|Publication number||US3229755 A|
|Publication date||Jan 18, 1966|
|Filing date||Sep 24, 1963|
|Priority date||Sep 24, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3229755 A, US 3229755A, US-A-3229755, US3229755 A, US3229755A|
|Inventors||Robert S Komarow|
|Original Assignee||United Aircraft Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (24), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1966 R. s. KOMAROW HEAT TRANSFER CONTROL Filed Sept. 24, 1965 INVENTOR. Poss/QT 5, KOMHROW HTTORNEYS United States Patent 3,229,755 HEAT TRANSFER CONTROL Robert S. Komarow, Yonkers, N.Y., assignor to United Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford, Conn.-, a corporation of Delaware Filed Sept. 24, 1963, Ser. No. 311,142 6 Claims. (Cl. 165-32) My invention relates to a heat transfer control and more particularly to a device for controlling the temperature of a body Without the use of an external source of power.
Many devices are known in the prior art for controlling or regulating the temperature of a body. These devices employ some active means which adds heat by a separately powered heating element or the like or which removes heat by means of a separately powered refrigerating system. All of the devices of this type require a source of power which is external to the body being controlled.
There are many instances in which a body must be maintained at a given temperature but wherein power available is limited. There are other applications in which the control of temperature must be made without the use of convection as a mode of heat transfer owing to the absence of atmosphere. Examples of instances where power is not available or is limited and in which convection cannot normally be used as a mode of producing heat transfer are in satellites and missiles and the like.
I have invented a heat transfer control which permits regulation of the temperature of a body without requiring external power. My device does not require heat transfer by convection. My control is extremely rugged. It is simple in construction and operation for the result achieved thereby.
One object of my invention is to provide a heat transfer control which does not require a source of power.
Another object of my invention is to provide a heat transfer control which operates by conduction.
A further object of my invention is to provide a heat transfer control which is extremely rugged.
Still another object of my invention is to provide a heat transfer control which is simple in construction and operation for the result achieved thereby.
Other and further objects of my invention will appear from the following description.
In general my invention contemplates the provision of a heat transfer control for regulating the temperature of a body in which I couple the body to a heat sink through a variable heat conductor. Means responsive to the temperature of the controlled body varies the heat conductance of the variable conductor to regulate the rate at which heat leaves the controlled body.
In the accompanying drawing which forms part of the instant specification and which is to be read in conjunction therewith:
The figure is a diagrammatic sectional view of one form of my heat transfer control.
Referring now to the figure, my heat transfer control is adapted for use with a body 10, the temperature of which is to be regulated or controlled by the transfer of heat from the body to a heat sink 12. My transfer control comprises a housing 14 formed of conductive metal such as silver or copper or the like embedded within the controlled body 10. A stationary heat conductor 16 formed of similar metal in engagement with the body 10 connects the housing 14 to an intermediate housing section 18.
A heat conductor 20, similar to conductor 16, in intimate engagement with the heat sink 12 joins the intermediate housing portion 18 to a housing 22 embedded in the heat sink 12.
My control comprises a variable heat conductor element formed of heat conductive material indicated generally by the reference character 24, having a relatively large diameter portion 26 and a portion 28 of reduced diameter. It will readily be apparent that the portion 23 of the conductor 24 provides a relatively high resistance to the transfer of heat therealong as compared with the portion 26. I provide the conductors 16 and 20 with respective bores 30 and 32 which slidably receive the portions 26 and 28 of the conductor 24. An annular recess 34 in conductor 16 receives a conductive packing 36 adapted to provide reduced frictional resistance and low resistance to heat transfer from the conductor 16 to the conductor portion 26. The packing 36 may, for example, be fine silver or copper wire in the form of wire wool or silver or copper amalgam packed into the recess 34. Advantageously a thin film of polytetrafluoroethylene may be applied to the conducting surfaces of conductor 24 to reduce friction. Further, if amalgam is employed for packing the synthetic resin will prevent the mercury from reacting with the sliding surfaces of conductor 24. I form the conductor 20 with an annular recess 38 for receiving a conductive packing 40 similar to the packing 36, which ensures reduced friction and ready transfer of heat from the conductor 20 to the portion 28 of the conductor 24.
From the structure just described, it will readily be apparent that the variable conductor 24 is supported for sliding movement with relation to the stationary conductors 16 and 22 carried respectively by the body 10, the temperature of which is to be controlled and .by the heat sink 12 to which heat is to be conducted.
The housing 14 is formed with a reservoir 42 at its lower end. A conduit 44 connects the reservoir 42 to the interior of a bellows 46. A screw 48 mounted on the bellows 46 by any suitable means such as by welding, brazing or the like is threaded into the portion 26 of the variable conductor 24.
In the particular embodiment of my invention illustrated in the drawing, I fill the reservoir 42 with an expansible fluid such, for example, as mercury. A spring 50 disposed within the housing 22 acts on a plate 52 screwed on portion 28. The zero position of the device can be adjusted by turning plate 52 to position it on the portion 28 to regulate the force exerted on conductor :24 by the spring 50. A set screw 54 holds plate 52 in its adjusted position.
In operation of my heat transfer control, heat flows in the direction of the arrows along paths indicated by broken lines in the figure from the controlled body 10, through the conductor 16, through the packing 36, through the relatively low resistance portion 26 of conductor 24, through the relatively high resistance portion 28 of conductor 24, through packing 40 and through the fixed conductor 20 to the heat sink 12.
The rate of heat transfer by conduction between two points along a length of material is given by the relationship 1 2) A q s where s is the distance between the points t t is the temperature diiference between the points A is the cross sectional area k is the conductivity of the material With k expressed in cal./sec./ C./cm., q will be in caL/sec.
From the relationship given above it is clear that for a given length of material the rate of heat transfer along a rod of greater diameter will be higher than the rate along a rod of smaller diameter.
It will readily be apparent that the rate of heat transfer along this path from the body to the body 12 is determined by the relative lengths of the portions 26 and 28 disposed between the two fixed conductors 16 and 20. That is, if most of the space between the fixed conductors is occupied by the large diameter portion 26, the rate of heat transfer will be relatively great as compared with the rate when most of the space between the fixed conductors is occupied by the smaller diameter portion 28.
' Expressed another way, the portion of the conductor 24 between the fixed conductors 16 and 20 comprises a variable heat conductor, the value of which is determined by the position of the variable conductor 24.
The mercury within the reservoir 52 acts so as to position the conductor 24 to maintain the temperature of the body 10 at thedesired temperature. For example, assuming that the temperature of the body 10 rises to above the desired temperature, the mercury 52 within chamber 42 expands to expand the bellows 46 to move the conductor 24 upwardly as viewed in the figure. As the conductor 24 moves upwardly, a greater proportion of the space between the fixed conductors 16 and 20 is occupied by the portion 26 and the rate of flow of heat from the body 10 to the sink 12 is correspondingly increased. The effect of this increased rate of heat transfer is to reduce the temperature of the body 10.
Conversely, if the temperature of the body 10' drops below the desired temperature, mercury 52 contracts and spring 50 compresses the bellows 46 by moving the conductor 24 downwardly as viewed in the drawing. This movement of the conductor 24 downwardly results in portion 28 occupying a relatively greater percentage of the space between the fixed conductors 16 and 20 to produce a corresponding reduction in the rate of transfer of heat from body 10 to heat sink 12 to permit a corresponding increase in temperature of the body 10. The over-all result of the action of the mercury on the conductor 24 is to maintain the temperature of body 10 substantially constant.
While I have shown a form of my heat transfer control :wherein I employ the mercury reservoir 42 as the heat sensitive element, it will readily be apparent that I can as well use any other means for actuating the variable conductor such, for example, as an enclosed gas or a bimetallic strip or a solenoid or any other suitable control. It will further be clear that the control can be achieved by sensing the temperature of the heat sink rather than of the controlled object, if desired.
It will be seen that I have accomplished the objects of my invention. I have provided a heat transfer control which does not require a source of power. My heat transfer control does not rely on convection to achieve its purpose. It is extremely rugged so that it can withstand shocks incident to its use. It is simple and compact for the result achieved thereby.
It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are of utility and may be employed without reference to other features and subcombinations. This is contemplated by and is within the scope of my claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. A control for governing the heat transfer between two thermally conductivebodies separated by a relatively insulating space including in combination an elongated element of thermally conductive material, said element having a first length with a certain cross-sectional area providing a given heat transfer along said length and having a second length with a cross-sectional area less than said certain cross-sectional area providing a heat transfer along said second length less than said given heat transfer, thermally conductive means mounting the respective lengths for movement relative to said bodies and in heat transfer relationship therewith with the junction between said lengths in the space between the bodies and means responsive to the temperature of one of the bodies for positioning said junction in said space to regulate the heat transfer between the bodies through the element.
2. A device as in claim 1 in which said mounting means each comprises a conductive block and conductive packing between said block and the associated length to reduce the frictional resistance of said lengths to said sliding movement.
3. A device as in claim 1 in which said'temperature responsive means comprises an exipansible bellows connected between one of said lengths and the associated body and a thermally expansible fluid in said bellows and a spring disposed between the other of said lengths and its associated body and acting against said bellows.
4. A device for regulating the rate of heat transfer between two thermally conductive bodies separated by a relatively insulating space including in combination an elongated element having a first relatively highly thermally conductive length and a second relatively less conductive length, a heat conductive junction between the two lengths, thermally conductive means slidably mounting.
said first length for movement relative to one of said bodies and in heat transfer relationship therewith, thermally conductive means mounting the second length for sliding movement relative to the other of said bodies and in heat conductive relationship therewith whereby said junction is positionable in said space and means responsive to the temperature of one of said bodies for moving said element in the direction of its length to determine the position of said junction in said space to regulate the heat transfer between said bodies through said element.
5. A device for regulating the heat transfer between two thermally conductive bodies separated by a relatively insulating space including in combination an elongated element having a first relatively highly thermally conductive length and a second relatively less conductive length, said lengths connected by a thermally conductive junction, thermally conductive means coupling said first length to one of said bodies in heat transfer relationship therewith, thermally conductive means coupling the second length to the other of said bodies in heat transfer relationship therewith whereby said junction is in said space and means for moving said element in the direction of its length.
6. A device for regulating the heat transfer between two thermally conductive bodies separated by a relatively insulating space including in combination an elongated element formed of the same conductive material throughout, said element having a certain cross-sectional area over a first length thereof providing a given heat transfer along said length and having a cross-sectional area less than said certain area over a second length thereof providing a heat transfer less than said given heat transfer along said second length, means thermally conductively connecting said element to said bodies with the junction between said lengths in said space and means for moving said element in the direction of its length.
(References on following page) References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Beler 23699 Mott 62-50 X Widstrom 23 6-1 Davidson et a1. 23699 Ferranti 126211 Winfield 62-159 Smelling 236--1 6 OTHER REFERENCES Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 38th ed., Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1956, pp. 1460, 1461.
ROBERT A. OIJEARY, Primary Examiner.
ALDEN D. STEWART, CHARLES SUKALO,
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|U.S. Classification||165/277, 62/383, 236/1.00R, 165/96, 374/E05.19, 236/DIG.120|
|International Classification||G01K5/32, F25D19/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F25D19/006, G01K5/32, Y10S236/12|