US 3229435 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 18, 1966 A. c. OLSEN 3,229,435
BUILT UP WALL STRUCTURE Original Filed June 23, 1958 2 heets-She 1 UWL M raven/0r fade/5 6. 55.56%
Jan. 18, 1966 A. c. OLSEN 3,229,435
BUILT UP WALL STRUCTURE Original Filed June 25, 1958 2 Sheets-Shee 2 United States Patent 3,229,435 BUILT UP WALL STRUCTURE Anders C. Olsen, 200 N. Barry Ava, Mamaroneclr, N.Y. Continuation of application Ser. No. 743,816, June 23, 1958. This application Jan. 23, 1963, Ser. No. 254,043 2 Claims. (Cl. 52-434) The present invention relates to building structures and particularly to wall and partition structures of the builtup panel type, and is a continuation of my copending application for Building Structures, Serial No. 743,816, filed June 23, 1958, now abandoned, which is in turn a continuation-in-part of my co-pending application for Building Structures, Serial No. 422,333, filed April 12, 1954, now issued as Patent No. 2,881,877, which is in turn a continuation of my application for Building Structures, Serial No. 45,595, filed August 23, 1948, now abandoned.
The demand for fire resistant, lightweight, and readily assembled building structures has brought about various suggestions for the improvement of partition wall structures, particularly where the partitions are not of the load-bearing variety but are provided for the purpose of dividing floor space into rooms and corridors. The present invention relates primarily to a wall or partition structure of this non-load-bearing type and has for its object the provision of such a wall structure which is fire resistant, light in weight, structurally strong, which does not readily permit the passage of sound from room to room.
The wall structure comprises a number of parts which are united by securing devices other than nails and screws and which hold the wall assembly intact and bind its several elements into one rigid structure. The number of securing devices required for the erection of the wall is reduced to a minimum. Ordinarily the vertically extending main panel members of a wall or partition are positively attached at their upper and lower ends to the overhead and floor structures of the building in which the wall is erected. In the case of the present structure, however, the floor and overhead structures of the room in which the partition is to be erected are provided with stud engaging runners, preferably channels, and the several studs are, at least at their ends, somewhat resilient in cross section so that, when placed in operative position, oppositely facing surfaces of the end of a stud press closely against the mutually facing surfaces of a runner, the stud being in eifect prevent from movement only by reason of its frictional engagement with the upper and lower runners. After the wall structure has been completed, however, the studs are positively locked against movement by the coaction of the panels of the wall covering, the individual panels thereof being locked to the several studs and the assembly thus united into one rigid structure.
The panels are so constructed as to provide a shallow recess at each joint between adjacent panels and the securing devices are of such design that the external portions thereof are received within these recesses and do not project beyond their limits. A thin coating of plaster or other wall coating mastic is applied to the panels at at least the region of the recesses and effectively covers the joints and securing devices, giving the wall the appearance of a continuous surface.
By way of example, one embodiment of the improved wall structure is illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation of a portion of a wall or partition structure embodying the invention;
FIGURE 2 is a section on line 2-2 of FIGURE 1,
upon a larger scale, showing one of the studs in horizontal section;
FIGURE 3 is a section on line 3-3 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 4 shows in perspective portions of two adjacent wall panels and the metal supporting members which serve to maintain the panels in position;
FIGURE 5 is a similar view, many of the portions having been omitted in order that a base clip for supporting a base strip or base board at the bottom of the partition may be more clearly perceived;
FIGURE 6 is a plan View of one of the runners showing in section one of the studs, the stud being shown in one position which it may occupy during assembly;
FIGURE 7 is a generally similar view showing the final relationship of the stud and runner and likewise showing the somewhat diiferent relationship of panel and securing means to the stud than is shown in FIGURES 1 to 4, inclusive;
FIGURE 8 is a view similar to a portion of FIGURE 4 showing the concealment of the joint by a plaster coating;
FIGURE 9 is a view similar to a portion of FIGURE 2 showing in section the relationship of the panels, securing device, and coating; and
FIGURE 10 discloses one of the studs in horizontal section a somewhat different means for attaching a panel to the stud being indicated.
A typical wall structure of the type contemplated by the invention includes a plurality of relatively large preformed panels, preferably fabricated of plaster, gypsum board, asbestos or other fireproof material, and in FIG- URE 1 of the drawings portions of four such panels, which are indicated at 1.53, 11, I2, and 13, are shown. These panels may vary in area, shape and composition within wide limits and such variations may be freely permitted in erecting the partition structure since the spacing of the studs may be varied at will. Preferably the panels are positioned with their longer dimensions extending vertically but they may, nevertheless, be disposed horizontally, the adjacent longer sides of two superposed panels separated by a narrow horizontally extending space instead of by a vertically extending space as shown in FIGURE 1. Studs are indicated at 14, 15, and 16 and securing devices at 17, all of these securing devices being identical. A base board is indicated at St).
One of the studs employed in the partition structure is indicated at 20 in FIGURES 2, 3, and 4 and it will be observed that the stud is, in horizontal section, shaped like the letter Z with a diagonal web 20a and parallel flange members 20b, the free edge of each of which is bent over to form a narrow marginal flange, these marginal flanges being indicated at 200. The studs are fabricated of sheet metal and may be said to be resilient in cross section. Thus the flange portions 20b of the stud may be flexed relatively to the diagonal Ztla by the application of pressure to their free edges. This resiliency may be advantageously employed in the erection of the partition, in a manner to be hereinafter described.
One of the runners is indicated at 22 in FIGURES 3, 4, 6, and 7, this runner being that which is intended to be secured to the floor upon which .a partition is to rest. It comprises a flat web portion 226: and parallel upwardly extending flanges 221'), these flanges comprising elements for limiting the lateral movement of the lower ends of the several studs used in the partition. A similar runner (not illustrated) is disposed directly above runner 22 and disposed parallel to runner 22, the flanges of the runner thus attached to the overhead structure extending downwardly. The lower end of each stud is received within the lower runner and the upper end of each stud engages the upper runner in a similar manner, the relatively movable flanges Zllb of the studs pressing outwardly against the inner faces of the runner flanges and each stud being held in vertical position, after having been thus assembled, by the frictional engagement of the outer surfaces of its flanges 2% with the inner surfaces of the flanges of the runners. No securing means of positive character is needed to secure the studs in vertical position and in properly spaced relationship during assembly .and, when the Wall is finally completed, the whole structure, including the studs, is so locked together that the studs may not move.
In assembling a stud with the upper and lower runners, it may first be moved into substantially vertical position with its lower end between the opposed flanges 22b of the lower runner and its upper end between the corresponding opposed flanges of the runner secured to the overhead structure. Thus it may be caused to occupy the position in which it is shown in FIGURE 6 and, when manually revolved in the direction of the arrow R, the flange portions 2% will first be flexed inwardly and will thereafter return to their original positions, as indicated in FIGURE 7, the outer surfaces of these flange portions pressing tightly against the inner surfaces of the runner flanges 22b. The static friction between the ends of the studs and the upper and lower runners is sufiiciently great to hold the studs in position after the assembly operation described has been completed.
Each flange Ztlb of the stud is provided with a plurality of slots 249d extending longitudinally of the stud and just above and below each slot is a small aperture which is caused by the striking up from the flange of a small tongue which comprises a catch 262. The web 20a of each stud is provided with a number of openings, such for instance as Ztlf, these openings preferably being circular and serving to lighten the weight of the stud without injury to its effectiveness as a wall supporting member. At its lower end each stud is cut away as at 20g to provide an aperture through which electrical wires may be passed.
Each of the securing devices 17 comprises a stud engaging portion 17a and a panel engaging portion or head 17b and when in use functions to draw the edges of two adjacent panels into close contact with the outer face of one of the stud flanges 26b and to maintain that contact during the life of the partition. Each such device 17 is preferably fabricated by stamping and bending operations from a single piece of sheet metal. The panel engaging head 17b has a rib portion 17c in the plane of the stud engaging portions 17a and panel face engaging flanges 17d, in the form shown, there being four such flanges, alternate flanges extending in the same directions from this rib, this formation being brought about by slitting the securing device as it comes from the stamping machine along three parallel lines normal to the rib 17c and bending the alternate tongues in opposite directions into a plane normal to the rib.
It will be noted that the panel engaging head projects outside the limits of the panels by only a single thickness of the sheet metal for which the devices 17 are formed, the rib portion 170 fitting within the opening between the panels. This is an important feature of the invention, making possible the satisfactory concealment of the devices by a thin coating of plaster.
The stud engaging portion 17a and the rib 17c together define a notch in the form of an inverted V and the relatively inclined stud engaging edge of the Wedge portion 17a is serrated, as indicated at 17a. The teeth or serrations 17e are so formed that, when the securing device is forced into its operative or panel securing position as shown in FIGURE 3, one or the other of these teeth will engage the lower edge of the tongue we of the associated stud, as illustrated in FIGURE 3. The securing device may therefore not recede from its operative position. Should looseness occur for any reason during the period of useful life of the partition, the securing device 17 may be forced downwardly until the free edge of the tongue 20e is engaged by another notch of the series of notches 17c and the structure will be tightened. Inasmuch as it is to be desired that either end of any stud may be placed uppermost or lowermost, each stud is provided with two spaced tongues or catches 20e, one at each end of the slot 29d provided for the reception of the stud engaging portion of the securing device. In the erection of a partition embodying studs and securing devices of the type described therefor, either end of any stud may be placed uppermost in the wall structure.
In FIGURES 1 through 4 of the drawings, the panels are shown to be of substantially equal thickness throughout, with the exception of the marginal portions which taper as 1112 and 12m, only toward the edges thereof, this tapering being est shown in FIGURES 2, 4, and 9. When two panels are arranged end-to-end, as in FIGURE 4, the tapering marginals form a shallow longitudinal recess in the combined face thereof. The degree of taper in the panel margins is such that the depth of the median area of the recess exceeds by a slight margin the thickness of the panel engaging flanges 17a. In other words, the head of each securing device is received completely within a recess at the panel joint. When the wall is erected, a thin coating or layer of plaster or some appropriate wall mastic is applied to at least the recessed areas of the wall, bringing the surface of the wall in these areas into alignment with the untapered portions thereof and concealing the joints and securing devices. Preferably, preliminary to the application of the plaster coating, the joints and securing devices are covered by a strip of adhesive tape 26 perforated for bonding to the plaster. In this way, undue penetration of the plaster into the panel joints and the space between rows of panels is minimized. The entire surface of the panels may, of course, be given a light coating, which will be thicker at the recesses than elsewhere.
The metallic strip, indicated at 30, may be positioned horizontally at the floor level so as to resemble the normally used baseboard and this strip is supported by means of a special base clip which is generally indicated at 31 in FIGURE 5. It comprises a flat portion 31a of substantial area which is adapted to engage the face of the Z-shaped stud with which it is associated, face 31a having a lower offset portion 31b to provide space in the plane of the portion 31a for the upturned flange 22b of the bottom runner 22. Integral with the offset portion 31b is an outwardly extending floor engaging flange 310 which terminates in a spring tongue 31d having a downturned rib 31c which serves as a catch for the lower edge of the base strip 30. A forwardly extending flange 31 disposed normally to the flat portion 31a of the clip is provided with an upwardly extending part 31g which is designed to also engage the base strip 30 and support the same.
In FIGURE 3 the relationship of the base strip 30 and its supporting clip may be clearly perceived, the base strip having a turned-over upper margin 30a which embraces the upwardly extending part 31;; of the clip 31 and likewise having an inturned lower flange 3% with an upturned annular rib adapted to underlie the resilient flange 31d of the clip 31, the rib 30b being forced past the rib 31a of the clip 31 and rib 31c serving as a catch owing to the resiliency of the tongue portion 31d of the clip, the base strip 30 thus being retained in position.
It will be understood that one of the clips 31 will be aflixed to the lower end of each stud so that the base strip 30 will be supported at a number of points along its length. Each of these clips 31 is maintained in the position in which it is shown by reason of the fact that the portion 310 thereof rests directly upon the floor and the clip is provided with vertically spaced flanges 31m and 31in which extend around and embrace the stud, flange 31m embracing the terminal rib Zilc of the stud and flange 3112 closely engaging the web Ztla of the stud. The clip is applied to the stud by placing the flat portion 31a against the face of the stud while the clip as an entirety is arranged diagonally with respect to the stud so that the flanges 31m and 3111 clear the edges of the stud. The clip may then be turned so that the flanges 31m and 31m are in stud embracing position and then slid downwardly until portion 310 engages the floor whereupon it is definitely positioned. From an inspection of FIGURES 3 and 4 it will be observed that the lower edges of the corners of adjacent panels rest upon the upper surface of the horizontal fiat portion 310 of the clip 31 and the clip is further held in position by the very considerable pressure exerted by these panels.
As shown in FIGURE 7, a partition embodying the novel stud and panel securing devices may be built up with the panels so disposed that their greatest dimensions are horizontal instead of vertical, the securing devices being inserted through horizontal gaps or spaces between superposed panels instead of between vertically extending parallel edges of the panels as before, such an arrangement being illustrated in FIGURE 7. In this figure, the upper edge surface of a panel is indicated at 35, the panel securing device at 17, and stud at 20, the serrated edge 17.: of the securing device engaging the rib 20c of the Z stud and a tooth of the serrated edge engaging the edge of the rib 206. A primary purpose of the flange 20a of the stud 20 is to engage the securing device 17 in the manner described when it is desired to erect a partition structure with the major axes of the panels horizontally disposed.
At various points in the erection of a partition enibodying the elements described, it may be necessary to place studs intermediate the panel edges and to secure panels to such studs. In cases such as this, the securing devices 17 cannot be conveniently employed and it is necessary to pass securing devices through the panels and into the studs. A simple arrangement for making this possible is illustrated in FIGURE 10, the stud illustrated in section in that figure being shown to be vertically slotted as at 17s, the margins of the slots being inturned as shown. A securing device such as a nail or screw 38 may be passed through the panel and forced through the slot 17s, which is relatively narrow as compared with the diameter of the securing device 33, the securing device being thus firmly clamped by the stud after having been positioned. It will be appreciated that this method of securing the panels to the studs will be employed only where necessary, the edges of the panels being secured to the studs by the securing devices 17 and, in the ordinary case, it being necessary only to secure the panel edges in order to obtain a partition structure of entirely satisfactory type and amply strong for the purpose intended.
It is believed that the operations which must necessarily be performed in the erection of such partition structure have heretofore been :made clear. After it has been determined that a partition of the type described shall be erected in a certain location, the lower and upper runners 22 will be afiixed by suitable securing devices, these runners being generally in parallelism and one directly above the other. The Z studs are then positioned one by one at the proper intervals either being applied by vertically positioning each successive stud with the web and flanges as shown in FIGURE 6 and then rotating the stud in the manner previously described to its final position, or by properly locating one end of the stud while the stud is in an inclined position and thereafter swinging the stud about its located end to a vertical position in the plane of the runners. The several studs when so erected frictionally grip the runners and maintain their positions during the application of the panels and base board and, as previously explained, after the partition has been com pleted, the studs are held beyond all possibility of movement by the panels and the securing devices which connect the panels and studs. Such a partition comprises a minimum number of parts and the parts are of the simplest nature. The partitions, therefore, are of low cost insofar as material is concerned and a minimum amount of labor is necessary for its erection. The resulting structure is fire resistant, may be insulated and sound proofed by the application of mineral wool and the like between two parallel layers of panels. By covering at least the joints with plaster, the wall is given the appearance of a conventional fully plastered wall, a highly desirable feature for many applications, especially in view of the greatly reduced cost of the invention. If necessary, the wall can be disassembled without serious difliculty by breaking away the plaster coating at the joints. Upon reassembly at a diiferent location, a fresh coating is ap plied. Naturally, in adapting the invention to various situations, minor details of its component elements may be varied to meet existing circumstances.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. In a Wall structure capable of disassembly and reassembly, the combination of at least one longitudinal metallic stud having a pair of spaced parallel planar flange members and a web member extending between said flange members, at least one of said flange members having longitudinal slots therein, at least two panels mounted on said stud in generally end-to-end relationship with portions of their rear faces in contact with the slotted flange, the joint between the panel ends being in alignment with said slots, said panels having the adjacent marginal portions of their outer faces tapered inwardly toward their ends, the tapered marginal portions together defining a shallow V-shaped recess in the outer face of the wall with the joint between the panels at the bottom of said recess; a plurality of securing devices for maintaining the panels in place on the stud, each said device having an external panel engaging portion overlapping part of the tapered marginal portion of each panel and an internal portion passing through the joint at the panel ends and the aligned slot in said flange member, said external portion having a dimension perpendicular to the plane of the wall somewhat less than the depth of said recess and being wholly received with the confines of said recess, said internal portion being in engagement with the rear of said slotted flange member; and a coating of plaster over at least the tapered portion of said panels, filling said recess and concealing the joint and securing device, said slotted flange having inwardly directed tongues struck therefrom adjacent the ends of the slots, said tongues projecting away from said slots, the internal portion of said securing device enclosing a relatively inclined stud engaging edge having a plurality of teeth adapted to engage one of said tongues.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein said securing device is of unitary sheet metal construction and the external portion thereof is a single thickness of said sheet metal.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,161,764 11/1915 Doner 52--354 1,296,936 3/1919 Edwards 52356 1,564,455 12/1925 Stanbro 52362 1,657,332 1/1928 Absmeier 52--417 1,980,645 11/1934 Venzie 52377 2,048,981 7/1936 Vass 52-3S5 2,078,281 4/1937 Rowley et a1. 52434 2,476,506 7/1949 Olsen 52364 2,814,080 11/1957 Tvorik et a1 52417 2,881,877 4/1959 Olsen 52489 FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.
HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, JACOB L. NACKENOFF,
Examiners. I. L. RIDGILL, Assistant Examiner.