|Publication number||US3235115 A|
|Publication date||Feb 15, 1966|
|Filing date||Sep 30, 1960|
|Priority date||Sep 30, 1960|
|Publication number||US 3235115 A, US 3235115A, US-A-3235115, US3235115 A, US3235115A|
|Inventors||Duke James D|
|Original Assignee||Aluminum Co Of America|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (9), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 15, 1966 J. D. DUKE 3,235,l15
TAMPERPROOF CLOSURES Filed Sept. 50, 1960 NVENTO?.
JAMES D. DUKE Afforney United States Patent O 3,235,115 a TAMPERPROOF CLOSURES James D. Duke, Richmond, Ind., assiguor to Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Sept. 30, 1960, Ser. No. 59,581 3 Claims. (Cl. 215-42) The invention described hereinbelow is addressed in general to closure and receptacle or container combinations for providing tamperproof packages, exemplary of which are sealed bottles and similar package& More specifically, the invention is concerned with providing a threaded closure -incorporating a cylindrical tamperproof band extension of the cylindrical skirt of the closure, which is severable therefrom on rotational removal of the closure from a container, and the tamperproof band subsequently axially removed or withdrawn 'from the container in an otherwise intact condition.
A risng demand and commercial interest is being elicited for a sealed package inco-rporating a tamperproof threaded closure which, following authorized opening of the package by mere rotation of the threaded closure, permits `axial removal of an initially integral but severable tamperproof band element sepai'ated from the closure proper as a result of the aforesaid rotation thereof. The demand foithis type of closure, and packages incorpor-ating the same, is based on an existing need in the closure art for a relatively inexpensive tamperproof closure, and package incorporating the same, the container element of which is capable of manufacture using conventional glassmolding equipment and practices and is readily conditioned for reuse, under circumstances permitting reuse of containers, by mere "pick-oif"or gravitation-al dislodgment of the tamperproof band element from the container. There has also been an expressed desire in the Packaging art for tamperproof closure-'container combinations of the type herein referred to, regardless of the stated container reuse feature, where retention of a tamperproof 'band on its container or receptacle, following authorized removal of its threaded closure portion tor access to less than the entire contents of the container, has been found objectionable and been a source of digital injury in subsequent reclosing and reopening of a cont-ainer so equipped.
Closure and closure-receptacle or container combina: tions incorporating a threaded cylindrical skirt and contiguous tamperproof band in axial extension thereof have been previously proposed. However, the tamperproof band elements in such existing closure structures have always been polygonally shaped, as distinguished from cylindrical, requring complex and expensive manufacturing techniques and handling Operations in the initial fabrication of such closure blanks or shells, as well as requiring specially developed equipment for their bulk hopperng, conveyng, transferring and subsequent application and afiixation in correctly oriented relationship on containers provided with complementary polygonallyshaped surfaces.
Closure blanks or shells, closures produced therefrom, and tamperproof sealed packages incorporating the same,
in accordance with' the present invention, `are of relatively simple Construction and design in comparison to the aforesaid proposed polygonally-shaped closures and sealed packages incorporating the same, and because of their exterior cylindrical configuration, can be initially 'fabrica-ted and subsequently `applied on containers to provide tamperproof packages by employing existing conventional equipment without investment at the fabrication and closure-applying levels in complex types of fab-ricating and handling equipment dictated by a 3,235,ll5 Patented Feb. 15, 1966 ICC polygonally-shaped tamperproof type closure and the problems in orientation introduced therehy.
It is therefore a primary object of the invention to provide a relatively inexpensive closure blank or shell of generally cylindrical exteror configuration incorporating means for restraining it against rotation in respect of a container underlying the closure blank or shell.
Another object of the invention is to provide a closure blank or shell of generally cylindrical exterior configuration incorporating a tamperproof band as an integral but circumferentially severable element thereof confin-ed within `a cylindrical exterior configuration of the same, the tamperproof band in turn providing means for restraining the closure blank or shell against unauthorized rotation on an underlying c-omplementary container.
A further object of the invention is to providea tamperproof closure characterized by an exterior surface composed of cylindrcal rolling surfaces over its axial depth, the closure being further characterized by providing a preformed tamperproof locking band adjacent its open end provided with means permitting axial withdrawal of the looking band firom a complernentary container to which the closure has been applied.
Another object of the invention is to provide a closurereceptacle or container package which is initially sealed against unauthorzed opening by a one-piece tamperproof closure having cylindrical exterior surfaces throughout the depth of the closure, the closure being subsequently removable from its -container on rotation against nonrotation ot its tamperproof band to sever thesame 'from the remaining portion of the closure, and the tamperproof band being thereafter axially withdrawn from the container.
Other objects of the invention Will be observed and understood on consideration of the following description and illustrations of the invention, in which:
FIG. l represents a fragmentary sectional elevatioual view of one embodiment of closure and receptacle of the invention illustrating a preformed generally cylindrical closure blank or shell loosely supported on a complementary receptacle` finish;
FIG. 2 represents a view similar to FIG. 1, except that the closure blank or shell has been transtormed andtsecured against unauthorized removal froni its underlying receptacle; and
FIG. 3 represents a transverse cross-sectional view taken on the plane 3--3 of FIG. `2.
The closures and closure shells to which the invention is directed are generally and preferably characterized as one-piece, cup-shaped articles comprising a top circular panel and an integral depending cylindrical skirt, the skirt being provided With closure-aflixing formations, such as threads, over a portion of its axial length, `and an integral but readily severable extension of the skirt below the threads serving as a cylndrical tamperproof band for the closure. i
It is the tamperproof band -feature of the closures of the invention which constitutes the cardinal contribution to the closure art, particularly from the standpoint of its cooperative relationship with the closures and receptacles with which it periorms a functional part in providing new and advanced tamperproof packages.
The closures of the invention are preferably initially fabricated as cup-shaped closure shells or blanks, with an unthreaded or unconformed depending cylindrical skirt and an integral but severable preformed cylindrical tamperproof band in the form of an extension of the cylindrical skirt. The closure blanks or shells thus initially fabricated are readily handled in conventional closure equipment, such as bulk hoppers, transfer conveyors from the bulk -hoppers to closure-applying devices,` where individual closures are each loosely applied on a complementary receptacle, and closure-sealing heads, where sealed closure-receptacle packages are produced, pri- -marily because of the fact that the skirt and tamperproof extensions'thereof present cylind-rical rolling surfaces, and because of the further fact that absence 'of polygonal cross-sectional configuration in the closure shells or blanks eliminates all necessity of pr'ecise orientation between a closure blank and its com'plernentary receptacle receiving the same. These features alone permit complete adaptation and use 'of existing conventional equipment in regular commercial use in'the closure art without r'esorting to complex equipment and slow-down through the provsion of special orientation and indexing mechanism required with heretofore disclosed closures incorporating non-cylindrical tamperproof features.
Refe-rring to the closure and receptacle combination r package illustrated'in 'FIGS. l, 2 and 3, it will be observed that a closure'blank 20 (FIG. l) is fabricated in the torm of a cup-shap'ed 'article having a top circular panel 22 and depending cylindrical skirt 24 adapted to be loosely supported on the exterior surface adjacent the entrance ormouth of areceptaele or bottle '10. The bottle -Itl 'is prefe'rably provided'with a conventional thread formation 12 and a thread protecting roll or band 16 is usually provided below the thread formation and may extend radially outwardly beyond the maximum exterior crest diameter defined by the thread formation '12.
In addition,the exterior surface of the bottle is provi'rled with a `series or plurality of circumferentially equally s'paced lugs or protuberances 18 between the lowermost thread formation 12 and the upper ledge surface forrned by the roll 16, the outer surfaces of the lugs 18 being preferably inscribed by a circumferential surface, inwardly dispos'ed in respect of the outer periphe ry of the roll 16, and `an inwardly disposed commonbase circumferential surface 14 of the lugs 18 being of slightly greater diameter than, or at least coincident with, a circuniferential surface having a diameter at least equal to the maximum crest diameter of the thread formation 12. The lower terminal marginal edge of the 'skirt 24 of the closure blank or shell 20 of FIG. 1 is preferably initially finished With a'n inwardly curled open crcumferential bead 34, which serves to eliminate what could otherwise present an exposed raw-cut edge, and immediately above this bead is a circumferential band forming an integral extension of the skirt 24 partially and circumferentially separated therefrorn by at least one discontinuous slotted area 28. The band 3@ is cylindrical and is otherwise depressed or indented toprovide a series -or plurality of circu'mferentially equally spaced radially inwardly directed lobes 32 for axial entry and withdrawal between the a-forementioned lugs 1'8 on the exposed surface of the receptacle or bottle 10.
The above-'described closure blank 20, :as initially fabricated with its preforned and configurated terminal skirt band 30, provided with a conventional resilient liner or gasket 26 of suitable'material compatible with the contents of the receptacle lt), is initially loosely placed upon the rim surrounding the entrance to the receptacle, as illustrated in FlG. 1. In a subsequent closure-sealing operation, and with applied top p ressure exerted on the panel 22, the liner 26 is compressed into sealing contact with the receptacle mouth and a thread formation 36 forned in the skirt 24, as by plastic deformation of the same, into conformity with the underlying thread for- 'mati'on 12 on the bottle 10 (FIG. 2).
It will' be observed from an inspection of the embodiment of the invention thus far described, in reference to FIGS. *1, 2 `and 3, that the preformed and configurated band '30 of the closure,` with its inwardly projecting lobes 32 disposed between the Vertical and parallel disposed lugs "18 on the exposed surface of the bottle 10, provides a tanperproof assembly of closure and receptacle on completion of the conplementary thread formation 36 in the skirt 24 (FIG, 2). `lt is also to be observed that the c-onfigurated band 30 serves as a tamperproof 'band for the closure and receptacle associated therewith, and prevents removal of the threaded portion of the closure until rotation thereof breaks through the bridge or bridges in the discontinuous circumferential slot or slots 28, the tamperproof band 30 being otherwise restrained against rotation by its 'lobes 32 and cooperating receptacle lugs 18.
The upper threadedportion of the closure, on circumferential severanee from its tamperproof band 30, is employable as a reclosure, while the tamperproo f band is axially removable 'or withdrawable, without resort to a tool or peripheral'severance of the band 39, by merely picking the same of the receptacle to thereby condition the receptacle for subsequentireuse as o'ne element of a similar tamperproof package.
The closure blank or shell 20, -is readily and initially fabricated as a drawn cylindrical cup-shaped article from light gauge metal, such as aluminum andits alloysgwith a gauge thickness within the range .006 to .01 inch found in practice to be satisfactory 'for closures within a com- -mercial container'finish size or diameter range of 18 to 70`millimeters of the maximum outsidethread*formation Cylindrical shells thus drawn in a one-step operation are thereafter completed by a 'sequence of Operations performed on their depending ski rts 24 to plastically transform the same to provide'the cylindrically-shaped tamperproof bandportions 30; the curled and 'beaded lower terminal edges 34; the indentatons or depressions 32; and the circumferentially'slotted'areas 28, respectively; all of which Operations, andsteps incidental thereto in transforming the aforesaid closure shells 'or blanks 20 being radially directed in reference to the cylindrically generated exterior surfaces of revolution of the depending skirts '24. It will also be understood that the circum-' ferential fracturable *zone provided bythe discontinuous' slot or slots :28 can be obtained by circumferential scoring, a circunferential row of perfo rations, or combinations thereof.
A 30 circumferential spacin-g of the container lugs 18, and' similar 'spacing of the depressions 32 and in the tamperproof bands 30, have been employed and found Satisfactory with containers having-a threaded finish of 28 millimeters diameter, and'coupled With the rounded upper edge surfaces of theparallel lugs 18, has nsured axial and circumferential registry of the closure blanks on their compleinentary underlying container finishes, in the practice of the invention, using conventional gravity placement of the closure blanks on their containers and without resorting to complex indexing and orientng mechanisms. In like manner, a 45 circumferential spacing of the container lugs 18, 46 'and 76 in the case of an 18 millimeter thread formation, and a 12 circumferential spacng in the case 'of a 70 millimeter thread formation, have performed equally satisfactorily with similarly spaced tamperproof band lobes in closures complernentary thereto. Manifestly, the number of lugs and lobes in any particular size of container 'finish will be selected to insure gravitational application of a closure blank of the'invention loosely over the 'exterior finish of its complementary container, With the rounded upper surfaces of the lugs 18 insuring placement of the closure blanks in the absence of positive indexin mechanism. The aforesad circumferential spacing of the lobes in the tamperproof bands'has also been found to impart torsional rigidity to their respective bands against their distortion and rota'tion thereof during fracturable removal of the threaded reclosure elements of the closures.
Final atfixaton of a closure blank of the invention on its con'plementary containerhas employed a conventional top pressure head and radial thread-rollng tools, the tamper proof bands in no instan ce being transformed from their initial configurated cylindrical form during affixation of a closure. It 'will also be observedthat the appearance of a closure-container package of the invention, on circumferential severance of the tamperproof band from its integral t hreaded skirt portion of the closure, will be immediately detectabie and thereby provides a guide and guard against acceptance in coinrnerce of interier merchandise.
Significant and advantageous in respect of the packages of the invention, and particularly where the container element is a glass bottle, is the fact that the thread formation and tamperproof band lug formation therebelow, both being of concentric cylindrical generation, and the further fact that the tamperproof lugs are in all nstances disposed vertically and parallel to the longitudinal central axis of the container, has permitted :nanufacture of glass containers responding to the invention in conventional book or hinge-type molds, arcuate opening of the halves of which, to discharge the containers or Ware molded therein, is devoid of interference between the molding surfaces and the Ware, which if present, would otherwise distort the tamperproof lug conigurations below the thread formations carried by the containers so molded to destroy axial withdrawal of the tamperproof elements of the closures associated therewitl.
Having described the invention in terms of a specific embodiment thereof, it is to be understood that the selected embodiment Was made for purposes of illustration only, and not as limiting the scope of the invention, except as defined in the appended clairns.
What is claimed is:
1. A tamperproof container-closure structure comprising in combination:
(a) a rigid container having an open entrance end neck portion with at least one spiral thread formation leading axially away from the open entrance end,
(b) a right cylindrical unthreaded annular band portion axally contiguous with and below the thread formation of a diameter concentric with and at least equal to the maximum trace diameter of the crest of the thread formation,
(c) a series of identically configurated radially outwardly extending lugs carried by and eqi-spaced about the periphery of the unthreaded annular band portion in generally axial parallel relations-hp to the longitudinal axis of the neck portion of the rigid container,
(d) the radial outward maximum extension of the lugs lying in a circumferential trace concentric with the unthreaded annular band portion in radial outward extension therefrom.
(e) a light gauge one-piece readily deformable drawn metallic closure shell of cup-shaped generally right cylindrical contiguration having the closed end thercof adapted to seat across the open entrance end to the container neck end with the depending skirt axially overlying the maximum crest diameter trace of the thread formation,
(f) a right cylindrical tamperproof band formed integrally concentric and dependingiy coaxially with said depending skirt, stepped outwardly therefrom, and extending in concentric overlying axial disposition to the unthreaded annular band portion and radially in interior circumferential outward clearance relationship to the outwardly exterding lugs carried thereby,
g) said tamperproof band being circumferentially separable from the skirt of the closure shell in a transverse weakened fracturable severance line located in the tamperproof band adjacent its integral connection to the skirt above the same, and said tamperprooi band termnating at its lower edge in an inwardly curled right cylindrical circumferential reinforcing and raw edge protective bead of internal minimum diameter axially and concentrically slidable over t-he circumferential trace of the radially outwardly extending lugs on the container neck,
(h) the maximum axial length of the skirt of the closure shell and its integral coaxial tamperproof band, on axially slidable application of the closure shell into supporting contact across the open entrance end to the container neck, terminating with the inwardly curled circumierential bead located slightly above the aztial depth of the unthreaded annular band portion of the container neck,
(i) a plurality of identical lobes equi-spaced and equal in number to the aforesaid radially outwardly extending lugs carried by the container ne ck inwardly depressed out of the outwardly facin g right cylindrical tamperproof band surface in axial confinernent below the transverse weakered fracturable -severance line and above the terminal inwardly curled circumferential head thereof,
(j) said lobes terminating in inward depression in a right cylindrical circumferential trace substantially concentric and coincident with the circumferential trace of the unthreaded annular band portion of the container neck carrying the radially outwardly extending lugs,
(k) said equi-spaced lugs providing uniform right cylindrical arcuate width spaces therebetween of greater circumferential arcuate length than the circumferential width of each of the identical equispaced lobes with the lobes aXially and loosely receivable within the spaces between the lugs and capabie of relative lateral oscillatory movement into interierencc contact with the lugs against complete rotation of the closure shell on the container neck, and
(l) said skirt portion of the closure shell being adapted to be dcformed into conformity with the thread -formation on the container neck.
2. A tamperproof container-closure structure comprising in combination:
(a) a rigid container having an open entrance end neck portion with at least one spiral thread formation of right cylindrical trace leading axially away from the open entrance end,
(b) a right cylindrical unthreaded annular band portion axially contiguous with and below the thread formation, concentric therewith, and of a diameter at least equal to the maximum trace diameter of the crest of the thread formation,
(c) a thread-protecting right cylindrical roll portion axially contiguous with and below the unthreaded annular band portion, concentric therewith, and located radially outwardly beyond the unthreaded annular band portion in shouldered relationship thereto,
(d) a series of identically configurated radially outwardly extending lugs carried by and equi-spaced about the periphery of the unthreaded annular band portion in generally axial parallel relationship to the longitudinal axis of the neck portion,
(e) the radial outward maximum extension of the lugs lying in a circumferential trace concentric with the unthreaded annular band portion `and radially inwardly stepped from the concentric circumferential trace of the cylindrical thread-protecting roll portion of the container below said lugs,
(f) a light gauge one-piece readily deformable drawn metallic closure shell of cup-shaped generally right cylindrical confguration having the closed end thereof adapted to seat across the open entrance end to the container neck end With the depending skirt axially overlying the maximum crest diameter trace of the thread formation,
(g) a right cylindrical tamperproof band formed integrally concentric and dependingly coaxially with said depending skirt, stepped outwardly therefrom, and extending in concentric overlying axial disposition to the unthreaded annular band portion and radiaily in interier circumferential outward clear- U ance rela tionsnip to the outwarcliy extending lrgs carried thereby,
'(h) said tamperproof hand being circum'ferentially sepcontainer neek carrying the radially outwardly eX- tending lugs,
(l) said equi-spaeed lugs providing uniforrn right cylindrieal arcuate Width space therehetween of greater eircumferential arcuate length than the circumferential Width of each of the identieal eqtIi-spaeed lobe s With the lobes axaly and loosely receivable within the spaces between the lugs and capable of relative lateral oscillato'y movement into interference contact With the lugs against complete rotation of the closure shell on the container neck, and
(m) said skirt portion of the closure shell being adapted to be deformed into conformity With the thread fo'rrnation on the eontainer neck.
3. The tamperproof eontainer-closure structure in accorcnnce with claim 23 in which the light gauge one-piece readiiy deformable closure shell is drawn from aluminum sheet of .001 to .01 inch gauge thickness.
sure shell and its integral coaxial tamperproof band, .15 on axially slidable application of the -closure shell into supporting contact across the open entrance end to the centainer neck, terminating with the inwardiy `curled circumfe'ential 'head located slightly above the 'shoulder at the juncture of the unthreaded an nular band and thread-protecting roll portions of the' eontainer neck,
References cited bythe Examiner UNETED STATES PATENTS (j) a plurality of identical lobes equi-spaced and equal %1131176 (it/1933 Fabrice 215' 7 in number to the aforesaid radially outwardly ex- 2 3 7/ 193178 Sheldon et al 215-42 tending lugs carried by the container neck inw'ardly 25 %i u depressed out of the outwardly facing right cylinrif j g e ?AS- 1:2 cal tamperproof band surface in axial confinement o i b a 215* below the transverse Weakened fracturable severance POREIGN PATENTS line and above the terminal inWardly curled circumferential bead thereof, I %0,763 8/1958 Switzerland.
(k) said lobes terminzting in inward depression in a right cylindrical circumferential traee substantially concentric and coincident with the circumferential tra-ce of the unthreaded annular band portion of the GEORGE O. RALSTON, Primary Exam'ner.
EARLE J. DRUMMOND, FRANKLIN T. GARRETT,
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|US2113176 *||Mar 26, 1936||Apr 5, 1938||Guardian Safety Seal Company||Sealed receptacle|
|US2124638 *||Sep 3, 1937||Jul 26, 1938||Abraham Siegel||Bottle closure|
|US2319849 *||Feb 15, 1941||May 25, 1943||Phoenix Metal Cap Co Inc||Closure for jars and the like|
|US2367317 *||Jul 4, 1942||Jan 16, 1945||Aluminum Co Of America||Closure|
|US3158278 *||Feb 4, 1960||Nov 24, 1964||West Co||Container closure|
|CH330768A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3374913 *||Oct 8, 1965||Mar 26, 1968||Continental Can Co||Tamper-proof package|
|US4153174 *||Jan 31, 1978||May 8, 1979||The Klm Company||Tamper-proof closure|
|US4915244 *||Apr 7, 1989||Apr 10, 1990||Bormioli Metalplast, S.P.A.||One-piece bottle top with deformable break-open seal|
|US5027964 *||Aug 14, 1989||Jul 2, 1991||Continental White Cap., Inc.||Closure with drop down tamper indicating band and related container finish|
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|US7207451 *||Jan 8, 2004||Apr 24, 2007||Graham Packaging Company, L.P.||Molded container with beaded neck|
|US7581651 *||Feb 28, 2003||Sep 1, 2009||Daiwa Can Company||Metal pilfer-proof cap|
|US20040140284 *||Jan 8, 2004||Jul 22, 2004||Graham Packaging Company, L.P.||Molded container with beaded neck|
|EP0013249A1 *||Dec 28, 1979||Jul 9, 1980||ETABLISSEMENTS PIERRE REMY Société anonyme dite:||Method of tamper-proof closing a bottle with a threaded neck portion, and bottle with a threaded neck portion for carrying out such a method|
|Cooperative Classification||B65D41/348, B65D41/3409|
|European Classification||B65D41/34A1, B65D41/34F|