US 3234700 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 15, 1966 CREVELING 3,234,700.
BUILDING PANEL Filed Nov. 1, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet l k 23 FIG.5 28
35 3 21 INVENTOR.
MARION A. CREVELI NG ATTORN Feb. 15, 1966 M. A. CREVELING BUILDING PANEL 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 1, 1963 35 39 FIGQ l G H INVENTOR. MARION A. CREVELING United States Patent 3,234,700 BUILDING PANEL Marion A. Creveling, 18150 Thomas Lane, Tinley Park, Ill. Filed Nov. 1, 1963, Ser. No. 320,666 2 Claims. (Cl. 52-284) The present invention is directed to new and useful improvements in building panels and is particularly concerned with improvements which enable economic fabrication and simplified assembly of courses of such panels.
The major purposes of the present invention are to so form building panels that a course of panels are easily assembled in self-supporting relation through means of relative sliding movement of adjoining panels, the arrangement of the panels being such that the panels are easily assembled, when positioned upright, by horizontal relative sliding movement of adjoining panels in the direction of the wall to be made by the panels, the panels being so formed that they are readily adaptable for use in building wall constructions either as a single wall or double wall construction and at the same time being capable of use in roof or floor structures, the panels also being so formed that the connections between adjoining panels provide spaced supporting columns for a plurality or group of panels assembled in a building wall, roof or floor course.
A related purpose of the invention is to so form building panels that they may readily be used as a self-supporting partition or wall structure which is readily assembled and disassembled when desired, and at the same time being capable of use as a permanent part of a building.
Another related purpose of the present invention is to so form prefabricated building panels that they may be manufactured easily from sheet metal employing known bending or rolling processes or may be formed from materials suitable for extrusion or injection molding.
These and other purposes of the invention will become more apparent in the course of the ensuing specification and claims, when taken with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a course of panels embodying the principles of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view of plural panels according to one embodiment of the invention and particularly illustrating the connection between adjoining pan els;
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of panels made in accordance with the present invention while utilizing another embodiment of the invention in the connecting joint of the panels;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view, with parts broken away for purposes of clarity, illustrating the manner in which adjoining panels as in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3 are connected together;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view of panels made in accordance with FIGURE 2, while illustrating connection of the panels in such fashion as to form a corner between adjoining panels;
FIGURE 6 is a sectional view of a portion of a panel incorporating the principles of the invention while being provided with reinforcing facilities;
FIGURE 7 is a perspective view of the foundation element which may be utilized with the panels illustrated in FIGURES 1 through 6 inclusive;
FIGURE 8 is a perspective view of a reinforcing element which may be utilized with the foundation element of FIGURE 7;
' FIGURE 9 is a perspective view of plural panels incorporating the principles of the invention, while illus- Patented Feb. 15, 1966 trating a variant positioning of connecting elements utilized with the panels;
. FIGURE 10 is a perspective view of a panel incorporatmg the principles of the invention, as used with the elements of FIGURES 7 and 8.
Like elements are designated by like characters throughout the specification and drawings;
With particular reference now to the drawings and in the first instance to FIGURE 1, the numeral 20 generally designates a wall structure defined by a course of plural, connected panels 21 which incorporate the principle of the invention. Wall structure 20 is illustrated as including a corner which is defined from an additional panel 22 which extends at right angles to the panels 21 and which may form the start of another wall extending at right angles to the wall 20.
Each of the panels 21 and 22 is formed from sheet material having a generally uniform wall thickness throughout. These panels are formed so as to provide supporting columns or reinforcing structures at one side edge of the panels and extending throughout the entire length or substantially the entire length of the panels. In FIGURE 2, in which one embodiment of the invention is illustrated, the column generally designated at 23 is defined by bending the side portion of the panel into a box-like or square section but with the box-like section including one portion, defining one side of the section spaced from one surface or face of the panel sheet so as to define a slot 25 between that side 24 and the opposed face 21a of the sheet. This portion 24 is spaced from the opposed face 21a by a distance approximatingthe thickness of the sheet material. Portion 25 stops short of the inwardly facing side surface of another portion 26 of the sheet material which is bent at right angles to the main expanse of the sheet material to define the side edge of the panel. Column 23 may be appropriately formed by bending the material at right angles so as to provide the surface 26 and relatively perpendicular sides 27 and 28 opposite to the side portions 24 and 26, respectively.
The supporting columns for the panels may also be defined by a box-like section as shown in FIGURE 3, in which the column 18 is defined by one wall portion 29 extending at right angles to the main expanse of the sheet material 21 and defining one side edge of the panel and with other wall portions 30, 31 and 32 positioned to de fine a rectangular hollow form with the side 29. That side of the rectangular cross section in FIGURE 3 closest to the main expanse of the panel 21 and extending generally parallel thereto is spaced from that side of the panel 21 to provide a slot 33, which slot has a width ap-' proximating the width or thickness of the sheet material defining the panel. The column structure of FIGURE 3 ditfers from that of FIGURE 2 in that the side 32 which defines the slot 33 with the main expanse of the panel is connected to the side wall 29 of the column structure.
In further accord with the invention, each panel is provided with an angularly formed hook-like portion which co-operates with the column structures. These angularly formed portions extend generally parallel tothe length of the columns and are spaced therefrom. In 'FIG'U-RES 2 and 3, these angularly formed portions are formed at the side portion of the sheet opposite to the column side of the sheet to provide a side edge surface 34 i which extends at right angles to the general plane of the panel and an angularly extending flange 35 which extends inwardly from the side wall 34 and toward the column structure. Flange 35 extends in a direction generally parallel to the main expanse of the panel 21 while being spaced from the panel surface 21a by a distance approximately equal to the width of the column structures 23 or 18.
By forming panels in the manner illustrated adjoining panels may be connected together by positioning the panels in side by side relation but with the angular portions 35 of each panel overlapping the column side of the adjoining panel as illustrated in FIGURE 4. The panels may then be connected together by relative sliding movement in directions transverse to the length of the panels so that the angular tongue-like portion or flange 35 enters the slot 33 or 25 depending upon the form of column structure utilized. Upon such movement, the flange 35 is snugly held within the slot 33, while the column structure is surrounded on three sides thereof by the flange 35, the side edge defining portion 34 and the surface 21a. When so connected, adjoining panels are so disposed that the main surfaces of adjoining panel sections are disposed-in planes dilferent from one another and spaced from one another as appears in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3. Thus, a wall defined by a course of connected panels Will have adjoining parallel surfaces staggered with relation to one another while alternate panels have generally aligned or parallel surfaces.
If it is desired to construct .a wall with a double thickness or in such wise as to present one smooth and essentially uninterrupted wall surface, filler panels 36 may be used to fill the space between the adjacent column defining structures. These filler panels 36 may be formed from sheetmaterial of the same type utilized in the formation of the panels 21 and may include reinforcing legs 37 positioned at the sides of the panel and one or more medial legs extending parallel to the leg portions 37. The leg portions 37 have dimensions such that they may approximate the length of the side walls 26, 29 or 34 so that the legs 37 may abut against the column side 21a of the panel in a position flush with the column defining structures at each side of that panel, while the outer surface of the filler panels 36 is flush with the surfaces of the adjoining panels.
Panels as illustrated in FIGURE 2 are particularly adaptable to the formation of corners of walls extending at right angles to one another as is particularly illustrated in FIGURE 5. In FIGURE 5, for example, one panel 21 extends at right angles to another panel 22. Panel 21 has a column defining structure 23 at one side edge thereof 'while the panel 22 is connected to this columndefining structure by means of the angularly bent portion. In the case of such a corner construction, the flange or tongue-like portion 35 of one panel is fitted within the space between the side 24 and side 26 of the column and flush against the inner wall of the side 26" while the portion 34 fills the slot 25 of the column structure. When so positioned, the two panels 21 and 22 are held against twisting movement by reason of the bearing engagement between the wall 2-6 and the angularly bent portion 35 and the bearing engagement of the portion 34 with the surface 21a of the panel 21, as well as the bearing engagement of the surface 21 of the connected panel 22 with the side wall 28 of the column structure. This corner construction may be assembled by sliding the column structure and connecting end of the adjoining panel in directions parallel to the length of the column defining structure.
The principles of the invention may also be used to provide a wall defined by a course of adjoining panels, with the wall surface being flush and essentially uninterrupted, while the wall proper is defined by a single thickness of the sheet material used in the formation of the panels. In FIGURE 9, for example, adjoining panels 21 are illustrated with the characteristic column structures 23 and the hook-like portions 34 and 35. In FIG- URE '9, however, the column defining structure 23 is at one side edge of each panel while the flange portion 35 with its portion 34 extending at right angles thereto is spaced inwardly of the other side edge of the panel thereby providing a panel surface or section 38 having a length corresponding to the length of the remaining panel section but extended laterally to one side of the angularly extending portion 34. The column defining structure 23, which may take the form of either the column defining structure of FIGURE 2 or FIGURE 3, is defined at the end of an offset portion of the main expanse of the sheet material for the panel 21 as typified at 39 which extends from a portion 40 extending at right angles to the main panel expanse 21 and formed integrally therewith. The column structure 23 is formed at the side of the portion 39 in such wise that the wall 28 thereof is spaced from the portion 40 by a distance slightly greater than the width of the connecting flange or tongue-like portion 35 so that the panels may be assembled in a fashion similar to the assembly of the panels of FIGURES 2 and 3.
The extension 33 has a width slightly in excess of the distance between the portion '40 and the opposed side 28 of the column so that the extreme edge thereof overlies the main expanse of the adjoining panel. This extreme edge may be seated in a recess 41 formed in the main panel expanse 21 and formed integrally therewith. The that the two connected panels 21 have surfaces in the same plane. A molding strip 42 may be utilized to cover the small crack between the overlapping portions of the panels.
It is advantageous to use some foundation for receiving the lower ends of the adjoining panels when the panels are used as upright walls. In such event, the lower ends of the panels may be seated in foundation channels 43 as appear in FIGURE 7 with generally rectangular and reinforce the column defining elements.
elongated filler sections 44 seated within the channels between the column structure as appears in FIGURE 10. The inner walls of the upstanding legs of the channels 43 may have one or more recesses 45 extending through the length of one or both of the legs at points spaced above the lower portion of the channel, which recesses 45 are adapted to receive projections 4-6 on the side of the filler strips or filler tubes 44 for a snap fitting engagement between the channel 43 and sections 44.
The lower portions of the panels 21 and 22 may also have projections and recesses on the opposite surfaces thereof for a similar engagement with the channel 43 and filler tubes 44.
Use of the filler sections 44 between columns 23 tends to reinforce the panels and minimize bending or distortion thereof.
The hollow column defining structures 23 or 1 8 of the present invention may be so formed as to receive reinforcing elements extending through the length of the columns. For this purpose, the interior walls of the column defining structure may be provided with slots or recesses 47 which may receive angle irons or bars 48 with the edges of the angle irons seated within the slots so as to The hollow nature of the column defining elements also enables use of elongated round reinforcing elements which are simply inserted within the columns for reinforcing thereof.
Panels as described herein may be made from flat sheet metal stock through use of cold rolling, braking or other edges overlapping in which case horizontal sliding. and
relative movement, as heretofore explained with reference to FIGURE 4, brings the panels into connected relation. When so used, the extreme ends of the course of panels may be fixed so as to prevent separation of the panels. With the end panels fixed, the remaining panels are fixed in position since engagement of the angularly extending portions with the column structures of adjoining panels prevents relative sliding movement in one direction while the connection of the other portions of the connected panels with still other pane-ls prevents separating movement of the angular portions and column defining structures in the opposite direction.
The spaced columns of a connected course of panels function in somewhat the manner of vertical studding of conventional buildings. The column structures may be made load bearing, particularly when reinforced as in FIGURE 6.
The panels may be fixed permanently in position by passing screws, nails or the like through the main expanse of the pane-ls or through the column structures of some or all of the panels so as to fix them in position and so as to fix a course of panels to other supporting members, such as may be typified by vertical wall studding.
The panels may also be used for flooring or for roofing. When used as flooring, filler panels of the type illustrated at 36 may be used to provide a smooth and essentially uninterrupted fioor. When used for roofing purposes, the panels provide a Water-tight roof and at the same time allow breathing of air through the roof structure. In this regard, it may be noted that with the panels extending horizontally, water will tend to run off from spaced panels into the lower panels of the group so that water cannot pass through the roof unless it should happen that the water builds up within the lower and off-set panels to a depth equalling the width of the column defining structures. At the same time, the small space or cracks that exist between the column defining structures and the angular connecting portions allows for passage of air and the roof to breathe.
When the panels are used with the filler panels 36 for either wall or flooring purposes, insulation material may be blown into the space between the filler panels 36 and the main panels 21. Also, reinforcing materials can be put into the same interwall space.
Use of the particular column and hook-like structures enables a choice of directions when connecting of adjoining panels; namely, a continuation in the direction of one panel surface or formation of a corner with a wall extending perpendicularly to the one panel surface and to either side thereof. In this regard, a corner similar to that of FIGURE 5 may be made with the column structures of FIGURE 3 by trimming the tongue-like portion 35 from one panel in which case the corner may be formed by simply passing the portion 34 into the slot 33.
When forming a corner with the corner panel 22 extending from the side of panel 21 opposite to that shown in FIGURE 5, the column structures of either FIGURE 2 or FIGURE 3 may be connected to the panel 22 by relative sliding movement of the column and hook-like structures in directions transverse to the length of the panels, as appears in the corner construction of FIGURE 1.
The corner joints are further reinforced through use of the filler panels 36 as is seen in FIGURE 1.
Panels as described herein can be used to form shapes other than plan-e walls or square sided structures. In this regard, it may be noted that some slight yieldability in the angular connecting portions with the column defining structures may allow a slight offset and angularly extending relation of adjoining panels so that a round structure can be made from panels as described herein.
Whereas I have shown and described an operative form of the invention, it should be understood that this showing and description thereof should be taken in an illustrative or diagrammatic sense only. There are many modifications in and to the invention which will fall within the scope 6 and spirit thereof and which will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The scope of the invention should be limited only by the scope of the hereinafter appended claims.
1. A building panel adapted for connection with similar panels including a body of sheet material, said body being shaped to define an elongated, hollow, load-bearing column defining element of essentially square cross section and an elongated hook-like element in spaced relation to one another, said column defining element being spaced from one surface of said sheet material so as to define a slot therebetween with a slot width approximating the thickness of said material, said column having a width, taken transversely of said surface, greater than the width of said slot, said hook-like element including a projecting flange extending toward said column defining element and being spaced from said surface by the approximate width of said column defining element, the opening to said slot facing said projecting flange, said column defining element having one side spaced from said surface to define said slot therebetween, said column defining element having one of its other sides extending generally transversely to said surface at the inner extremity of said slot, said one side of said column defining element being spaced from said other side thereof by approximately the thickness of said flange.
2. A building panel adapted for connection with similar panels including a body of sheet material, said body having an elongated load-bearing column defining element of hollow, essentially square cross section formed integrally therewith and an elongated hook-like element in spaced relation to one another, said hook-like element being integral with said body, said column defining element having a width greater than the thickness of said material, said column defining element and hook-like element projecting from one surface of said body, one side of said column defining element being spaced from said surface of said sheet material so as to define a slot therebetween with a slot width approximating the thickness of said material, said hook-like element including a projecting flange having a thickness approximating the thickness of said slot and extending toward said column defining element and being spaced from said surface, taken perpendicularly to said surface, by the approximate Width, measured in the same perpendicular direction, of said column defining element, said column defining element having another side defining one side edge of said panel, said one side of said column being spaced from said edge defining side of said column element by approximately the thickness of said flange so as to enable formation of a corner joint between similar panels with the flange of one panel positioned between said one side and said other side of another panel.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,439,494 12/ 1922. Wernette 52570 1,539,632 5/1925 Belding 52-520 3,037,590 6/ 1962 Pavlecka 52-481 FOREIGN PATENTS 605,667 6/1960 Italy.
RICHARD W. COOKE, JR., Primary Examiner.
FRANK L. ABBOTT, Examiner.
L. R. RADANOVIC, Assistant Examiner.