US 3236214 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 22, 1966 Q JOHNSON 3,236,214
FUEL ECONOMIZER AND EXHAUST GAS PURIFIER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Aug. 20, 1962 v 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Arf/rur 0 Johnson INVENTOR.
Feb. 22, 1966 A. o. JOHNSON FUEL ECONOMIZER AND EXHAUST GAS PURIFIER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Aug. 20. 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet z A rf/rur 0. Johnson INVENTOR.
BY name United States Patent O 3,236,214 FUEL ECONOMIZER AND EXHAUST GAS PURE- FIER FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Arthur 0. Johnson, Miami, Fla, assignor to A.()..I. Corp, Dade County, Fla, a corporation of Florida Filed Aug. 29, 1962,Ser. No. 217,879 2 Claims. (Cl. 123-25) The present invention generally relates to novel improvements incorporated into the fuel and exhaust system of an internal combustion engine such as those employed in motor vehicles and more particularly relates to such an assembly which will reduce the consumption of fuel per mile traveled and also purify the exhaust gases discharged by the engine thereby reducing air pollution normally caused by such exhaust gas discharge.
An object of the present invention is to provide a fuel economizer and exhaust gas purifier for internal combustion engines which incorporates an arrangement for bypassing a portion of the exhaust gases back into the intake manifold and at the same time entraining a fuel mixture into the exhaust gases for introducing a combustible charge directly into the intake manifold thereby bypassing the normally provided carburetor which is still utilized to a certain extent.
As is well known, one of the major problems confronting urban areas is the pollution of the air due to exhaust gas discharge from motor vehicles such as passenger automobiles, buses, trucks and the like. Among efforts which have been undertaken to combat this problem is an arrangement in which the crankcase is communicated with the intake manifold or intake side of the carburetor so that any unburned hydrocarbon gases in the crankcase will not be discharged into the atmosphere but will be consumed by the engine itself. While this may have some effect on eliminating discharge of certain unburned hydrocarbons which may occur in blow by the pistons, it has no effect whatsoever on the exhaust gases which produce the major portion of air pollution. In certain municipalities, ordinances have been passed which prohibit the use of vehicles if the exhaust gas discharge is extremely smoky. However, this does not alleviate the problem to any great extent since even a motor vehicle in reasonably good repair will discharge exhaust gases having unburned hydrocarbons therein and other foreign materials which are capable of polluting the air especially under certain atmospheric conditions. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an attachment for a vehicle which will not only reduce the air pollution caused by exhaust gas discharge but will also increase the efficiency of the vehicle thereby reducing the fuel consumption per mile traveled and also enhance the operation characteristics of the engine so that it will be more responsive to speed changes, especially acceleration and also will be smoother running, easier starting and otherwise efiicient in performance.
Another result of the present invention is the extreme reduction in carbon residue accumulation in the combustion chamber thus further reducing lubricating oil contamination and reducing repair cost and maintenance cost since an internal combustion engine equipped with the present invention may be reasonably expected to drive a vehicle for an extended number of miles without requiring any maintenance insofar as removal of carbon and the like is concerned.
A further important object of the present invention is to provide a fuel economizer and exhaust gas purifier for internal combustion engines which is adaptable for use with various types of internal combustion engines and which employs conventional components thereby rendering the device relatively inexpensive to manufacture and "ice easy to install with very little modification in the existing internal combustion engine and related components in a motor vehicle.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective schematic view illustrating the present invention incorporated into an internal combustion fuel and exhaust gas system illustrating the relationship of the components;
FIGURE 2 is a detail sectional view of the container which is employed to introduce moisture into the fuel and thoroughly intermingle the same thereby providing a combustible mixture for introduction into the intake manifold;
FIGURE 3 is a schematic elevational view illustrating the interconnection between the existing carburetor control linkage and the control linkage for the control valve of the device of the present invention;
FIGURE 4 is a detail sectional View of a portion of the fuel tank and the filler tube thereof illustrating the relationship of the air inlet and air and fuel discharge tube communicated therewith; and
FIGURE 5 is a detail sectional view illustrating one embodiment of an assembly for forming a takeoff for a portion of the exhaust gases.
Referring now specifically to the drawings, the numeral 10 generally designates a conventional internal combustion engine having all of the usual components including an intake manifold 12, a carburetor assembly 14 for supplying a fuel and air mixture to the intake manifold 12 in a conventional manner. The carburetor 14 includes the usual actuating linkage in the form of a bellcrank 16 or any suitable equivalent mechanism connected to a rod or other linkage 18 that is ultimately connected with the accelerator pedal within the passenger compartment of a vehicle or which is accessible to the operator thereof. Fuel is supplied to the carburetor from a conventional fuel tank 20 normally located adjacent the rear of the vehicle but orientated in any particular manner. Suitable tubes or piping connects the fuel tank 20 with a fuel pump, the details of this mechanism not being shown since it forms no part of the present invention. Also, the engine has an exhaust manifold 22 communicated with an exhaust pipe 24 having a mufiler 26 and a tailpipe 28 all connected in series for discharging exhaust gas. The aforedescribed structural arrangement is a conventional installation and the particular orientation and configuration of the various components may vary depending upon the particular make or type of engine and vehicle.
The present invention is in the form of an attachment to an existing internal combustion engine and includes a bypass coupling or adapter 30 in the tailpipe 28 although this bypass may be incorporated into the exhaust pipe 24 or into the mulfier 26. The coupling 30 is in the form of a T-coupling and is communicated with a pipe or tube 32 which discharges a portion of the exhaust gases into a moisture supplying tank generally designated by the numeral 34.
The fuel tank 20 has a normally provided filler tube 36 provided thereon and communicated therewith adjacent the top thereof. The filler tube 36 normally extends through a supporting panel 38 and is provided with a closure cap 40 on the end thereof by virtue of which fuel such as gasoline 43 may be placed in the tank 20 in a conventional manner. The attachment of the present invention includes an elongated tube 42 curved generally to conform with the shape and configuration of the filler tube 36 so that it will be more or less concentric therewith although the tube may rest alongside of any surface of the filler tube 36 as long asthere is a passage for air between the filler tube 36 and the tube 42. The upper end of the tube 42 is rigidly aflixed to the filler cap 46 and a vent opening 44 is provided in the filler cap 40 in communication with a tube 42 thus providing an inlet for air which may proceed down the tube 42 and be discharged at the bottom of the tube 42 which is disposed adjacent the bottom of the fuel tank 22 thus bubbling air up through the fuel 43. The bubbles formed in this manner are indicated by reference numeral 46 and as the air is bubbled up through the fuel 43, a portion of the fuel 43 will be vaporized and entrained in the air thus forming a fuel and air mixture which is combustible. This gaseous fuel and air mixture proceeds upwardly in the filler tube 36 and is prevented from escaping to the atmosphere by the closure cap 40. Adjacent the upper end of the tube 36 there is provided a pipe or tube 48 communicated with the filler tube 36 for forming a passage for the fuel and air gaseous mixture. The tube 48 extends forwardly and is connected into the pipe or tube 32 at a point on the intake side of the tank 34 although the point of attachment of the tube 48 may be widely varied.
The tank 34 includes a generally rectangular container 50 although the shape and size thereof may vary. The tank 50 is provided with a vertical partition 52 and a removable top 54. The pipe 32 having the fuel and air combustible mixture therein and a portion of the heated exhaust gas products extends into the interior of a first compartment 56 and is connected with and communicates through the partition 52 into a second compartment 58. The first compartment 56 is provided with a supply of water 60 which may be replenished by removing the top 54 or by any other suitable means. A depending intake tube 62 is communicated with they tube 32 within the compartment 56 and the lower end thereof extends to a point adjacent to but spaced from the bottom of the compartment 56 so that the water 60 normally will cover the lower end of the pipe 62. Adjacent the bottom of the pipe 62 there is provided a water inlet 64 having a needle valve 66 cooperating therewith in a conventional manner for adjusting the inflow of water. Thus, moisture in the form of water droplets or water vapor is entrained in the fuel and air mixture as it passes into the tank 34. The compartment 58 is no more than a mixing compartment with the volume of the compartment 58 being open and providing an area for thorough intermingling of the exhaust products, fuel and air mixture and moisture vapor thus producing a moisturized. combustible mixture for discharge through pipe or conduit 68 which is communicated with a conduit 74} extending into the intake manifold 12 alongside of but spaced from the carburetor 14 as illustrated in FIGURE 1.
The pipe 70 is provided with a butterfly valve assembly 72 having a control link 74 thereon that is connected with the control link 16 of the carburetor 14 by a connecting link 76 having a lost motion connection 78 with the butterfly control linkage 74 thus providing a slotlike connection between the linkage 76 and the linkage 74 so that there is a lost motion connection between the carburetor link 16 and the butterfly valve link 74 whereby the butterfly valve controlling the flow of combustible mixture through the pipe 70 will be opened after the accelerator has been partially depressed and after the linkage 16 has been moved and the inner end of the slot 78 engages a pin 80 which connects the link 74 to the link 76.
FIGURE illustrates an arrangement in which a modified tailpipe 28' is provided with a plurality of openings in the top surface thereof designated by numeral 82 which are defined by downwardly or inwardly struck baflies 84. Thus, by downwardly striking the baflles 84, the openings 82 are provided and a portion of the exhaust gases normally passing rearwardly through the tailpipe 28 would be bypassed into a collection manifold 36 which is generally an inverted hollow member which encloses all of the openings 82 thus forming a collection chamber for the bypassed exhaust product. A pipe 32' is connected to the rear of the collection chamber 86 for bypassing the exhaust products back to the tank 34. The proportion of the exhaust gas products which are bypassed back into the intake manifold may be varied by the size of the bypass pipe, the shape and configuration of the openings or battles or by a suitable control valve if desired. The vacuum induced in the intake manifold due to the reciprocation of the pistons in an obvious manner induces flow of the exhaust products and also induces flow of air down through the tube 42 and flow of the gas and air mixture up through the filler tube 36 and through the tube 48 and also induces flow of moisture vapor up through the pipe 62 inasmuch as the compartment 56 is vented to the atmosphere so that atmospheric pressure is available on the top surface of the water 60.
Various control valves for rendering the attachment inoperative may be provided. Such a control valve is designated by the numeral 88 and is disposed in the pipe 68 prior to its connection with the pipe 70. In addition, there is another pipe illustrated schematically in FIGURE 1 and designated by numeral 90 which is communicated with a tank 92 and which is provided with a manual control valve 94 for controlling the operation of the tank 92. The tank 92 may be provided with a mixture of alcohol and water and a similar type of needle valve control 96 as that employed in the tank 34 and provided with a filler cap and vent assembly 98 so that the alcohol and water mixture may be entrained as a fuel mixture for introduction along with the fuel and air mixture from the conventional gas tank and the exhaust products thereby further increasing the efliciency of the engine.
The moisturized combustible mixture will increase the efliciency in the combustion chamber itself and also reduce carbon formation therein and provide an exhaust with less unbu'rnable hydrocarbons. Further, the recirculation of the portion of the exhaust gas products will further purify the exhaust gases while at the same time increasing the efliciency of the engine. In actual practice, a substantial increase in miles obtained per gallon of gasoline has been obtained and in a test installation of the invention, the engine has had a markedly superior performance and the lubricating oil can be changed less frequently and engine wear has been materially reduced. Over an extended period of time, the engine has been internally clean and the arrangement of the present invention substantially eliminates carbon deposits in the combustion chamber and associated portions of the engine. Another factor is the increased life expectancy of the. exhaust line components due to a reduction in those constituents of the exhaust products which cause corrosion. Y
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
What is claimed as new is as follows:
1. A fuel economizer and exhaust gas purifier for attachment to an internal combustion engine having a carburetor, an intake manifold, an exhaust system including an exhaust pipe, a fuel supply system including a fuel tank having a filler tube; said purifier comprising a perforated segment of exhaust pipe forming a part of said exhaust system, said segment including a plurality of apertures, the downstream side of the apertures having inclined baffles extending toward the upstream side for guiding exhaust products outwardly therethrough, and a collecting manifold for collecting the exhaust products and discharging them, a conduit connected to said collecting manifold and adapted to extend to a point adjacent the engine, an air inlet pipe communicated with the atmosphere and extending to a point adjacent the bottom of the fuel tank, and a mixture tube communicating with the top of the fuel tank for receiving air bubbled up through the fuel whereby fuel vapor will be entrained in the air thereby producing a fuel and air mixture, said mixture tube being connected to said conduit, a moisture vapor producing tank including a water compartment having a quantity of Water therein, said mixture tube extending through the top of the water compartment, a mixing compartment adjacent the Water compartment connected with said mixing tube and forming a mixing chamber for the exhaust products and fuel and air mixture, a depending tube disposed adjacent the bottom of the water compartment and communicating with the mixing tube adjacent the upper end of the Water compartment, and means including a needle valve in the lower end of the depending tube for controlling of inflow of water whereby such controlled inflow of water will be entrained in the exhaust products and fuel and air mixture passing through the mixing tube into the mixing chamber, a pipe extending from the mixing 30 chamber and communicating with the intake manifold of the engine, a control valve in said pipe between the mixing chamber and intake manifold, a bellcrank connected to the intake manifold, a linkage means connected between the control valve and said bellcrank, said linkage means including a lost motion connection enabling the bellcrank to be actuated independently of the control valve upon initial operation of the engine.
2. The structure as defined in claim 1 together with an auxiliary fuel tank pipe means connecting said aux iliary fuel tank with the pipe extending between the mixing chamber and the control valve, a manual valve in said pipe means for selectively communicating the auxiliary fuel tank to the pipe between the mixing chamber and the control valve thereby enabling an auxiliary fuel supply to be communicated with the intake manifold.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,528,881 3/ 1925 Jeiferils.
1,895,381 1/1933 Genety.
2,375,883 5/1945 Anderson.
2,649,081 8/1953 Martienssen.
2,715,392 8/1955 Grevas.
2,731,250 1/1956 Yon.
2,783,090 2/ 1957 Minerley 239--354 2,954,067 10/ 1960 Johnson.
2,977,940 4/ 1961 Theriault.
HARRY B. THORNTON, Primary Examiner.
RONALD R. WEAVER, Examiner.