weight of sodium nitrite, and 0.1 part by weight of a dimethylpolysiloxane antifoam in 92.25 parts by weight of water, the boundary lubricant (sodium oleate) imparting chemical lubricity to the composition. To contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition, 1.5 parts by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of 3,500,000 ($300,000) were dissolved in the aqueous lubricating composition. A germicide, sodium o-phenylphenoxide, in the amount of 0.15 part by weight, was then added to the composition to stabilize it against fungal or bacterial growth. The resultant water-base lubricating composition possessed both chemical and hydrodynamic lubricity and could be used directly, or further diluted with water and then used, as a lubricant for metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations.

Lubricating fluids, prepared by diluting the above composition with water, still possessed adequate hydrodynamic lubricity for slow-speed or heavy-duty machining operations and were found to be superior lubricants to cutting oils when employed in various machining and grinding operations.

Example 2 The lubricating properties of water-base soluble-oil lubricating compositions, which are composed primarily of stabilized oil-in-water emulsions of a petroleum oil and a boundary lubricant, are also improved when small quantities of a poly(ethylene oxide) having an average molecular weight of not less than 100,000 are dissolved in the composition.

A water-base soluble-oil lubricating composition was prepared by emulsifying 7.65 parts by weight of a petroleum oil having a viscosity of 100 Sayholt seconds at 100 F. in 90 parts by weight of water, using 0.9 part by weight of mahogany soap and 0.18 part by weight of sodium oleate as emulsifying agents, and 0.18 part by weight of a diethylene glycol ethyl ether as a coupling agent. The emulsifying agents, mahogany soap and sodium oleate, imparted chemical lubricity to the emulsifying composition. A small amount of a dimethylpolysiloxane antifoam and of a germicide (e.g. sodium o-phenylphenoxide) in the amount 0.01 part by weight each, were added to the emulsified composition to stabilize it against foaming and bacterial growth respectively. To impart hydrodynamic lubricity, 1 part by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of about 200,000 was dissolved in the aqueous emulsion. The resultant emulsified water-base lubricating fluid possessed both chemical and hydrodynamic lubricity and could be used in place of cutting oils for metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations.

The Water-base lubricating compositions and fluids of the invention, possessing both chemical and hydrodynamic lubricity, have proved to be especially effective lubricants for all types of metal cutting, including threading, tapping, and broaching operations, particularly where there is an appreciable depth of cut.

In the foregoing examples of the invention, homopolymers of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of not less than 100,000 were used successfully to impart hydrodynamic lubricity to water-base chemica or soluble-oil lubricating compositions. Similar advantages are also obtained when other water-soluble or water-dispersible polymers capable of contributing hydrodynamic lubricity are employed in the lubricating composition in place of or in addition to these homopolymers of ethylene oxide.

I claim:

1. A water-base fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide, upon dilution with water, a lubricating fluid suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations, comprising a major amount of water, from 0.5 to 9.5 percent by weight of a boundary lubricant, and from about A to about 5 percent by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of from 100,000 to 4,000,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

2. A water-based fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide, upon dilution with water, a lubricating fluid suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding and machining operations, comprising a major amount of water, from 0.5 to 9.5 percent by weight of a boundary lubricant, and from about A to about 2 percent by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of from 100,000 to 4,000,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

3. A water-base fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide, upon dilution with water, a lubricating fluid suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations, comprising from about to about 95 percent by weight of water, from about 1 to about 20 percent by weight of a Water-miscible chemical lubricating mixture consisting essentially of (a) from about 50 to about 95 percent by weight of a boundary lubricant, (b) from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight of a corrosion inhibitor, and (c) from about 0.01 to about 1 percent by weight of an antifoam, and from about A to about 5 percent by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of from 100,000 to 4,000,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

4. A water-base fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide, upon dilution with water, a lubricating fluid suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations, comprising from about to about percent by weight of water, from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight of a water-miscible chemical lubricating mixture consisting essentially of (a) from about 50 to about 95 percent by weight of a boundary lubricant, (b) from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight of a corrosion inhibitor, and (c) from about 0.01 to about 1 percent by weight of an anitfoam, and from about A to about 5 percent by Weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of from 200,000 to 3,800,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

5. A water-base fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide a metal-cutting fluid upon dilution with water, comprising from about 85 to about 95 percent by weight of water, from about 1 to about 10 percent by Weight of a water-miscible chemical lubricating mixture consisting essentially of (a) from about 50 to about 95 percent by weight of a water-soluble surfactant boundary lubricant, (b) from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight of a corrosion inhibitor, and (c) from about 0.01 to about 1 percent by weight of an antifoam, and from about A to about 2 percent by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of 200,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

6. A water-base fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide a metal-cutting fluid upon dilution with water, comprising from about 85 to about 95 percent by weight of water, from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight of a Water-miscible chemical lubricating mixture consisting essentially of (a) from about 50 to about 95 percent by weight of a water-soluble surfactant boundary lubricant, (b) from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight of a corrosion inhibitor, and (c) from about 0.01 to about 1 percent by weight of an antifoam and from about A to about 2 percent by Weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of 3,500,000: 300,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

7. An emulsified water-base fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide, upon dilution with water, a lubricating fluid suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations, comprising a major amount of water, from about 5 to about 50 percent by weight of a soluble-oil lubricant consisting essentially of a petroleum base oil, an emulsifying agent, and a coupling agent, and from about A to about 5 percent by weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of from 100,000 to 4,000,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

8. An emulsified water-base fluid lubricating composition adapted to provide, upon dilution with water, a lubricating fluid suitable for use in metal-forming, grinding, and machining operations, comprising from about 80 to about 90 percent by weight of Water, from about to about 20 percent by weight of a soluble-oil lubricant consisting essentially of from about to about percent by weight of a petroleum base oil, and from about 10 to about 20 percent of an emulsifying agent and a coupling agent, and from about /4 to about 5 percent by Weight of a homopolymer of ethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of from 200,000 to 3,800,000 to contribute hydrodynamic lubricity to the composition.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,773,123 8/1930 Sullivan 252-495 2,563,588 8/1951 Dixon 25249.5 2,825,693 3/1958 Beaubien et al. 25249.3 2,914,491 11/1959 Bailey 252-52 OTHER REFERENCES DANIEL E. WYMAN, Primary Examiner.

C. F. DEES, Examiner.

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