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Publication numberUS3231894 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 25, 1966
Filing dateJun 21, 1961
Priority dateJun 23, 1960
Publication numberUS 3231894 A, US 3231894A, US-A-3231894, US3231894 A, US3231894A
InventorsKiyoshi Nagai
Original AssigneeSony Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Zigzag antenna
US 3231894 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 25, 1966 KlYOSHl NAGA] 3,231,894

ZIGZAG ANTENNA Filed June 21. 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Imzeni'cu:

Kl'goslu Nagaj United States Patent 3,231,894 ZIGZAG ANTENNA Kiyoshi N agai, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, Japan, assignor to Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, a corporation of Japan Filed June 21, 1961, Ser. No. 118,615 Claims priority, application Japan, June 23, 1960,

35/ 29,211 3 Claims. (Cl. 343-806) This inventionrelates to antennas and, more particularly, to a zigzag antenna quencies.

One object of this invention is to provide a zigzag antenna which is relatively short in length and effective in operation.

A further object of this invention is to provide a zigzag antenna having a pair of antenna elements which are formed by printing a zigzag conductive layer on a base plate.

An antenna constructed in accordance with the invention and designed to operate over a given range of frequencies comprises a base plate having first and second flat surfaces on opposite sides. First and second antenna elements are fastened to the firstside of the base plate and third and fourth antenna elements are fastened to the second side of the base plate. Each of the first and second antenna elements has an input end substantially at the center of the first side and are folded in generally zigzag fashion in the direction of the opposite ends of the base plate. The third and fourth antenna elements have input ends at substantially the center of the base plate and are folded in the direction of the opposite ends of the 'base plate. The outer ends of the first and third antenna elements are connected together and the outer ends of the second and fourthantenna elements are connected together. The input ends of the third and fourth elements are all connected together.

Other objects,'features and advantages of this invention will become fully apparent from the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying figures of the drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating an antenna construction;

FIGURE 2 is a perspective view of another antenna structure wherein the antenna elements are applied to a base plate; a i t FIGURES 3 and 4 illustrate schematically variations of the antenna shown in FIGURE l; i i t FIGURE 5 illustrates a folded zigzag antenna constructed in accordance with this invention;

FIGURE 6 includes curves showing some characteristics of a zigzag antenna constructed in accordance with this invention;

FIGURE 7 includes curves showing other characteristics of an antenna constructed in accordance with this invention; and

FIGURE 8 shows some characteristics of the antenna illustrated in FIGURE 5.

Referring now to FIG. 1, on substantially the same plane is provided a pair of antenna elements 1a and 1b which are formed by folding conductive wires in zigzag fashion, and which are arranged opposite to each other in the advance direction of folding. The inner ends 2a and 2b of the elements 1a and 1b, respectively, are feeding points while the outer ends 3a and 3b are open circuited. The portion of each antenna element between the two ends is folded in one plane to give it a height D and a length L. The length L of the zigzag antenna elements In and 1b and the height D are made substantially less than M4, i. being the wave length of an 3,231,894 Patented Jan. 25, 1966 electromagneticwave at a predetermined frequency within a range of frequencies for which the antenna is de signed.

The antenna elements may be composed of a conductive wire, conductive plate or conductive pipe, but it may preferably be constructed of a conductive layer 5 on a base plate 4 of an insulating material such as Bakelite or the like. The print wiring has a predetermined width d as shown in FIGURE 2. Thus both antenna elements for use at short wave fre- 1a and 1b may easily be arranged on substantially the same plane.

The shape of the antenna elements may be made either in a sawtooth form having a sharp triangular top as shown in FIGURE 3 or a sawtooth form having a flat top as shown in FIGURE 4.

, FIGURE 5 shows another form of an antenna wherein two antenna elements In and 1b are also arranged on the back face of the insulation base plate 4 along with the front pair of the antenna elements 1a and 1b. The two outer ends 3a and 3a are connected together by a conducting strip 6a and the two ends 3b and 3b are connected together by a strip 6b. The inner ends of the two elements 1a and 1b are connected together by a strip 60.

When an antenna element folded zigzag in the manner described above is used, a zero phase current is distributed on it, so that the length from trough to trough of the current distribution is shortened. That is, just when the zero phase current of M2 gets on the antenna elements 1a and 1b along the zigzag direction, the wavelength is much diminished or contracted; on the other hand, the phase velocity along the antenna elements be comes higher so that the wave length is extended. When using a zigzag antenna having a resonant frequency in the range of about to megacycles in which the print wiring is eifected on the insulation base plate 4 as shown in FIGURE 2, and D is 5 cm. and L is 20 cm., as shown in FIGURE 2, the rates of extension and contraction are shown by curves 7 and 8, respectively, in FIGURE 6. The abscissa indicates the interval between adjacent antenna elements, namely the pitch W and the ordinate indicates the rates of contraction and extension in percentage.

The input impedance and the standing wave ratio characteristics when the pitch W is 2 mm. are shown in FIGURE 7. In this figure, the abscissa is the frequency f in megacycles and the ordinate is the equivalent input series resistance R, the equivalent series reactance component X and the standing wave ratio SWR with a load resistance of 100 ohms. The resistance R, the reactive impedance X, and the standing wave ratio are shown by curves 9, 10 and 11 respectively. It is apparent from these curves that the characteristic of this antenna are similar to that of a dipole antenna made of a metal rod of /2 In the case of a folded antenna of the type shown in FIGURE 5, wherein the height D is 5 cm., length L is 20 cm. and the pitch W of the zigzag antenna is 2 mm., and the print wiring is effected on both faces of the base plate 4, its characteristics are shown by the curves in FIGURE 8 when the antenna elements 1a, 1b, 1a and 1b are short circuited in such a way that the entire length of the complete antenna is cm. In this figure, the abscissa is expressed in frequency f in megacycles, the ordinate is the equivalent input series resistance R, the equivalent series reactance X, and the standing Wave ratio with a load resistance of 100 ohms; these are shown by curves 12, 13 and 14, respectively. It is apparent from these figures that the characteristic of this antenna is similar to that of the folded dipole antenna and the standing wave ratio is kept within 6 over the range from 100 to 140 megacycles, which presents a very excellent characteristic.

The above description has been made mainly in connection with an embodiment wherein the antenna elements are arranged on the print base plate 4 and have the configuration shown in FIGURE 4, but by varying its shape properly, many types of antennas having various characteristics may be produced. Furthermore, if the print base, on both sides of which the zigzag antenna elements can be composed, is employed, it can be mass produced at a lower price. The antenna may be provided with the desired positive phase transmission characteristic, so that antennas applicable to various uses may easily be manufactured. By applying a dielectric, a magnetic substance or the like as the material of the print plate, the antenna can be reduced in size, and a particular antenna may be made thereby. It is of course desirable to use the print base plate for the purpose of making the antenna strong. In the case of the folded antenna, a variable frequency type antenna may be constructed by changing the short circuit point of the positive-phase current. In other words, the elements 1a and 1a, and the elements 1b and 1b, can be connected together at a point closer to the feed point 2a by a suitable jumper.

It will be apparent that modifications and variations may be effected without departing from the scope of the novel concepts of this invention.

I claim as my invention:

1. An antenna structure designed to operate over a given range of frequencies comprising a base plate having first and second fiat surfaces on opposing sides of said base plate, first and second antenna elements fastened to said first side of said base plate and third and fourth antenna elements fastened to said second side of said base plate, each of said first and second antenna elements having an input end at substantially the center of said first side and being folded in zigzag fashion in the direction of opposite ends of said base plate, said third and fourth antenna elements having input ends at substantially the center of said base plate and being folded in the direction of said opposite ends of said base plate, the outer ends of said first and third antenna elements being connected together and the outer ends of said second and fourth antenna elements being connected together, and the input ends of said third and fourth antenna elements being connected together.

2. An antenna structure designed to operate over a given range of frequencies comprising a base plate having first and second fiat surfaces on opposing sides of said base plate, first and second antenna elements fastened in printed circuit fashion to said first side of said base plate and third and fourth antenna elements fastened in printed circuit fashion to said second side of said base plate, each of said first and second antenna elements having an input end substantially at the center of said first side and being folded in zigzag fashion in the direction of opposite ends of said base plate, said third and fourth antenna elements having input ends at substantially the center of said base plate and being folded in the direction of said opposite ends of said base plate, the outer ends of said first and third antenna elements being connected together and the outer ends of said second and fourth antenna elements being connected together, and the input ends of said third and fourth antenna elements being connected together.

3. An antenna structure designed to operate over a given range of frequencies comprising a base plate of insulating material having first and second flat surfaces on opposing sides of said base plate, first and second antenna elements fastened in printed circuit fashion to said first side of said base plate and third and fourth antenna elements fastened in printed circuit fashion to said second side of said base plate with the height and length of each of said antenna elements being less than one fourth of a wave length over said given range of frequencies, each of said first and second antenna elements having an input end substantially at the center of said first side and being folded in zigzag fashion in the direction of opposite ends of said base plate, said third and fourth antenna elements having input ends at substantially the center of said base plate and being folded in the direction of said opposite ends of said base plate, the outer ends of said first and third antenna elements being connected together and the outer ends of said second and fourth antenna elements being connected together, and the input ends of said third and fourth antenna elements being connected together.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,412,249 12/1946 Brown et al. 343705 2,472,106 6/ 1949 Hansen 343--824 2,990,547 6/1961 McDougal 343--908 X 3,013,268 12/1961 Du Hamel et al. 343908 X 3,020,550 2/ 1962 Beever 343-795 FOREIGN PATENTS 533,153 11/1954 Belgium.

864,707 1/ 3 Germany. 1,019,717 11/1957 Germany.

743,794 1/ 1956 Great Britain.

244,731 5/ 1947 Switzerland.

HERMAN KARL SAALBACH, Primary Examiner.

ELI LIEBERMAN, Examiner.

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Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification343/806
International ClassificationH01Q11/04, H01Q11/00
Cooperative ClassificationH01Q11/04
European ClassificationH01Q11/04