|Publication number||US3234138 A|
|Publication date||Feb 8, 1966|
|Filing date||Jun 25, 1964|
|Priority date||Jun 25, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3234138 A, US 3234138A, US-A-3234138, US3234138 A, US3234138A|
|Inventors||Carroll Frank E, Sepulveda Ralph R|
|Original Assignee||Lever Brothers Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (20), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,234,138 CLEAR, UNIFQRM LIQUID DETERGENT COMPOSITION Frank E. Carroll, Wyclrofi, N.J., and Ralph R. Sepulveda,
Bronx, N.Y., assignors to Lever Brothers Company,
New York, N .Y., a corporation of Maine No Drawing. Filed June 25, 1964; Ser. No. 378,028
3 Claims. (Cl. 252110) This applicationis a continuation-in-part of our copending application Serial No. 697, filed I anuary 6, 1960, and now abandoned.
The present invention pertains to detergent compositions, and more particularly to liquid detergent composi tions especially adapted: forthe cleansing of hard surfaces.
Liquid detergent compositions for the cleansing of hard surfaces, such as walls, floors, woodwork and kitchen appliances, should be uniform in order to achieve optimum cleaning and customer acceptance. When such cleansers are formulated from an ethanolamide nonionic detergent and an inorganic phosphate in an aqueous medium, the resulting formulations are not uniform liquids, but rather they are heterogeneous liquids or'gels or solids. If high molecular weight soaps, i.e., alkali metal salts of fatty acids having at least 16 carbon atoms, are added to such formulations in an attempt to make them uniform liquids, the resulting formulations are still not uniform liquids.
This is clearly illustrated by the eight examples set forth below in Table 1. Examples 1 through 4 show detergent formulations containing an inorganic phosphate and an ethanolamide nonionic detergent in water and Examples 5 through 8 show such compositions to which a high molecular weight soap has been added. All of the formulations of Examples 1 through 8 were heterogeneous" liquids or gels or solids at room temperature of about-80 F. The amounts of the components are expressed in percent by weight of the compositions.
TABLE 1 ExampleNo "1 2 a 4 5'6 7 8 Sodium palmitate Sodium stearate.
preferred object of the invention to provide hard surfaceliquidcleansers which are substantially clear and uniform and have a viscosity which can be varied from about 3 centipoises to about 10,000 centipoises.
It was found that the above problems could be solved and the objects of the invention met provided a low molecular weight soap, and in the preferred embodiment of the invention a low molecular weight soap plus a high molecular weight soap, are added to an inorganic phosphate and an ethanolamide nonionic detergent in an aqueous medium. The compositions of the invention, therefore, are substantially clear uniform liquid detergent compositions consisting essentially of anaqueous solution of an inorganic phosphate, an ethanolamide nonionic detergent, and at least one low molecular weight soap or at least one low molecular weight soap plus at least one high molecular weight soap.
3,234,138 Patented Feb. 8, 1966- the compositions of the invention, because the resulting compositions are heterogeneous liquids or gels or solids. at room temperature: lauric monoethanolamide, myristic monoethanolamide, tallow monoethanolamide, stearic diethanolamide and lauric isopropanolamide.
The low molecular weight soap component acts as a hydrotrope to solubilize the ethanolamide nonionic detergent in the presence of the, inorganic phosphate and to solubilize any high molecular weight soap present in the compositions. The low molecular weight soap component is a water-soluble alkali metal fatty acid soap One or more of.
having from 6 to 14 carbon atoms. such low molecular weight soaps may be present in the compositions. Typical useful low molecular weight soaps include sodium and potassium caproate, caprylate, caprate, laurate, and myristate.
The remaining essential component of the compositions'is the solvent medium, namely water.
The amounts of the components present in the compositions will vary depending upon the specific phosphate, ethanolamide nonionic detergent, and low molecular weight soap employed in formulating the compositions. In general, however, as the amount of phosphate is increased, the amount of low molecular weight soap must also be increased except for the shorter chain length low molecular weight soaps. Also as a general rule the amount of low molecular weight soap and ethanolamide nonionic detergent is increased when shorter chain length.
low molecular weight soaps are used. A further general principle in determining the amounts of the components present in the compositions of the invention is that as the amount of phosphate is increased, the longer chain length low molecular weight soaps become less effective as hydrotropes or solubilizing agents.
Taking the above variables into consideration, the amount of phosphate is from about 5% to about 20% by weight, andpreferably about 10% by weight, of the composition. The amount of low molecular weight soap' isfrom about 1% to about 15% by weight of the composition. The amount of caprylic monoethanolamide or capric monoethanolamide is from about 1.5% to about 7% by weight of the composition, the amount of oleic monoethanolamide is from about 1.5% to about 13% by weight of the composition, while the amount of caprylic diethanolamide, capric diethanolamide, lauric diethanolamide, myristic diethanolamide, palmitic diethanolamide or oleic diethanolamide is from about 1.5% to about 16% by weight of the composition. In view of the above mentioned variables the above amounts of phosphate, soap and ethanolamide are further adjusted to maintain. the composition substantially clear and uniform.
Some of the liquid detergent compositions of the invention will have a viscosity as low as about 3 or 4 centipoises. Such compositions are thin liquids which have the advantage of spreading rapidly in use. Such thin liquids, however, have some disadvantages in that they drip from the spoutof the container on pouring and give the false impression of being watery and weak. While.
this condition is only true of some of the compositions of the invention, it nevertheless is desirable to be able to regulate the viscosity of the compositions to a higher 7 5 level where desired. i
This is achieved. by adding a high molecular weight] soap to the compositions. The high molecular weight. soap increases the viscosity of the compositions and-con tributes of the detergency and grease emulsification-propertiesthereof. They also serve to provide the proper suds desirable in a hard surface cleanser.
The high molecular weight soap component is a watersoluhle alkali metal fatty acid soap having at least r16 carbon atoms and'in general from 16'to 18 carbon atoms. Typical examples thereof are sodium and potassium palmitate, stearate and ole'aten If desired, one or 'more of such .highmolecular weight soaps can beused. Thus,
the soaps produced from the naturally occurring mixture of fatty acids present in tallow can be utilized.
The high molecular weight soap component constitutes a. small amount .of the compositions. In general, theamount is not higher than about 10% by Weightrofthe composition. Usually the amount thereof is not over about 5% by weight. molecular weight soap component is from about 1% to about'4% byweight. l
Various compatible adjuvants can also be present in the compositions of the invention. Typical of such materials are perfumes, dyes, preservatives, wetting agents, 5 30 storage stabilizers, and auxiliary hydrotropes.
The compositions are-readily prepared by merely mix-. ing the components thereoftogether.
The compositions of the invention 1 will be further illustrated by the following examples.- In theseexamples 35 the amounts of the components are'expresed in percent by weight of the total composition. All of the composi-;
The preferred amount of the high TABLEES Example No 2 25. f 26.. 27; 2s '29- 'Ietrapotassium pyrophos, I a
phate-. 5 20; 5 20' 5 20 Lauric'diethanolamide; 2.8 1 2 5.6 2.4 10.5 6 sodiumlauratefl 1. 2 2 2. 4 5. 6 4. 5 9 Water 91 76 87 72 80 65 Viscosity--- 140 16 290- 510 395 370 tions in these examples were substantially clear uniform liquid detergent compositions which readily functioned. as hard surface cleansers. The term substantially clear means that the compositions at room temperature of about 80 were in most every instance completely clear, although in a few instances the compositions were faintly hazy due tosuspended particles or.a. small amount of sediment which was. readily removable? -by filtration 'to; yield a clear product: The viscositiesset forthitherein were measured with a Brookfield viscosimeter Model :LVF.
Examples 9 through 11in Table :2 below disclose the use ,of the sodium caproateasthe hydrotrope on solubilizing agent in compositionsgcontaining tetrapotassium.
Examples: 12 through 17 in. Table 3 below-illustrate the use of sodium caprylate asithe hydrotrope in aqueous tetrapotassium pyrophosphate-lauric diethanolamide ,de-
TABLE 3 Example No. 12 13 i 14 i 15 16 I 17 Tetrapotassium pyrophosphatc V 5 20. 5 20 5 20 Laurie diethanolamide 2. 8 2.8 2 2 12 10. 5 Sodium caprylate 1. 2 1. 2 2 2 3 4. 5
er 91 76. 91 76 80 65 viseosityflu 7.5 6.5 3.0 4.0 23.0 15.5
i Examples 42 .and43 in Table 8 depict the 'use of penta- In Table .4 below Examples- 18 throughv :23 illustrate. the" use .of sodium caprate' as thel-hydrotropeiin tetr'a-.-
potassium, pyrophosphate-lauric diethanolamide aqueous liquid detergent compositions.
TABLEI 4 Example No. 183- 19 I 20 21 I 22 2a Tetrapotassiurn pyrophosphate. 5 10; 20 5 1' 20 ,Lauric diethanolamide 6.4 5.6" 4.8. 1.6 1.6 1.6 'Sodiumcaprate- 1.6 2.4 f3.2 6.4 6.4 6.4 ater 87' i 82 72 87 82 72 Viscosity 63 27 44 4. 0 4. 5. 5
In Table, =5fbelow Examples; 24. through 29"illustrate the: use of sodium laurate as the .low' molecular weight soap hydrotropein tetrapotassium pyrophosphate lauric. -diethanolamide aqueous detergent compositions.
Examples 30 and=31i in T able 6 belowjshow theusef ofsodiummyristate as the hydrotrope in tetrapotassium pyrophosphatei-lauric i diethanolamide liquid i'detergent. 2
compositions. 1 I
TABLE-E6 Example No: i 30 31' Tetrapotassium pyrophospl1ate 5 10 Laurie diethanolamide; 4.8 3.2 Sodiummyristate. 3. 2 4. 8 Water; 87 82- Viscosity 500 1, 550
InTable ;-7 belowrthere are ,set forth Examples .32 through '41 which illustratethe-use of-variousjfatty acid ethanolamides as the nonionic detergent component of; the substantially clear uniform liquiddete gfint compositions of the invcntion.
7 TABLE 7 Example No 22 33 34- i 35 as 37- "as 39 40-; .4 1
Tetrapotasslum pyr0 g phosphate 5 20 5 20 5 20, 5 20 5 20. Caprylic monoethanol j amide' 4 4 Oleie monoethanolamidc. Caprylic diethanolarnide Caprie diethano1amide I potassium tripolyphosphate .as the phosphate component and the, use of-a low molecular weight potassium soap; as I the hydrotrope in the substantially cle'ar uniform liquid detergent compositions;
TABLE I8 Example No A 42. 43
Pentapotassium tripolyphosphate 10 10 Laurie diethanolamide 4 4 Sodium caprylate 3 Potassium caprylate. 3
Water 1 83" 83 Viscosity; 4 6
In Table 9 below -Examples: 44= through. 46" show that the compositions can contain more than one low molecu-l' larweight soap as the vhydrotrope component, thereof.
TABLE 9 Exaple No Tetrapotassiumpyrophosphate Laurie diethanolamide Sodium caprate- Sodium laurate. Water 7 The numerous examples above amply show that substantially clear uniform liquid detergent compositions can be formed from an aqueous medium containing aninorganic phosphate and an ethanolamide nonionic detergent provided there is included therein at least one low molecular weight soap. The examples further show that the viscosities of such compositions can be readily adjusted to a rangefrom'about'4to about 10,000 centipoises by the incorporation therein of an additional component, namely at least one high molecular weight soap.
It will be appreciated that numerous modifications and variations can be made in the compositions of the invention without departing from the spirit thereof. Accord- TABLE 10 Example No 47 48 49 50 t 51 1 52 53 54 55 Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate. 5 10 5 10 20 5 10 20 Lauriee dicthanolamide 2. 4 4 2. 4 6 6 7. 5 4 3. 2 1. 6 Sodium caprate 0. 8 1. 2 1. 6 3 3 2. Sodium laurate 1. 6 3. 2 4. 8 Sodium tallow soap. 4. 8 2. 8 4 6 6 5. 25 2. 4 1. 6 1. 6 Water 87 82 72 80 75 65 87 82 72 Viscosity 10, 000 570 6, 500 550 6, 600 580 4, 250 630 1, 390
In Table 11 below Examples 56 through 60 further show the use of a high molecular weight soap, namely sodium palmitate, to form high viscosity, substantially clear, uniform liquid detergent compositions.
TABLE 11 Example N0 56 57 58 59 50 'Ietrapotassium pyrophosphate 5 10 20 5 10 Laurie dinthanolamide 4 4 2. 4 2. 4 3. 2 Sodium caprate i 0.8 0. 8 0. 8 Sodium myristate 4. 8 4 Sodium palmitate-.. 3. 2 r 3. 2 4.8 0. 8 0.8 Water 87 82 72 87 32 4O Viscosity 3,900 1, 720 2, 360 3,800 1,240
Example 61 below demonstrates that the compositions can contain various compatible adjuvants.
Addition exemplary compositions of the invention which were substantially clear uniform liquids are set forth in Table 12 below by Examples 62 through 74.
ingly, the invention is to be limited only within the scope of the appended claims. What is claimed is:
1. A substantially clear, uniform liquid detergent composition consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of (1) from about 5% to about 20% by weight of a potassium phosphate selected from the group consisting of tetrapotassium pyrophosphate and peutapotassium tripolyphosphate (2) from about 1% to about 15% by weight of a water-soluble alkali metal fatty acid soap having from 6 to 14 carbon atoms, and (3) an ethanolamide nonionic detergent selected from the group consisting of (a) from about 1.5% to about 7% by weight of caprylic monoethanolamide, and capric monoethanolamide, (b) from about 1.5% to about 13% by weight of oleic monoethanolamide and (c) from about 1.5% to about 16% by weight of caprylic diethanolamide, capric diethanolamide, lauric diethanolamide, myristic diethanolamide, palmitic diethanolamide and oleic diethanolamide; the above amounts of phosphate, soap and ethanolamide being adjusted to maintain the composition substantially clear and uniform.
2. The composition as set forth in claim 1 which also contains an amount up to about 10% by weight of a water-soluble alkali metal fatty acid soap having from lto 18 carbon atoms.
3. The composition as set forth in claim 1 wherein the ethanolamide is lauric diethanolamide.
(References on following page) TABLE 12 Example No 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate 10 20 5 20 10 15 20 20 20 20 Pentapotassium trip0lyphosphate 5 20 20 Caprylic monoethauolarnide Capric moneotlianolamide O leic monoethauolamide. Caprylic diethanolamide Capric diethanolamide Laurie diethanolamide.
Myristic diethanolamide. Palniitic diethano1amide Oleic diethanolamide.... Sodium caproate References Cited by the'Examiner UNITED OTHER} REFERENCES STATES PATENTS Pmston 252;;117 Publishers, 1949, 'pp. 212-213, 307- 313.
A t 1. 252-10 f j i 252813? 5 JULIUS C REENWALD, Primery Examiner; Lamberti'et a]. 25 7 ALBERT T.-MEYERS, Examiner. 1 Fineman eta1. v2521O9 V Wei 2521 17 Schwartz et,a1.: fSurface Active Agents, Interscience
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|U.S. Classification||510/433, 510/502, 510/427, 510/486|
|International Classification||C11D17/00, C11D1/38, C11D1/52, C11D10/04, C11D10/00, C11D9/04, C11D9/14|
|Cooperative Classification||C11D1/523, C11D9/14, C11D17/0008, C11D10/047|
|European Classification||C11D9/14, C11D17/00B, C11D10/04F|