US 3236726 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 3,236,726 SURFACE CHLORINATTON COMPOSETIQN Edward J. Ross, 36 Huntleigh Woods, St. Louis, M0. N0 Drawing. Filed Apr. 12, 1963, Ser. No. 272,555 6 Claims. (Cl. 16717) This invention relates to improvements in surface chlorination compositions and methods, and in particular is concerned with such a tableted composition that is useful as a disinfectant for liquid containers that are subject to stain at the liquid surface level on the container and for allied uses in commodes and other sanitary systems.
In the past, chlorination compositions have been employed for disinfecting and similar uses in commodes and other liquid sanitary systems in the form of liquid chlorine bleaches generally of sodium hypochlorite. Such liquid compositions have been disadvantageous because of the difiiculty of application and inherent danger in use in the household.
By means of this invention there has been provided a composition, preferably in the form of a tablet, which may be simply employed in a commode as two to three tablets per week. The composition in its tablet form is simple to handle and can be used by relatively unskilled personnel with a high degree of efficiency. The tablet consists essentially of magnesium carbonate, 40% to 70% by weight, which is dispersed into fragments or discrete particles which float in the liquid surface to provide a protective surface scum-like film at the liquid level, monosodium phosphate in the amount of 10% to 30% which acts as a phosphate sequestration agent and solubilizes encrustment and aqueous scales, 10% to 30% of sodium bicarbonate as a basic salt which additionally reacts with the monosodium phosphate to provide and liberate carbon dioxide as an effervescent and dispersing agent to fragment and break the tablet up for fast acting operation, and to 25% of a chlorinating agent preferably potassium dichloroisocyanurate.
The above composition made in the form of a tablet can be simply dropped into a liquid container, such as a commode or other sanitary system, and is dispersed to provide and release available chlorine, which provides disinfectant and sanitizing action to clean the commode, and also provide a deodorization in the area. As a significant feature of the invention the chlorine is largely released at the liquid surface level where it is most effective in removing liquid interface stains. This occurs through the fragmentation of the tablet and the collection on the liquid surface of the fragments in the form of a protective barrier or film. Residual chlorine is released in the fragmented particles which float in the liquid surface and physically contacts the liquid interface stains on the container for most effective action. Desirably in some cases the tablet may also be made to float at the liquid surface after it is dropped in the water for release of the chlorine at the top level of the liquid in a concentrated layer where it is most effective in container or commode stain removal. The tablet is safe to handle and can be simply employed by the average householder in the domestic sanitary systems involved, including commodes, sump drains, and the like. The tablet is safe where septic tanks are used and in concentration use will not affect septic tank operation.
The above features are objects of this invention and further objects will appear in the detailed description which follows and will be otherwise apparent to those skilled in the art.
The use of chlorine compounds for disinfecting and other allied uses, including that of algaecide, fungicide,
deodorant, germicide, bleaching, sanitizing, bactericide and general cleaning purposes has been well recognized. The properties of compounds releasing free or combined chlorine in aqueous media has been utilized in various processes. For example, diatomaceous earth cleansers now incorporate chlorine compounds, both organic and inorganic, for bleaching and sanitizing porcelain bathroom commodes and the like. Alkaline or caustic chlorine solutions have likewise been used for household disinfection and odor control. Usually a 5% chlorine liquid solution is sold for domestic purposes for laundry and general household cleaning. The general method of application is to take a gallon jug and pour from 1 to 4 ounces of 5% household bleach into the commode water. If, due to insoluble fats, cellulosic material, and the like, a stain at the water level persists, a bristle brush must be employed to scrub the bowl lining in order that the chlorine bleach may remove the stain.
Commodes are usually made of porcelain or vitrous enamel and consequently strong acids are to be avoided. Chlorine compounds are more effective and active in acid media and here is a failing of liquid chlorine bleaches. For stability purposes, the liquid chlorine bleaches are made with caustic soda to produce sodium hypochlorite, which is strongly alkaline but this tends to stabilize the chlorine.
The use of chlorine for commodes and other sanitation systems is highly desirable and this invention utilizes chlorine in a unique composition with inherent safety and ease of application. The tableted composition of the invention also permits controlled deodorization in a bathroom area where heretofore mechanical fans situated in walls and ceilings were required to replace bathroom odors by mechanical withdrawing of the air from the inside and discharging it to the exterior of the room area.
Basically the composition of this invention contains a strong chlorinating agent which is water soluble, but stable and compatible with an acid salt such as monosodium phosphate and a basic salt containing carbonate or a salt which, when dissolved, will release carbon dioxide from solution such as sodium bicarbonate. In addition, a dispersible light basic material, such as magnesium carbonate, is desirably employed to provide, in application, fragmented particles which float at the Water level and establish a dispersed film at the surface level of the commode water to act as a protective barrier. The use of the three compounds, the chlorinating agent, the acid salt, and the basic carbonate salt, will dispense chlorine depending upon disintegration time of the tablet, the temperature of the water, and the amount of material present.
It is extremely desirable to have a relatively high concentration of available chlorine at the water surface in the commode where the chlorine is most effective rather than to have uniform chlorine throughout the commode water, as most stains occur at the interface of the water level and the air space above. These are stubborn stains and require in addition to the chlorine bleach a scrubbing or physical removal. In addition to stains, mineral encrustments due to temporary and permanent water hardness compounds in water are imbedded with the stains. The use of the chlorinating agent alone does not remove these encrustments.
By the use of an acid salt such as monosodium phosphate, a phosphate sequestration takes place and solubilizes the encrustment or scale. The surface phenomena cannot be accomplished with known chemical methods and the addition of a dispersible light basic material which floats on water such as magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate, precipitated calcium carbonate, air floated silica, and the like, can be incorporated to disperse at surface level, release the free chlorine and in a convenient tablet form, eliminate the danger of liquid chlorine bleaches. A protective layer of magnesium carbonate remains on the surface which permits the chlorine released to bleach away the stains and films at the interface level. A further advantage in the use of the magnesium carbonate or magnesium oxide is the production with the monosodium phosphate of a phosphomagnesium compound which, in the flushing of the commode, coats the pipes and the goose neck in the commode and prevents residual backup odors.
The chlorinating agents employed in this invention may be of inorganic or organic nature that split off free chlorine in the presence of water. A preferred agent is an isocyanurate, such as potassium dichloroisocyanurate, which is a crystalline solid having a molecular weight of 236 and an available chlorine content of 60%. Other exemplary organic compounds that can be employed are dichloroisocyanuric acid and trichloroisocyanuric acid, 1,3-dichloro 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin, sodium para-toluene chlorosulfonamide and N-sodium, N-chloro, para-toluensulfonamide, p-(N,N-dichlorosultfamyl) benzoic acid, which are exemplary of normal chlorine release agents. Also trichlormelamine may be employed where slow release of chlorine is desired. As inorganic agents, chlorinated trisodiumphosphate can be utilized as well as chlorinated lime and other compounds releasing free chlorine as available chlorine. A typical analysis of chlorinated trisodium phosphate is over 3.25% sodium hypochlorite, over 91.75% of sodium phosphate expressed as Na PO .l2H O and under 5% sodium chloride.
For the purpose of illustration of this invention, there is shown a preferred example as Example I. This example, is, however, to be understood to be for the purpose of example only and it is understood that the invention is not limited thereto.
The above formulation may be very simply pressed into three gram tablets which are then ready for use. The tablet may be made to float in water by incorporating air voids in the tablet or by addition of conventional flotation agents, as will be well understood in the art.
The tableted composition of this invention can be handled without rubber gloves or protective devices. When the tablet is used in the order of two to three times a week in the normal commode, it is simply dropped in the commode water and the tablet will rise or sink depending upon the temperature of the water and other physical conditions prevalent, such as tabletting pressure and the like. The tablet may be allowed to stand overnight before flushing the next day. A clean, fresh, residual chlorine odor is emitted and denotes sterility and cleanliness. One tablet two to three times a week will prevent stain buildup and deodorize the commode.
The tableted composition can also be used where there are septic tanks or local disposal systems with minor effects on biochemical oxygen demand. A simple convenient method is accordingly provided for protecting and maintaining healthful and clean commodes and other sanitary systems, while the use of a strong and harsh acid is avoided. Further, the composition is safe for plumbing and can be used not only for disinfection of commodes and sanitary systems, including urinals and sewer drains, but can also be employed for grease traps and sump drains for domestic use as well as motels, service stations, hotels, restaurants and the like.
The elfervescence and dispersing action of the liberated carbon dioxide provided by the acid salt and the basic carbonate salt reaction tends to break up the tablet and expedite solubility in cold water. Further, the formulation when compounded can be tableted on two ton high speed rotary tablet presses and made economically in the form of a floating tablet. The tablets have been subjected to accelerated deterioration studies and have been found to have exceptionally good shelf life. The tablet used in the normal commode has also been found to have, after two to ten minutes, 100 parts per million or more of residual chlorine at the surface level. This indicates a high germicidal and bleaching activity. Since most commode waters are from public water supplies, the dissipation of chlorine due to organic matter in the water supply is minimal, and the chlorine compound is stable in cold solution.
In motels, hotels, and other institutions, it has been a common practice to utilize formaldehyde, muriatic acid, sulfamic acids, detergents and various phenolic compounds to maintain health and cleanliness in the commode systems and other sanitary systems. Many such institutions advertise that the commode has been sanitized for their protection. The high cost of such former types of disinfection and sanitation to such institutions has been not in the cost of the material employed but the necessary labor to scrub the commode thoroughly. Usually,
in the past, a contact time of 10 to 15 minutes has been The fragments of the tablets which principally consist of magnesium carbonate as a protective film can be simply flushed down the commode and leave an adhering film on the pipes and goose neck to prevent backup odors. A residual chlorine odor can be detected for a substantial period of time of from 2 to 6 hours indicating the activity of the composition. In commodes without seat covers the use of the density controlled magnesium carbonate entraps the released chlorine so that dissipation is minimal, while commodes with seat covers provide a longer lasting deodorization.
Various changes and modifications may be made in the composition of this invention as will be readily understood by those skilled in the art and as pointed out herein. Such changes and modifications are within the scope and teaching of this invention as defined by the claims appended hereto.
What is claimed is:
1. A dispersible solid disinfectant composition consisting essentially of about 40% to 70% by weight of a dispersible light inorganic basic material, a component acting as a phosphate sequestration and effervescent agent comprising 10% to 30% monosodium phosphate and 10% to 30% sodium bicarbonate and 5% to 25% of a chlorinating agent which releases available chlorine in water.
2. A dispersible solid disinfectant composition consisting essentially of about 40% to 70% by weight of a dispersible light water fioatable inorganic basic material selected from the group consisting of magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxide, precipitated calcium carbonate and air floated silica, a component acting as a phosphate sequestration and elfervescent agent comprising 10% to 30% of monosodium phosphate and 10% to 30% of sodium bicarbonate and 5% to 25% of a chlorinating agent which releases available chlorine in water, said chlorinating agent being selected from the group consisting of potassium dichloroisocyanurate, dichloroisocyanuric acid, trichloroisocyanuric acid, 1,3-dichloro 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin, sodium para-toluene chlorosulfonamide, N-sodium, N-chloro para-toluensulfonamide, p-(N,N-dichlorosulfarnyl) benzoic acid, trichlormelamine, chlorinated trisodium phosphate and chlorinated lime.
3. The composition of claim 2 in which the basic material is magnesium carbonate.
4. The composition of claim 2 in which the chlorinating agent is potassium dichloroisocyanurate.
5. A dispersi-ble solid disinfectant composition consisting essentially of about 40% to 70% by Weight of dispersible water floatable magnesium carbonate, a component acting as a phosphate sequestration and effervescent agent comprising 10% to 30% monosodium phosphate and 10% to 30% sodium bicarbonate and 5% to 25% potassium dichloroisocyanurate.
6. A dispersible solid disinfectant composition in tablet form consisting essentially of about 57% by Weight of dispersible Water fioatable magnesium carbonate, a component acting as a phosphate sequestration and effervescent agent comprising 19% monosodium phosphate and 14% sodium bicarbonate and 10% potassium dichloroisocyanurate.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,071,094 =2/1-937 Vincent 16717 2,263,948 11/ 1941 Halvorson et al 16718 2,497,057 2/1950 Pape et a1 252157 2,558,942 7/1951 Ea'gleson 16718 2,802,788 8/1957 Flaxman 252105 2,815,311 12/1957 Ellis et a1. 167-18 2,988,471 6/1961 Fuchs et a1 167-18 3,011,863 12/1961 Newman 167-65 3,123,554 3/1964 Murray 21060 JULIAN S. LEVITI, Primary Examiner.