US 3229419 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 18, 1966 c. B. FRY 3,229,419
CARTESIAN DIVING ELEMENT FOR CARTESIAN TOYS Original Filed June 4, 1959 Za i2 2 10 b h Il/"IIIIIIlI/ll Il 1111" l 11,111,
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United States Patent O 3,229,419 CARTESIAN DiVlNG ELEMENT FR CARTESIAN TOYS Carroll Brooks Fry, 18250 Pacic Coast Highway, Malibu, Calif.
@riginal application June 4, 1959, Ser. No. 318,048, now Patent No. 3,077,697, dated Feb. 19, 1963. Divided and this application Feb. 11, 1963, Ser. No. 257,609
The present application is a division of my copending application Serial No. 818,048 tiled June 4, 1959, entitled Cartesian Diver Toy, now Patent No. 3,077,697, issued February 19, 1963.
This invention relates generally to Cartesian toys and particularly to a Cartesian diving element for Cartesian toys.
Cartesian toys are well known in the art and comprise a Cartesian chamber containing a liquid in which is submerged a buoyant, pressure sensitive Cartesian diving element, generally simulating an aquatic figure. This chamber is equipped with externally operable means for adjusting the internal chamber pressure, thereby to vary the pressure which the liquid exerts on the element. The Cartesian element is so weighted that it normally rises to the top of the Cartesian chamber at some minimum chamber pressure and sinks to the bottom of the chamber when the pressure of the liquid on the element is increased by increasing the chamber pressure. Thus, the Cartesian element may be caused to rise and sink in the liquid at will by adjusting the pressure adjusting means on the chamber.
One of the deficiencies inherent in a Cartesian toy is that the buoyancy of the Cartesian diving element tends to change with changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature and as a result of the increase in weight of the element which normally occurs during prolonged usage due to absorption of water by the element. Changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature, of course, may either increase or decrease the normal positive buoyancy of the element. The element may thus be rendered incapable of either rising or diving, depending upon the direction and the magnitude of the changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature. A gradual increase in the weight of the Cartesian diving element, on the other hand, gradually decreases the positive buoyancy of the element. Over a period of time, the element may actually become so Waterlogged that it is impossible to cause the element to rise by relieving the chamber pressure.
A general object of the present invention is to provide an improved Cartesian diving element of the character described whose effective water displacement volume may be quickly and easily adjusted to vary the buoyant force exerted on the element by the liquid in which the element is submerged, whereby changes in the normal buoyancy of the element which occur as a result of changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature and/ or changes in the weight of the element during prolonged usage may be compensated for, and several Cartesian diving elements in the same Cartesian chamber may be afforded with different -buoyancies so that they will rise and sink at different chamber pressures.
Another object ot the invention is to provide a unique adjustable-buoyancy cartridge for Cartesian diving elements.
Other objects, advantages, and features of the nvention will become readily evident as the description proceeds.
Briefly, the objects of the invention are attained by providing a Cartesian diving element simulating an aquatic gure, such as a diver, a diving bell, or the like,
3,229,4l9 Patented Jan. I8, 1966 ICC `and containing a buoyant cartridge. A portion of the wall of this cartridge is liexible and exposed to the liquid pressure in the Cartesian chamber so that increasing liquid pressure collapses the flexible cartridge wall, thereby decreasing the positive buoyancy of the cartridge and causing the Cartesian element to sink. Decreasing liquid pressure allows the flexible cartridge wall to return to its normal position, thereby increasing the positive buoyancy of the cartridge and causing the Cartesian element to rise.
Included in the cartridge is an adjustable means which is exposed to the liquid in the Cartesian chamber and adjustment of which varies the effective water displacement volume of the cartridge, thereby varying its buoyancy. In this way, the buoyancy of the Cartesian element may be adjusted to compensate for atmospheric pressure and temperature changes and changes in the weight of the element. The relative buoyancies of several Cartesian elements in the same Cartesian chamber may also be adjusted, thereby to condition the elements to rise and sink at different Cartesian chamber pressures.
A better understanding of the invention may be had from the following detailed description thereof, taken in connection with the annexed drawing, whe-rein:
FIG. 1 is a vertical section through the Cartesian toy of my aforementioned copending application and illustrating three of the present improved Cartesian diving elements in the Cartesian chamber of the toy;
FIG. 2 is a section taken on line 2--2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged detail of one of the Cartesian diving elements shown in FIG. 1 with parts broken away for clarity; and
FIG. 4 is an enlarged view, in longitudinal section, of the present replaceable buoyant cartridge embodied in the Cartesian diving element of FIG. 3.
Referring now to this drawing, the Cartesian toy illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 comprises a sealed hollow chamber 10 supported on a base 12. The front wall 14 of this chamber is transparent. Located within the chamber 10 and bonded, or otherwise joined to the walls of the chamber, is a generally horizontal partition 16. The interior of chamber 10, below the partition 16, is iilled with a liquid 18, such as water. Partition 16, which is located a distance below the top wall 20 of the chamber, is designed to simulate the surface of a large body of water, such as the ocean, and to this end may be rippled and colored a greenish hue, if desired. To enhance the visual appearance of the toy, a sky scene and an underwater scene are painted or printed on a transparent card 22 which is removably inserted in a slot 24 at the rear of the chamber 10 between the latter and a rear chamber 25. This rear chamber is adapted to contain live lish and other sea life. An artificial landscape 26 may be provided at one end of the partition 16 by cementing sand to the partition and placing simulated trees and a dwelling, as shown. The simulated surface scenery in the illustrated Cartesian toy is completed by a model ship 28 supported on the partition 16. The simulated underwater scenery is completed by an uneven layer of sand and a few small stones, sea shells, and the like cemented to the bottom wall 30 of the chamber 10, as shown.
yChamber 10 is filled with liquid to the level of partition 16 through a filler opening 32. This opening is normally closed Iby a removable cap 34. In the partition 16, below :the iiller opening 32, is a circular opening 36 through which the liquid which is poured into the filler opening 32 may ow into the interior space of chamber 10 below the partition. Opening 36 has an additional purpose, to be described shortly.
In one side wall 38 of the chamber 10 is Ia replaceable aquatic ligure 40, shown yas a iish. This gure is removlable through the side wall to permit its replacement by another aquatic gure.
The right-hand side wall 42 of the chamber 10, lbelow the partition 16, is relatively thick, as shown. Extending into the inner tface of 'this side wall are a pair of bores 44 and 46. In these bores are pistons 48 and S0 carried on stems S2 and 54. Stems 52 and 54' are threaded in the side wall 42 and extend to the exterior Vof the chamber 10. On the outer ends o-f these stems are knurled handles 56 by which the stems may lbe rotated to move the pistons 48 and 50 axially in their r'espective bores. If desired, the bores 44 and 46 may be obscured from view through the transparent front wall 14 of the chamber 1t) vby an inner opaque partition 58 in the chamber. The lower right-hand portion of the front Wall 14 is then -also rendered opaque, in some suitable way, to conceal the bores. Partition 58 has a port 60, whereby the interior spaces of the -chamber 10, at opposite sides of the partition 58, are placed in cornmunication.
Within the body yof liquid 18, below the partit-ion 16, are three Cartesian diving elements 62, 64 and 66 which form the subject matter of this invention. These elements simulate, respectively, a diving bell, a deep sea diver, and a treasure chest. As will ybecome evident 'from the ensuing description, the Cartesian elements 62, 64 and 66 are rendered sensitive to the pressure exerted `thereon by Ithe liquid 18 so that each `Cartesian element may be made to sink in the liquid by increasing the liquid pressure and rise in the liquid by decreasing the liquid pressure. The liquid pressure is thus increased and decreased by means of the pistons 48 and 50. Thus, Irotation of the piston handles `56 in a direction to advance the pistons to the left in FIG. 1 increases the pressure in the chamber and, thereby the pressure 'of the liquid on the Cartesian elements. Similarly, retraction of the pistons to the right #in FIG. l decreases the liquid pressure on the Cartesian elements. The pistons 48 and 50 tare of different diameters, as shown, so that 4one piston may be used to elect a coarse pressure adjustment and the other piston to effect a ne pressure adjustment.
The Cartesian elements 62, 64 `and 66 -of this invention are made of a suitable lightweight material, such as a molded plastic material. Within each diving element is a lbuoyant cartridge 68. The cartridges 68 are identical and are removable from their respective elements so that they may be replaced when damaged or otherwise lose rtheir utility.
Reference is now made to FIG. '3 illustrating the Cartesian diving element 64 in enlarged detail. As already mentioned, and as show-n in FIG. 3, Cartesian element 64 simulates a deep sea diver having a body 70 with arms, 72, legs 74, and a head or helmet 76. Extending upwardly through t-he body 70 is a bore 78 in which the 'buoyant cartridge 68 is removably inserted lwith ya light friction t. The upper end of this cartridge, as it is viewed in F-IG. 3, is placed in `communica-tion with the water pressure acting on the exterior of the element through small passages 80 which extend lbetween the upper end of the bore 78 `and the exterior of the element. The lower end of the buoyant cartridge 68 is exposed through the lower, open end of the bore 78. Buoyant cartridge 68 will now be described in detail by reference to FIG. 4.
Cartridge 68 comprises ia hollow body 82. The wall 84 forming the upper end of this body, as :the latter is viewed in FIG. 4, is made relatively thin so as to |be capable of inward and outward deliection, as indicated in dotted and solid lines in the ligure. The upper interior space of the cartridge ybody 82 is sealed o" by an interior partition or wall 86 which is bonded or otherwise secured to the wall of the body. The wall 88 at the lower end of the cartridge body is relatively thick, as compared to the upper exible wall `84, and is, therefore, quite rigid.
Extending axially into the lower end of the cartridge body 82 is a threaded bore 98. Threaded in this bore is a plunger 92. Plunger 92 has a kerf 94 by which it may be rotated to adjust it axially into or out of the bore 90. The inner end of the plunger 92 is formed with an external, -circumferentially extending groove 96 containing an O-ring 98 `which sl'idably seals the plunger to the wall of the bore 90. `Cartridge 68 denes a variable buoyancy chamber 69 for' the Cartesian element 70, which chamber is bounded in part -by a movable pressure responsive wall comprising the cartridge wall 84 and in part by an adjustable rigid wall compri-sing the plunger 92. Chamber 69 is divided -into separate chamber spaces 69a and 69h by the internal cartridge wall 86.
From the foregoing description of the Cartesian element 64 and its buoyant cartridge 68, it is evident that when the elem-ent 64 is submerged in the body of liquid 18 within the `Cartesian chamber t8, and one or both of the pressure adjusting pistons 48 and 58 are adjusted to the left in FIG. 1, to increase the pressure in the chamber, the increased liquid pressure acting on the upper iexible pressure responsive wall 84 of the buoyant cartridge 68, through the passages in the element 64, collapses the cartridge wall 84, as shown in dotted lines in FIG. 4. This reduces the effective liquid displacement volume, and hence the positive buoyancy, of the cartridge 68 as well as the overall effective displacement volume and positive bouyancy of the body 7) of the Cartesian element 64 as a whole. When fthe pistons 48 and 58 are adjusted to the right in FIG. 1, to relieve the chamber pressure, the upper exible cartridge wall 84 returns to its normal s-olid line position of FIG. 4. This, of course, restores the normal liquid `displacement volume, Vand thereby the positive buoyancy, of the buoyant cartridge 68 and the body 7 0 lof the `Cartesian element 64.
The remaining two Cartesian elements 62 and 66 also contain buoyant cartridges 68 which `are removably retainedV in the latter elements in the same way as the cartridge 68 is removably retained in the Cartesian element 64. The upper flexible ends of the cartridges 68 in the Cartesian elements 62 and 66 are exposed to the liquid pressure ron the exterior of the latter elements through passages in the elements in the same way as the upper end `ot the cartridge 68 `in the Cartesian element 64 is exposed to the liquid pressure on the exterior of the latter element through its passages 80. Finally, the lower ends of the cartridges 68 in -the Cartesian elements 62 and 66 are exposed to the liquid surrounding the latter elements as is the lower end of the cartridge 68 in the element 64. It is evident, therefore, that the positive buoyancies of the cartridges `68 in the Cartesian elements 62 and 66 are changed by adjustment of the pressure adjusting pistons 48 and 50 in precisely the same way as described above in connection with the Cartesian element 64.
The Cartesian elements 62, 64 and 66, and their respective buoyant cartridges 68, are so weighted and proportioned that each element possesses substantially neutral buoyancy when the pressure adjusting pistons 48 and 50 are placed at some intermediate setting. Adjusting of the pistons to the left of this intermediate setting, then, causes the Cartesian elements to sink in the liquid 18 because of the decrease in the effective displacement volume of the cartridges 68 which occurs when the upper exible ends 84 of the cartridges are collapsed or compressed by the increasing water pressure. Adjustment of the pistons 48 and 50 to the right of their intermediate position reduces the water pressure on the upper tiexible ends of the cartridges, thus permitting the exible cartridge walls 84 to return to their normal solid line position of FIG. 4 and restore the positive buoyancy of the cartridges. The Cartesian elements then rise in the liquid 18.
It is evident from the drawing that the elective liquid displacement volume and, thereby, the normal positive buoyancy, of the body 78 of each Cartesian element 62, 64 and 66 may be varied by adjustment of the respective cartridge plunger 92. Thus, when the plunger 92 in any one of the Cartesian elements 62, 64 or 66 is adjusted outwardly of its respective cartridge 68, the liquid displacement volume of the cartridge, and hence its positive buoyancy, are increased. Similarly, adjustment of the plunger 92 inwardly of its respective cartridge reduces the water displacement volume of the cartridge and hence its positive buoyancy.
One purpose of this buoyancy adjustment is to compensate for changes in the buoyancies of the Cartesian elements which occur as a result of changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature and as a result of the increase in Weight of the Cartesian elements during prolonged usage due to Water absorption by the elements. A second purpose for the buoyancy adjustment is to enable the relative buoyancies of the three Cartesian elements 62, 64 and 66 to be so adjusted that they will rise and sink at different settings of the pressure adjusting pistons 48 and 50.
A difference in the relative buoyancies of the three Cartesian elements illustrated in the drawing is desirable, for example, to permit operation ot the Cartesian toy in such a manner as to simulate retrieving of the treasure chest 66 by the diver 64 and to permit a simulated rescue of the diver by the diving bell 62. To these ends, the diver 64 carries a hook 100 which is designed to engage in a ring 102 on the treasure chest 66. The buoyancy adjusting plungers 92 for the diver 64 and the treasure chest 66 are set so that at some particular setting of the pressure adjusting pistons 48 and 50, the diver 64 oats in the liquid 18 while the treasure chest 66 remains on the bottom, as illustrated in FIG. 1. If the pressure of the liquid is now increased by adjustment of the pressure adjusting pistons, the diver 64 sinks to the bottom of the chamber 10.
Simulated retrieval of the treasure chest 66 by the diver 64 is accomplished by tipping the chamber 10 slightly during descent of the diver to direct the latter to a position adjacent the treasure chest wherein the grappling hook 100 on the diver engages in the ring 102 on the chest. The pressure in the Cartesian chamber is now relieved by backing off the pressure adjusting pistons to a position wherein both the diver and the treasure chest rise in the liquid 18, as if the diver were raising the treasure chest to the surface.
The relative buoyancies of the diving bell 62 and the diver 64 are adjusted, by adjustment of the buoyancy adjusting plunger 92 in the diving bell, so that the latter normally has a positive buoyancy slightly greater than that of the diver. During operation of the toy in the manner just mentioned, therefore, the diving bell 62 remains at the surface of the liquid 18. The purpose of the diving bell is to effect a simulated rescue of the diver. To this end, the head or helmet 76 of the diver carries a small slug 104 of iron or other magnetically permeable material. Located within the diving bell 62 is a small permanent magnet 106. Thus, with the diver 64 retained in submerged position in the liquid 18, the diving bell 62 may be caused to sink in the liquid, to a position in which the magnet 106 in the bell attracts the slug 104 in the divers helmet, by increasing the pressure of the liquid 18 and tipping the Cartesian chamber 10. The liquid pressure is then relieved until the diver and diving bell rise in the liquid, as if the diver were being rescued by the diving bell. If desired, the sh 40 may also be equipped with a small magnet 108 to which the diver may be attracted by tipping the Cartesian chamber 10 during descent of the diver or While the diver is submerged. Simulated rescue of the diver from the iish may then be etected in much the same way as discussed above. The diving bell 62 may also carry hooks 110 to enable it to hook onto the diver rather than by attaching itself to the diver by magnetic attraction.
The diameter of the opening 36 in the partition 16 is such as to permit the diver 64 to rise through the opening into the ship 28. In this Way, the diver will be obscured from view as if he had returned to the ship.
Clearly, therefore, the invention hereinbefore described and illustrated is fully capable of attaining the objects and advantages preliniinarily set forth.
While certain presently preferred embodiments of the invention have been disclosed for illustrative purposes, various modications in the design, arrangement of parts, and instrumentalities of the invention are obviously possible within the spirit and scope of the following claims.
1. A Cartesian diving element, comprising:
a body adapted to be submerged in a liquid and including a sealed variable buoyancy chamber having a movable pressure responsive Wall exposed to the exterior of said body for movement of said wall to vary the eiective liquid displacement volume of the body in response to changes in the external liquid pressure on the body,
a rigid, externally accessible, liquid-displacement-volurne adjusting wall member mounted on said body in iluid sealing relation to the body and exposed to the exterior of the body for varying the eiective liquid displacement volume of said body independently of said pressure responsive wall and the external pressure on the body,
means isolating said pressure responsive wall from said rigid Wall member, whereby adjustment of said wall member is ineffective to alter the internal pressure on said pressure responsive wall,
means for retaining said rigid wall member fixed in adjusted position,
said pressure responsive wall and said rigid wall member being effective conjointly to vary the etiective liquid displacement volume of said body over a given range, and
said body being weighted to rise in said liquid when the effective liquid displacement volume of the body falls within one portion of said range and to sink in said liquid when the eifective liquid displacement volume falls within another portion of said range.
2. A Cartesian diving element, comprising:
a body adapted to be submerged in a liquid and including a sealed variable buoyancy chamber having a first space defined in part by a ilexible pressure responsive wall and a second space isolated from said rst space and dened in part by an adjustable rigid wall, each of said walls being exposed to the exterior of the body,
said flexible wall being eifective to vary the effective liquid displacement volume of said body in response to changes in the external pressure on the body, and said rigid Wall being adjustable externally of said body into and out of said chamber to vary the effective liquid displacement volume of the body independently of said ilexible wall and the external pressure on the body and without affecting the pressure in said first chamber space,
means sealing said rigid wall to the Wall of said chamber,
means for retaining said rigid wall fixed in adjusted position,
said pressure responsive wall and said rigid wall being effective conjointly to vary the effective liquid displacement volume of said body over a given range, and
said body being weighted to rise in said liquid when the effective liquid displacement volume of the body falls within one portion of said range and to sink in said liquid when the effective liquid displacement volume falls within another portion of said range.
3. The subject matter of claim 2 wherein:
said rigid wall comprises a plunger threaded in said chamber.
4. A Cartesian diving element, comprising:
a body adapted to be submerged in a liquid,
a variable buoyancy cartridge including a sealed chamber having a movable pressure responsive wall bounding a portion of said chamber,
means removably mounting said cartridge on said body with the cartridge accessible from the exterior of the body for removal from and replacement on the body and with said pressure wall exposed to the exterior of said body for movement of said wall to vary over a given range the eiective liquid' displacement volume of the body in response to changes in the external liquid pressure on the body,
said body being weighted to rise in said liquid when the eiective liquid displacement volume of the body falls within one portion of said range and to sink in said liquid when the effective liquid displacement volume falls within another portion of said range, and
said cartridge further including an adjustable rigid Wall bounding another portion of said chamber and exposed to the exterior of said body, means for retaining said rigid wall fixed in adjusted position, means sealing said rigid wall to said cartridge, said rigid wall being adjustable to vary the eifective liquid displacement volume of said body independently of said pressure responsive wall and the external pressure on said body, and a partition extending across the interior of said cartridge between said pressure responsive wall and said rigid wall, whereby adjustment of said rigid wall is ineffective to alter the internal cartridge pressure active on said pressure responsive wall.
5. The subject matter of claim 4 wherein:
said pressure responsive wall comprises a flexible wall and said rigid wall comprises a plunger threaded in and sealed to the wall of said chamber.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,724,770 8/1929 ONeill 46-94 2, 345,243 3 1944 Eakin 46--92 2,900,972 8/1959 Marsh et al. 124-13 FOREIGN PATENTS 588,192 5/1947 Great Britain.
DELBERT B. LOWE, Primary Examiner.
25 RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Examiner.