US 3228845 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 11, 1966 w. K. NAJJAR 3,228,845
DENTAL CLEANS ER PASTE Filed Feb. 28, 1963 INVENTOR. MAL/AM K. NAJJAR ice 3,228,845 DENTAL CLEANSER PASTE William K. Nafiar, 254 Kingswood Drive SE., Grand Rapids, Mich. Filed Feb. 28, 1963, der. No. 261,792 2 Claims. (Cl. 167-93) This invention relates to a dental prophylactic paste in capsule form for professional use by dentists, and more particularly, to a prophylactic abrasive dental paste capable of flowing under pressure for packaging in capsules and of being essentially non-splattering during use.
Professional periodic cleansing of teeth by a dentist is essential to prevent tooth disease and decay. The pumicebased composition used, made by mixing water with pumice flour, is known in the profession as prophylactic paste or prophy paste. The pumic flour or powder is conventionally sold in large containers to dentists by the manufacturers. Each dentist, therefore, removes a little powder from the can, and mixes it with water to form the paste each time a teeth cleaning job is necessary. To obtain the proper amount of moisture in the paste is time consuming and constitutes a waste of professional time. Paste that is purchased already mixed tends to dry out in the container with periodic use before the container is emptied. Conventional paste cannot be injected into small containers since it will not flow properly, even under pressure. In fact, if pressure is applied, the pumic quickly segregates from the water vehicle and prevents flow. The pumice also tends to settle out of the suspension after setting over a period of time.
if the mixed paste is too dry, it will not readily cling to the dental tool for application to the teeth. If it is too wet, it tends to splatter excessively during use. In fact, with conventional paste, this splattering cannot be prevented as the dental tool revolves rapidly, flinging the paste radially outwardly by centrifugal force. This splattering is aggravating and discomforting to the patient, spots eyeglasses, and can discolor clothes. Therefore, the patient is often covered with a large bib. As a consequence, the process of cleaning teeth regularly constitutes a messy, time-consuming affair.
it is therefore an object of this invention to provide a prophylactic professional cleanser paste for use by dentists, that is almost completely non-splattering in nature. Only an insignificant amount of paste flies off the highspeed revolving tool. The mess ordinarily experienced is eliminated, causing the cleaning process to be elfectively conducted by the dentist Without large bibs, soiled clothes, splattered glasses, and so forth.
It is another object of this invention to provide a prophylactic pumice paste that will actually flow smoothly and evenly under pressure. Its capacity to flow even enables it to be packaged in paste form in small individual capsules. The dentist can therefore use one or two capsules, as needed, for each particular teeth cleaning job, while the remaining capsules remain completely sealed and sanitary, retaining the proper amount of moisture until use. The dentist is no longer required to waste time mixing a batch of paste before each teeth cleansing, but rather, can conveniently unseal a capsule of prepared paste for immediate use without loss of time. The paste may be packaged in small capsules on a mass production basis, utilizing conventional packaging techniques. The paste composition is unique in that it is capable of flowing for packaging, and yet has optimum cohesiveness to prevent splattering from the dental tool. Normally, these characteristics would be inconsistent with each other since flowability depends upon less cohesiveness (viscosity) and splattering depends upon greater cohesiveness. Yet, the added ingredients of the novel paste synergistically optimizes both of these qualities.
These and several other objects of this invention will be apparent upon studying the following specification in conjunction with the drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a sheet of capsules containing the novel paste;
FIG. 2 is a side elevational, sectional view of one of the capsules cut from the sheet in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view illustrating the use of the paste capsules in a holder on a dental tray; and
FIG. 4 is a side elevational sectional view of the capsule and holder in FIG. 3.
Basically, the dental prophylactic paste composition is based upon a moistened pumice flour base, ordinarily containing about 50% by weight pumic flour, about 12% or so water, preferably a moisture retention agent in the form of glycerine in an amount of about 20% to 25 to all of which has been blended a definite but small amount of sodium silicate powder and a definite but small amount of agar agar, with the former being up to about 10% by weight, and the latter up to about 2% by weight. The particular percentages given may be varied somewhat, providing the flowability and non-splattering qualities are retained.
The novel paste has a pumice flour base moistened to a pasty state. The exact amount of moisture added may be varied within reasonable limits, since changing the moisture content small amounts, although altering the paste consistency does not materially alter the characteristics which depend chiefly on the addition of further components. Since the paste is packaged and must retain its moisture over an extended period of time, a moisture retention agent, preferably glycerine, is added to the paste. It has been found that the amount of moisture retention agent may also be varied reasonable amounts since its presence within a limited range does not seem to significantly alter the desired flowing and nonsplattering characteristics of the paste. It is preferred to add the glycerine and the moisture in a ratio of approximately 16:8:4 of flour pumice, glycerine and water. However, as indicated, the glycerine may readily range from about 6 to 9 parts to 16 parts of flour, while the water can vary between about 4 to 6 parts per 16 parts of flour without significantly altering the characteristics of the paste. It will be readily understood that various substitutes for the preferred glycerine as the moisture retention agent could conceivably be made. Glycerine has been found to work effectively without detracting from the desired final qualities of the paste.
To this pumice paste is added the two components of sodium silicate powder and agar agar. It has been found that these materials, when employed in the paste, act synergistically to create unique fiow characteristics in the paste. As indicated in the introduction of this specification, previously such a pumice paste has not been flowable at all, since without pressure, it remains in its solid-type state, and under pressure, the pumice segregates and collects in a hard mass which will not move through any opening. Thus, to attempt to eject this conventional paste from a nozzle, for example, or to inject it into a small capsule-type container, was simply impossible.
It has been found that by blending a small amount of agar agar, preferably up to around 2%, and a small amount of the sodium silicate powder preferably up to about 10%, the material will flow smoothly under pressure, without segregation or settling of the pumice flour. Small capsules of a couple gram size can be easily filled on a mass production basis.
As an example, in the usual composition, to one pound of flour pumice, 8 /2 ounces of pure glycerine, and 4 /2 ounces of water are added 1 to 4 teaspoons, preferably 2 teaspoons, of agar agar (about 0.045 ounce to 0.65
ounce), and 1 to 2 ounces of sodium silicate. Various other proportions of these two ingredients can be used, but if they are decreased below about 1 ounce of sodium silicate or about 0.045 ounce (1.4 grams) of agar agar, the flow characteristics are reduced to an amount which seriously hinders mass production packaging. Amounts greater than the 2 ounces of sodium silicate and 4 teaspoons of agar agar for the composition given above, seem to have no further beneficial effect upon the flow and non-splattering characteristics.
It has been found that not only do these two ingredients coact syngeristi'cally to create flowability of the material, but also the resulting composition has extremely small tendency to splatter, so that it can be used by the dentist with ease and without a mess resulting. The non-splattering characteristics also depend upon the presence of both of these ingredients. The sodium silicate powder appears to keep the material in suspension, as does the gelling effect of the agar agar. The resulting composition is therefore doubly advantageous, since the paste can be packaged in individual, sealed, capsule size containers in the form of a paste already prepared, can be used in a sanitary method, opening one capsule at a time, with no preparation necessary and complete saving of time, and causing insignificant splattering of patient and doctor.
If the paste is heated a small amount, for example, to degrees above room temperature (but definitely below boiling point of water), the flow characteristics are greatly increased. In fact, optimum packaging is achieved when the paste is heated. The temperature is not critical, however. This is probably due to the dissolving action of the agar agar in the moisture in the paste, since agar agar is soluble in warm water, thereby lessening the viscosity. The possible technical reasons given for the unique results of flowability and non-splattering, both achieved compatibly, are not to be limiting since applicant does not pretend to have a complete understanding of the scientific principles involved.
To manufacture and package the novel composition paste, therefore, the ingredients are compounded and blended substantially in the ratio of the ingredients as set forth above. These are then ejected from a conventional packaging machine nozzle or multiple of nozzles into capsule-type containers 10 previously preformed as by vacuum molding, or by mechanical dies from a plastic sheet 12. Each container is filled, with about 2 /2 grams of the paste. The entire sheet is then covered with a waterproof sheet 14 adhered to the surface of plastic sheet 12 to seal the paste 16 within the containers 10 (FIG. 2) over the entire sheet of capsules. The number of capsules and their spacing on the package may be greatly varied. Also, the particular size of the capsules may be varied, although a size of about 2 /2 grams has been found to be optimum for individualized use. The packages of capsules are then sold to dentists who store them in any convenient place until time of use. Since the containers are sealed and since the paste contains a moisture retention agent, the paste does not dry out, but retains its qualities until use.
Each cleansing job which a dentist encounters is then accomplished by severing one or more of the capsules from the sheet 12, as with scissors, as shown by the phantom line in FIG. 1. The capsule is then placed with segment of sheet 14 face up. The sheet segment covering that particular capsule is then peeled off toexpose the paste 16. Preferably, this container is placed in a holder 18 of any suitable configuration, having a central opening 20 (FIG. 4) to frictionally receive the capsule. This anchors the container on the dental tray 22. The capsule holder 18 may be magnetic to hold conventional dental burrs 24 and prevent them from rolling off the dental tray 22 onto the floor (as is a common experience).
In use, the dentist dips the rubber cup or brush 25 in the end of tool 26 directly into the paste as illustrated in FIG. 4. The paste clings to the cup and is applied to the teeth as a buffing compound as the cup rotates. The novel paste does not splatter significantly, even though the cup revolves at a high rate of speed during the cleansing process.
Thus, for the first time as far as is known, premixed dental prophy paste is capable of being packaged in small, sanitary, capsules for convenient individualized use by the dentist without splattering during use.
It will be understood within the teachings set forth above, that the particular ingredients set forth are the preferred amounts in the pumice composition, but may be altered somewhat to achieve the same general purposes. Thus, this invention is not to be limited merely by the illustrative examples given, but only by the principles of the invention as defined in the appended claims and the reasonably equivalent compositions and methods to those defined therein.
1. A pumice dental prophylactic paste comprising a composition having a weight ratio of about 161824 parts pumice, glycerine, and water, and about 1-2 parts of the same weight of sodium silicate and about 0.045-0.65 parts of the same weight of agar agar.
2. A non-splattering, dental pumice prophylactic paste composition composed of about 16 parts by weight of pumice flour, about 4 /2 parts by weight of water, about 6-9 parts by weight of glycerine as a moisture retention agent, about 1-3 parts by weight of sodium silicate powder, and about 0.045-O.65 parts by Weight of agar agar.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,189,947 2/1940 Griffith et al 16793 X 2,489,848 11/1949 Bacon et al 252- X 2,775,079 12/1956 Sarofeen 5325 2,779,708 1/ 1957 Russell et al. 16793 2,876,166 3/1959 Nebergall 16793 3,050,914 8/1962 Morgan 5325 3,081,215 3/1963 Morris 16793 3,105,013 9/1963 Saul et a1 16793 LEWIS GOTTS, Primary Examiner.
FRANK CACCIAPAGLIA, JR., Examiner.