US 3234614 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 15, 1 966 w. A. PLUMMER SLIDE FASTENER 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 10, 1964 INVENTOR.
ATTORNEY Feb. 15, 1966 w. A. PLUMMER 3,234,614
SLIDE FASTENER Filed Jan. 10, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. WALTffi ,4. PA 0/14/1452 ATTOR/VFV high-strength separable ing seriousness.
locking tongues and grooves which mate when the adjaedges are merged in a leakage can occur.
United States Patent 3,234,614 SLIDE FASTENER Walter A. Plummer, 3546 Crownridge Drive, Sherman Oaks, Calif.
Filed Jan. 10, 1964; Ser. No. 336,952 6 Claims. (Cl. 24-201) This invention relates to separable seams and more particularly to an improved seam assembly formed of extruded plastic material or the like and featuring a plurality of pairs of interlocking hooks arranged parallel to one another along the adjacent edges of mounting tapes and including a specially constructed slide device operable when pulled in one direction to interlock said hooks and operable when pulled in the opposite direction to disengage and separate them from one another.
Numerous designs have been proposed heretofore for seam-forming assemblies made of pliant extrudable plastic materials and having as their object the provision of a seam as well as one capable of preventing the passage of fluid, These widely varying proposals have achieved varying degrees of success but all are subject to disadvantages and shortcomings of vary- Certain designs involve continuous intercent edges of the seam are overlapped and pressed together in a direction generally normal to the plane of the seam.
A distinctly different type of plastic seam utilizes components which are interengageable when their adjacent direction coplanar with the seam instead of normally thereto.
Irrespective of which of seams is involved, many prior art constructions are subject to the serious defect that load stresses imposed on the interlocked seam components unavoidably and inherently tend'in a manner'tending to f not actually forcing the interlocked parts apart and to open gaps through which These opening forces tend to buckle the seam and distort it thereby augmenting the load stresses acting between the seam components. Other objections include the nonsymmetrical character of many prior art seam constructions and the fact that certain portions protrude more than others rendering the seam unsightly and excessively bulky.
In view of the foregoing and prior separable seam assemblies it is a primary the present invention to separable seam which is not only unusually strong'and capable of withstanding high-load stresses but one which is compactly and symmetrically designed and unusually efficient and effective in maintaining a fluid-tight seal against both sub and superatmospheric pressures involving both liquids and gases. The construction is characterized by its symmetry, compactness and in particular by its multiple interlocking, intersealing surfaces which mutually cooperate in restraining the components against buckling and opening and which utilizes load stresses to interlock and interseal the parts more firmly in response to increases in either load stress or the pressure differential prevailing between the opposite sides of the seam. Not only do the interengaging surfaces of the locking elements naturally seal against one another but they are so designed that they inherently cam other portions of the seam into firm surface-to-surface contact thereby adding to the sealing effiother shortcomings of object of .ciency capabilities of the seam.
provide an improved high-strength these two'general types of L I seam.
ing edge of T-configuration also having two pairs of complementally shaped continuous hooks positioned to mate with the pairs of hooks on the U-shaped tape member. The webs of both tapes lie in a common plane bisecting the stern of the T edge and passing midway between the legs of the U-legs.
E ually as important as the referred to features of the mating tapes is the slider device employed to open and close the invention seam. This device embraces both sides of the mating seam edges and is held astride the mounting webs of the tape by the aid of slots extending along the opposite sides of the slide device. Internally, the slide device includes cooperating camming members and channels and the like so shaped as to embrace the stem of the T-shaped edge interio rly of the legs of the U-shaped edge effective to disengage and re-engage the hooks thereof all as will be described in detail hereinbelow.
Accordingly, itis a primary object of the present invention to provide an improved separable seam assembly comprising a pair of supple but strong specially-contoured tapes of extrudable-material havingmultiple pairs of continuous interengageable hooks mateable by edgewise movement of theltapes toward one another.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a high-strength, fluid-tight separable seam assembly formed of impervious, supple flexible material and wherein the mateable portions include a U-shaped edge telescopically mateable over the stem portion of a T-shaped tape edge.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a separable interlocking seam assembly and a slide device therefor effective to open and close the seam depending upon its directionof movement along the seam and wherein the interlocking components are symmetrically disposed relative to the plane of the mounting webs for the Another object of the invention is the provision of a separable seam assembly formed of extruded thermoplastic material and having multiple pairs of hooks mateable by edgewise movement of the tapes relative to one another and forming, a ,high-efiiciency fluid-tight seam effective against both suband super-atmospheric pressure differentials.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a high-strength separable seam provided with multiple pairs of interlocking continuous hook members so designed that forces tending to open the seam are increasingly effective to cam the parts into tighter locking engagement and firmer sealing relationship and wherein opening forces tend to bring portions of the seam into firmer sealing contact in areas spaced from the engaging hooks proper.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a separable fluid-tight seam assembly having pairs of interengaging, interlocking, continuous hooks cooperating pairs of which have oppositely inclined engaging surfaces so arranged as to resist disengaging movement of the hooks by lead forces acting on the seam assembly.
These and other more specific objects will appear upon reading thefollowing specification and claims and upon considering in connection therewith the attached drawing to which they relate.
Referring now to the drawing in which a preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated.
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary view in perspective showportion in the process of being closed;
FIGURE 2 is a transverse sectional view on an enlarged scale taken immediately adjacent the plane of its mounting webs as is indicated by line 2-2 on FIG- URE 1;
FIGURES 3 and 4 are cross-sectional views taken along the planes indicated by lines 3"3"aiid 4-4, re-
spectively, on FIGURE 2, with FIGURE 3 showing the stem portion of the T-shape tape edge being inserted between the spread-apart legs of the U-shaped tape edge and FIGURE 4 showing the U-legs being pressed toward the opposite sides of the T-stem just prior to interengagement of the hook surfaces with one another;
FIGURES 5 and 6 are longitudinal sectional views through the slider in the process of closing the tape components and taken along lines 5-5 and 66, respectively, on FIGURE 3;
FIGURE 7 is an exploded view of most of the components of the slide device;
FIGURE 8 is a perspective view of the intermediate component of the slide device as viewed oppositely from the side shown in FIGURE 7; and
FIGURE 9 is a cross-sectional view on an enlarged scale through the seam components interlocked and under load stress.
Referring now more particularly to FIGURE 1, there is shown a typical illustrative embodiment of the inventionseam assembly designated generally 10 and including as principal components a pair of supple, flexible plastic tapes 11, 12 and a slide device 13 having an operating handle 14. Operating handle 14 includes a finger grip 15 of any suitable configuration provided with a yoke 16 straddling the generally rectangular slide device 13. The ends of the yoke have inwardly projecting aligned trunnions 17, 17 loosely and slidably supported in grooveways 18, 18 (FIGURES 3, 4) extending along the opposite sides of the slide device closely adjacent the surfaces of mounting webs 20, 20 of seam-forming tapes 11, 12. During closing movement of the seam it will be understood that operating handle 14 is pulled forwardly along the open portion of the tapes so that trunnions 17 engage the forward ends of guideways 18. However, if the seam is being opened then handle 14 is pivoted rearwardly and pulled in the opposite direction with the trunnions engaging the opposite or left-hand ends of guideways 18, as viewed in FIGURE 1.
Seam construction Each of seam-forming tapes 11 and 12 is provided with a thin, flexible mounting web 20, 20 lying in a plane bisecting the pairs of interengaging hooks as will be explained presently. Normally mounting webs 20, 20 are sewn, bonded or otherwise securely mounted along the edges of an opening to be closed by assembly 10. Tapes 11, 12 may be formed of any suitable pliant, supple material having the requisite strength and other properties desired for the particular application or use of the seam. Various thermoplastic and other compositions well known to those skilled in this art are suitable and these may be compounded to provide the requisite Shore hardness demanded for a particular application of the seam. Inasmuch as these compositions and characteristics are well known in the separable seam art it will be unnecessary to elaborate upon them further in this disclosure.
One edge of tape 11 is T-shape in cross-section, the T-head being designated 21, and its stem being designated 22 and lying in a plane coincident with that of its mounting web 20. The adjacent edge of tape 12 is of U-configuration, its legs 23, 23 lying generally parallel to one another and on the opposite sides of a median plane passing through its mounting web 20. As is made clear in FIGURES 3, 4 and 9, for example, T-stem 22 of tape 11 is mateable between U-legs23 of tape 12 with all portions with the internested parts symmetrically disposed relative to one another on the opposite sides of a bisecting medial plane through the two mounting Webs. Because of this symmetry an extremely strong seam is obtained wherein all load stresses are-equitably distributed to all interengag ed hooks and surfaces of the seam assembly. This aspect of the invention will be better ap- Pti di 9mrthe f91lQw na ,descriptioapf t e s v a mating pairs of hooks carried by the T and U shaped sections of the seam.
Referring now more particularly to FIGURE 9 showing an enlarged view of the mated seam components, it will be observed that the terminal end edge of T-ste'm 22 is provided with an integral pair of hooks 25, 25 along its opposite edges. Each of these hooks has a hook-engaging surface 26 inclined obtusely to the plane of T-stem' 22 and toward T-head 21. The opposite or exterior face of hooks 25 is generally arcua'te or. semi-cylindrical in shape and provides a camming surface useful in piloting this stem between and in spreading U-legs 23 apart during mating of the seam parts.
A second pair of hooks 28, 28 are symmetrically formed along the identical inwardly curled ends of T- head 21. Each'of hooks 28 is provided with a hookengaging surface 29'inclined at the same angle but in the opposite direction from hook surfaces 26. In other words, surfaces 26 and 29 lie in pairs of converging planes grtending outwardly from the. opposite sides of T-stem Referring next to seam tape 12 it is pointed out that U-legs 23,- 23. are provided interiorly ,of their inner ends with a similar pair of hooks 30, 30 having inclined surfaces positioned to engage and mate with inclined surfaces 29, 29 of T-stem hooks 25. .U-legs 23 are also provided along their extremities with a pair of outwardly projecting continuous hooks 32, 32 having inclined surfaces shaped and positioned to engage and mate with inclined surfaces 29, 29 of T-head hooks 28, 28.
It is therefore evident that the similar but oppositely inclined natureof hook-engaging surfaces 26 and 29 facilitates and assures the camming of the books into maximum engaging position with the outer lateral edges of one set of hooks in pressure engagement with the juxtaposed surfaces of the 'mating hooks. Thus as appears from FIGURE 9, the transverse loading of the seam forces remote lateral edges of T-hooks 29 into pressure engagement with the interior side walls of U-legs 23. Likewise the remote exterior edges of hooks 32, 32 are pressed into pressure contact with the interior surface of T-head 21. Additionally, the parts are so proportioned I that both the forces, and loading of the configuration of the parts cooperate to hold interior surfaces of U-legs 23 normally pressed against the adjacent surfaces of T-stem 22. In consequence of the foregoing it will be appreciated that fluids, whether gas or liquid and irres ective of whether at sub or super-atmospheric pressures, must by pass a labyrinth of interengaging surfaces in order to pass from one. side of the closed seam to the other and this is true whether the closed seam is under load or in a relaxed condition. That is to say the spacing between the oppositely inclined'surfaces of T-hooks 25, 28 is so related to the corresponding. inclined surfaces of U-hooks 30, 32 that these various hooks are always held pressed against one another along any closed portion of the seam. The natural resiliency of the extrudable composition used in forming the seam will be understood as playing an important rolevin providing these fluid-tight characteristics of the invention seam irrespective of whether vacuum or positive pressure differentials exist across the seam.
Slide device As hereillustrate'd for purposes of clarity and ease of understanding, seam closing and opening slide device 13 the two casing halves 4t 40 sufliciently apart to provide a pair of narrow slots 43 extending'continuously along the opposite sides of the slider and loosely accommodating therein mounting webs 20, 20 as is illustrated in FIGURE 4. These slots open into an interior cavity terminating at one end in a relatively small axial opening 45 and at the other end in a relatively wide, deep opening 46. FIGURES and 6 make clear that the interior surfaces of opening 45 diverge inwardly toward the wider end of the slider and are shaped and positioned to press hooks 28 and 30 inwardly toward one another from the opposite sides of the scam in the closing operation of the seam. The much wider, deeper opening 46 at the opposite end of the slider is sufliciently large to permit hooks 23, 30 and the corresponding parts of the seam to flare away from one another and separate as the seam is being opened, or to be internested during closing movement of the seam.
Many of the principal functions of the slide device, which include assembling and disassembling of the hooks, are performed by spacer member 41 which has specially contoured surfaces and components for this purpose. Owing to this somewhat complex contouring, the surfaces require careful observation and attention to the descriptive details which follow. The cross-sectional shape of spacer 41 may be likened to the letter B. Its upper and lower legs 50, 50 mate with receiving recesses 50, 50' of casing members 40, 40 and are interconnected by a web 52. This web has a generally circular keyhole opening 53 extending lengthwise of member 41 and sized to accommodate hooks 25, 25 and portions of T-stem 22 in the manner illustrated in FIGURES 2 and 3. Of importance is the fact that the axis of the circular portion of keyhole slot 53 lies at a small angle to the longitudinal axis of slider 13 as best appears from FIGURE 2 and has as its purpose positively guiding hooks 25 into and out of fully nested assembly with hooks 30, 30.
A highly important component cooperating with keyhole slot 53 is a pair of coplanar tangs 54, 54 projecting toward one another and lying generally in the plane of and slightly beyond the adjacent end of web 52. The adjacent rounded ends of tangs 54 are so positioned as to engage the opposite lateral edges of hooks 25, 25 in such a manner as to hold these hooks firmly seated in the rounded portion of keyhole slot 53. Tangs 54 are also so positioned as to guide hooks 25, 25 into proper position to engage hooks 3t), 30 of U-legs 23 during closing of the seam by slider 13. Tangs 54 have no particular function during opening movement of the slider.
A shuttle-shaped camming flange 56 forms a unitary part of web 52 and is positioned between and generally parallel to legs 50, 50 of member 41. Keyhole slot 53 opens through one side of this camming and extends lengthwise thereof. Camming flange 56 has a narrow knife-like edge crosswise of the wider open end of the slider and bulges to a considerably thicker size at its rear end close to tangs 54. The thicker portion of camming member 56 serves to position hooks 25 and 30 for engagement and disengagement and will be understood as embracing the terminal end of the T-stem and to lie interiorly of U-legs 23. It will be apparent that one of its functions is to spread the U-legs apart and to disengage hooks 30 from hooks 25 during opening movement of the slider. During closing movement, however, the thick end of cam 36 lies downstream from tangs 54 permitting the latter to press legs 23, 23 toward one another and into locking engagement with hooks 25, 25. To be observed from FIGURE 3 is the fact that the opposite sides of cam 56 adjacent web 52 flare outwardly and upwardly into merger with this Web and are highly effective in opening hooks 32, 32 widely away from one another to permit hooks 25 to enter between these legs.
Another highly important pair of camming surfaces include similarly contoured camming members 60, 60 lying on the opposite side of web 52 from camming member 56 and forming the opposite sides of keyhole slot 53. As best appears from FIGURE 5, these surfaces are very thin at the right-hand end of member 41 as shown in FIGURE 7, but are relatively thick at their opposite ends adjacent tangs 54, 54. Camming members 60, 60 lie closely adjacent the sides of T-stem 22 and between books 28, 28 of T-head 21. The remote opposite and contoured faces of cams 60, 60 are effective at their thicker rear ends to force books 23 to open away from one another and become disengaged from U-leg hooks 32. The outer lateral edges of camming members 60, 60 also engage T-head 21 adjacent its junction with the T-stem and forcibly withdraw the T-stem from between the U-legs during opening of the seam. This function is also assisted by the diverging surfaces of camming member 56 acting to spread U-legs 23 apart and laterally away from the T-stem. It is also pointed out that the interior contoured surfaces of casing members 40, 40 adjacent the smaller axial opening 45 of the slide device are effective in forcing the hooks of the T and U-shaped portions of the tape edges into firm mating engagement as the slide device is pulled lengthwise of the seam.
The mode of operation and functioning of the various components will be readily and fully understood from the foregoing detailed and step-by-step description of all components and of their respective functions and purposes;
While the particular fluid-tight separable seam assembly and an operating slide device therefor herein shown and disclosed in detail is fully capable of attaining the objects and providing the advantages hereinbefore stated, it is to be understood that it is merely illustrative of the presently preferred embodiments of the invention and that no limitations are intended to the details of construction or design herein shown other than as defined in the appended claims.
1. A seam assembly comprising a pair of interlocking separable tapes adapted to be closed and opened repeatedly by a slide device, the adjacent tape edges being respectively of modified U and T shape in cross section with the T-stem being insertable between the legs of the U-shaped edge and lying parallel to said U-legs and in the same general plane as the main bodies of said pair of tapes, said U-legs having a first pair of hooks on the interior sides thereof closely spaced from the bight portion of said U-legs, said U-legs having a second pair of hooks crosswise of their exterior ends spaced remotely from said first pair of U-leg hooks, and said T-shape tape edge having pairs of hooks across the terminal end of its stem and across the opposite ends of its head and spaced remotely from one another in a direction lengthwise of said T-stem and respectively positioned for simultaneous interlocking engagement with the first and second pair of hooks of said U-shape tape edge as said T-stem is inserted edgewise between said U-legs.
2. A seam assembly as defined in claim 1 characterized in that the seating surfaces of said pairs of hooks on said T-shaped tape member converge toward the T-stem thereof but in opposite directions, and the seating surfaces of said pairs of hooks on said U-shaped tape member converge in opposite directions and so as to mate with and seat against the associated seating surfaces of the pairs of grooves on said T-shaped tape member.
3. A seam assembly as defined in claim 1 characterized in that said pairs of hooks on said T-shaped and U-shaped tape members have engaging seating surfaces lying in planes converging toward the opposite ends of the T-stem and in a manner to cam said U-legs toward one another on the opposite sides of said T-stem.
4. A seam assembly as defined in claim 1 characterized in that the pairs of hooks adjacent the opposite ends of said U-legs are so inclined relative to the complementally shaped surfaces of the pairs of hooks on said T-stem as to cam said U-legs into sealing engagement with the opposite face of the midportion of said T-stem.
5. A seam assembly as defined in claim 1 characterized in that the pairs of hooks on said T-shaped and U-shaped members have interengaging seating surfaces inclined to the plane of said T-stem and in a direction such that said U-legs are carnmed inwardly against the opposite sides of said T-stem as said seam assembly is loaded in a direction tending to open said separable tapes.
6. A seam assembly comprising a pair of interlocking separable tapes cooperating to provide a fluid-tight seal against both sub and super-atmospheric pressures, said seam assembly comprising a pair of plastic tapes the adjacent edges of which are respectively of modified U and T-s'hape in cross-section with the T-stern being insertable between the U-legs of the U-shaped edge with the opposite faces of the T-stem lying snugly against the juxtaposed inner faces of said U-legs in the fully assembled position thereof, said U-legs having a first pair of hooks projecting toward one another closely adjacent the bight portion of said U-legs and on the inner sides thereof, said U-legs having a second pair of hooks crosswise of their outer sides near the outer free ends of said U-legs, said T-shape edge having pairs of hooks across the terminal end of its T-stem and across the opposite ends of its head, said last mentioned pairs of hooks being spaced remotely from one another and positioned to interengage and interlock with a juxtaposed pair of books on the inner and outer faces respectively of said U-legs as said T-stem is pressed inwardly between said U-legs, and said pairs of hooks cooperating to seat together substantially simultaneously as a pressure differential is applied to the opposite faces of the assembled seam.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,606,351 2/ 1949 Wende. 2,606,352 8/ 1952' Wende. 2,823,720 2/ 1958 Svec. 3,153,269 10/ 1964 Berry. 3,159,889 12/1964' Brandl.
FOREIGN PATENTS 1,018,167 12/ 1952 France. 1,106,141 12/1955 France.
304,700 4/ 1955 Germany. 685,008 12/1952 Great Britain. 744,730 2/1956 Great Britain. 800,169 8/ 1958 Great Britain. 375,235 9/1939 Italy.
WILLIAM FELDMAN, Primary Examiner.