US 3231941 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 1, 1966 J. FLYNN, JR 3,231,941
CARDING' APPARATUS Filed Oct. 23, 1962 United States Patent 3,231,941 CARDING APPARATUS William J. Flynn, Jr., Tiverton, R.I., assignor to Ashworth Bfios ttlnc, Fall River, Mass, a corporation of Massac use s Filed Oct. 23, 1962, Ser. No. 232,432 7 Claims. (Cl. 19106) This invention relates to apparatus for carding textile fibers and more particularly to improved card clothing.
In such apparatus it is desirable to securely retain the fibers between the carding teeth until they are removed by suitable means at the appropriate location and to insure uniform tension and distribution of fibers across the web. Otherwise there may be thick and thin areas and possibly stretched or broken fibers in the web. The problem of retention of the fibers between the carding teeth is particularly acute on the dotfer roll immediately before they are removed in the normal manner by the usual oscillating comb. The pull exerted by the calender rolls on the web frequently causes some of the fibers to fall prematurely away from the surface of the doifer before they are acted upon by the teeth of the oscillating comb. This is particularly true where rigid metallic teeth are employed which do not flex to compensate for tension on the fibers.
Conventional metallic teeth with substantially smooth sides frequently permit serious falling away of the fibers from between the teeth. It has been suggested heretofore to roughen the sides of metallic teeth assertedly to make the sides of the teeth participate more effectively in the carding action. While roughening the sides of the teeth increases the tendency to hold the fibers against premature removal, it creates excessive resistance to re: moval of the fibers by the comb thereby causing stretching or breaking of the fibers Moreover, roughness on both sides results in the retention between the teeth of quantities of seeds, trash and other foreign matter Such lodging of foreign materials between the teeth materially diminishes their effectiveness in the carding operation and necessitates frequent stopping of the machinery to clean the teeth. Cleaning is usually effected by brushing or otherwise stripping the foreign material from between the teeth. This action erodes the roughened surface thereby requiring frequent regrinding or replacement of the teeth. Still further, the carding teeth are frequently bent or otherwise damaged by the insertion of foreign material during carding or its removal during cleaning thereby further increasing the cost and loss of time due to maintenance or replacement of the clothing.
To overcome the disadvantages of the prior art it is an object of the present invention to provide improved carding teeth having rough and smooth side surfaces facing each other between adjoining rows of teeth to provide effective retention of the fibers between the teeth with a minimum of collection of foregin matter and to require less frequent maintenance and replacement of the teeth.
Another object of the invention is to provide improved doffer teeth which retain the fibers between the teeth until they are removed by the comb thereby resulting in a uniform web while minimizing the retention of foreign matter between the dotfer teeth.
In general, the invention relates to an apparatus for carding textile fibers which comprises a plurality of spaced rows of rigid metallic carding teeth defining channels therebetween extending in the direction of movement of the teeth, each of said teeth having a tip, front and rear edges and a pair of side faces generally parallel to said rows, the faces of said teeth on one side of each of said channels having working surfaces defining a 3,231,941 Patented Feb. 1, 1966 plurality of spaced rough edges to resist movement of fibers thereacross, the faces of said teeth on the other side of each of said channels having substantially smooth working surfaces to permit foreign material to slide freely thereacross. Preferably each tooth is rough on one side and smooth on the other.
The invention having been generally described, specific embodiments thereof will now be set forth in detail with reference to the accompanying drawing in which:
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary sectional view of 'a doffer roll having metallic teeth cooperating with a conventional comb;
FIGURE 2 is an isometric view of a short length of Garnett wire teeth according to the invention wherein the teeth are roughened on one side face only;
FIGURE 3 is an isometric view of the same teeth shown in FIGURE 2 illustrating the smooth surface on the opposite side of the teeth;
FIGURE 4 is a vertical section taken along the line 44 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 5 is a vertical section of Garnett wire teeth in accordance with a modified form of the invention; and
FIGURE 6-is a vertical section of a pair of Garnett wire teeth of the type shown in FIGURE 4 in the relationship to each other which they occupy in adjoining rows on the doffer roll.
Shown in the drawings is a fragmentary segment of a doffer roll 11 cooperating with the usual oscillating comb 12. The general construction and operation of the dofler and the comb are well known to the art. These and other components of a conventional carding machine on which the invention may be employed are illustrate-d for example in Gegaulf et al. Patent 1,658,714. Consequently, the details of the conventional machinery, forming no part of the present invention, will not be discussed at length.
Garnett wire 13 is helically wrapped around the outer surface of the doffer roll 11 in the usual manner. The Garnett wire 13 provides a plurality of rigid metallic teeth 14 of a general configuration well known to the art. It will be understood that the invention is not limited to Garnett wire teeth but is useful with all types of card clothing employing rigid metallic teeth. I
A web of fibers 15 is shown in FIGURE 1 on the rotating doifer 11 after having been subjected to the usual carding operation on the cylinder and the doffer. The fibers lie between the doffer teeth 14 until they reach the vicinity of the comb 12 and then move away from the doifer in response to the pull of the usual calender rolls, not shown. The comb 12 which is osciallated in the conventional manner acts upon the fibers at the location where they are separated from the doffer. The action of the comb teeth facilitates removal of the fibers from between the dotfer teeth uniformly across the dolfer without damage to the fibers.
The'doffer teeth 14 have side surfaces 16 and 17, a tip 18 and front and rear'edg'es 19 and 20, respectively. To insure that the fibers are not prematurely separated from the doffer before they reach the comb, the dolfer teeth are provided with rough and smooth surfaces facing each other between adjoining rows of teeth. For example, as shown in FIGURE 2, one face 16 of each of the teeth may be provided with a plurality of spaced grooves or scores 21 extending in the same general direction as the movement of the teeth. The grooves or scores may be formed, for example, by rotating an emery disc in contact with the face of the teeth. Thus, the grooves 21 provide a plurality of spaced rough edges which tend to resist movement of the fibers across the tooth surface. It will be understood that any mode of roughening the faces of the teeth is within the contempla- "ice tion of the invention, and the spaced rough edges may be provided by means other than grooves or scores. For example, the sides of the teeth may be knurled or sand blasted or they can be coated with a fine abrasive such as emery. Thus, the rough edges may be in the nature of lines, such as are produced by scoring, or points which would be presented by an abrasive coating. The pattern of roughness may be uniform or random.
The opposite faces 17 of the teeth 14 are substantially smooth as shown in FIGURE 3. The rough and smooth faces on opposite sides of the teeth 14 are effectively shown in the cross sectional view of FIGURE 4. These teeth are mounted 011 the dofler 11 in rows extending parallel to the direction of movement of the teeth as the dotfer rotates. The direction of rotation is indicated by the arrow in FIGURE 1. Thus, each of the channels '22 which lie between adjoining rows of teeth is faced on one side by smooth tooth surfaces 17 and on the other side by rough tooth surfaces 16. Consequently, the resistance to fiber movement across the teeth due to the roughness occurs only on one side of each channel 22. On the other side of each channel the fibers are free to slide against the smooth surface of the teeth. Nevertheless, the fibers are effectively retained between the teeth across the entire channel by the single roughened side together with their frictional resistance to movement across each other. The fibers are thus retained between the teeth until they are removed uniformly across the width of the doffer by the comb 12 assisted by the pull of the calender rolls. As a consequence, there is a minimum of stretching or breaking of fibers and non uniform distribution across the web which is the inevitable result of premature separation from the doffer. It has been found that the combination of one rough tooth face and one smooth tooth face opposing each other across the channel 22 not only retains the fibers between the teeth but permits seeds, trash and other foreign matter to drop out of the channels 22. Thus, less frequent brushing or otherwise stripping the teeth is required, resulting in longer retention of the rough edges and longer tooth life.
The type of tooth shown in FIGURE 4 which has one rough side face and one smooth side face is preferred. Where the roughness is limited to one side of the tooth, the scores or grooves may be deeper without unduly weakening the teeth. Scores on both sides may be only half as deep in order to maintain the same effective thickness of tooth for strength purposes. The teeth are generally subjected to a hardening treatment and the roughness on one side only diminishes the chances of fracture due to such treatment. Moreover, the deeper scores or grooves retain their rough edges longer and require less frequent regrinding. As shown in FIGURE 6 each channel between rows of the teeth 14 is defined by the roughened face of the teeth in one row and the smooth face of the teeth in the adjoining row.
The alternative form shown in FIGURE 5, however, may be employed with effectiveness. In this embodiment, rows of teeth 23 which are rough on both side faces alternate with rows of teeth 24 which are substantially smooth on both side faces.
This construction also results in rough and smooth tooth faces opposing each other across each of the channels 22. It will be understood that the character of the roughness of the teeth 23 is the same as that described with respect to the teeth 14.
There has been illustrated and described what are considered to be preferred specific embodiments of the invention. It will be understood, however, that various modifications may be made by persons skilled in the art without departing from the scope of the invention which is defined solely by the appended claims.
1. In an apparatus for carding textile fibers a doffer roll, a comb cooperable with said doffer roll to separate the fibers from the surface of said roll, and a plurality of spaced rows of rigid metallic teeth mounted on the surface of said roll and defining channels therebetween extending in the direction of movement of the teeth, each of said teeth having a tip, front and rear edges and a pair of side faces generally parallel to said rows, the faces of said teeth on one side of each of said channels having working surfaces defining a plurality of spaced rough edges to resist movement of fibers thereacross, the faces of said teeth on the other side of each of said channels having substantially smooth working surfaces to permit foreign material to slide freely thereacross.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1 wherein some rows of said teeth have said substantially smooth working surfaces on both sides, other rows of said teeth have said rough working surfaces on both sides, and said some rows alternate with said other rows.
3. An apparatus according to claim 2 wherein said rough edges are defined by a plurality of grooves in the respective side faces.
4. An apparatus according to claim 1 wherein each of said rows of teeth have said substantially smooth working surfaces on one side and said rough working surfaces on the other side.
5. An apparatus according to claim 4 wherein said rough edges are defined by a plurality of grooves in the respective side faces.
6. An apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said rough edges are defined by a plurality of grooves in the respective side faces of said teeth.
7. An apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said teeth are defined by Garnett wire helically wrapped around the surface of said roll.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 210,222 11/1878 Pendleton 1997 1,530,285 3/1925 Allen 1997 2,937,412 5/1960 Hollingsworth 19-l 14 DONALD W. PARKER, Primary Examiner.
RUSSELL C. MADER, Examiner.