Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3238143 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 1, 1966
Filing dateAug 16, 1963
Priority dateAug 16, 1963
Publication numberUS 3238143 A, US 3238143A, US-A-3238143, US3238143 A, US3238143A
InventorsAinsley Robert L, Franklin William J, Vernier Robert J, White Jr Locke
Original AssigneeAinsley Robert L, Franklin William J, Vernier Robert J, White Jr Locke
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Aerosol generators
US 3238143 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Mardl 1966 R. L. AINSLEY ETAL 3,238,143

AEROSOL GENERATORS Filed Aug. 16, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig. 4

Fig.5

INVENTORS Robert L. Ainsley Wflliam J. Frank/in Robert J. Vern/er Locke White J/Z BY 4W MJM M 1. #44,,

3 4. QM; ATTORNEYS.

United States Patent Ofi 3,238,143 Patented Mar. 1, I966 3,238,143 AEROSOL GENERATORS Robert L. Ainsley, Kingsville, Robert J. Vernier, Baltimore, and William J. Franklin, North East, Md, and Locke White, .Ir., Davidson, N.C., assignors to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army Filed Aug. 16, 1963, Ser. No. 302,748

6 Claims. (Cl. 252359) The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment to us of any royalty therein.

This invention relates to a method and means for producing aerosol dispersions of chemical agents by vaporization.

Among the objects of this invention is to provide an apparatus for dispersing liquid, or readily fusible solid toxic and irritant chemical agents, for example, G-agents, diphenylaminechlorarsine and chloracetophenone without producing substantial thermal decomposition of the agents.

A further object of this invention is to provide an apparatus wherein toxic and irritant chemical agents of the character heretofore described are volatilized in a resilient type of container and through means of pressurized gas squeezed out therefrom into a hot gas stream and dispersed in the air with high rate of vaporization and minimum thermal decomposition of the agents.

Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings showing preferred embodiments of the invention.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is fragmentary plan view of the aerosol dispersion apparatus.

FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view of the aerosol dispersion apparatus.

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic representation of a solidified agent surrounding an exit tube.

FIG. 4 is fragmentary plan view of a modified aerosol dispersion apparatus.

FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of the modified dispersion apparatus.

The aerosol dispersion apparatus shown in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3 is principally designed for dissemination of solid volatilized agents, while the aerosol dispersion apparatus shown in FIGURES 4 and 5 is intended for dissemination of liquid agents.

Referring particularly to FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, the solid dispersion apparatus in general comprises a cylindrical metal casing 1 having an upper agent chamber 3 and a lower fuel chamber 5. The wall of the upper chamber 3 (generally shown at 4) is designated as the outer wall. In order to facilitate the assembly of the apparatus, the casing 1 is made into two halves and threadedly joined at 7. The upper agent chamber 3 has an integral partition 9 which has a circumferential flange 11 a pair of gas ports 13, and central circular flange 15.

In the central circular flange, there is mounted a graphite venturi 17 and above the latter there is mounted a central rectangular exit tube 19 having a pair of agent ports 21.

The lower end of the central exit tube 19 is mounted and welded into the partition 9, While the upper end of this tube is fixed and welded into an end plate 23 having a filling plug 25. The end plate 23 is substantially of the same diameter as the flange 11. The end plate 23 and the flange 11 have mounted and fastened at their diameters through means of conventional type clamps 27 (or wire type clamps such as shown in FIG. 5), a resilient container 29 made from neoprene or butyl rubber or the equivalent heat and chemical agent resistant rubber. The chemical agent is shown by the number 31. The Wall of this container 29 (generally shown at 30) is designated as the inner wall. The agent 31 is generally poured into the container 29 through the opening having the filling plug 25. The clamps 27 render the container leak proof. The agent flows around both sides of the rectangular exit tube 19 (since the container 29 and the tube 19 do not form a leakproof seal where they meet) where it solidifies against the tube 19 and assumes the approximate form of FIG. 3. The agent is held in place within the upper agent chamber through means of threaded closure plate 33 having opening 35 and a groove 37 retaining O ring seal 39 which is in sealing relationship with the end plate 23.

The lower fuel chamber 5 contains a suitable solid fuel mixture block 41 such as for example is utilized in the patent to Comings et al. 2,882,239, and a well known fuze 43 such as for example is disclosed in the patent to Hale, 2,420,662. The fuze is generally screwed into a fuze adapter 45 having through ports 47 (only one is shown). The lower end of the fuze adapter is welded to the casing 1, while the upper end terminates short of abutment with the central flange 15.

In operation, the fuze 43 emits a flash through the ports 47 and ignites the fuel block 41. When the fuel block burns, pressure is developed in the lower fuel chamber 5 largely because of the resistance at the venturi 17. Some of the pressurized gas escapes through the venturi 17 heating the walls of the central exit tube 19, the heat of which begins to melt the agent 31. Another portion of the pressurized gas (of the lower fuel chamber) escapes through the ports 13 in between the formed outer wall and the formed inner wall of the upper agent chamber 3. As the pressure builds up in this space surrounding the resilient container 29 it squeezes the latter forcing the solid agent against the walls of the (now heated) exit tube 19. As the solid melts, it flows downward and is forced through the ports 21 into the hot gas stream of the exit tube 19 Where the agent is vaporized, ejected upwards through the opening 35 and disseminated in the air.

The liqm'd aerosol dispersion apparatus shown in FIG- URES 4, 5 comprises substantially the same embodiments as the apparatus shown in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3.

For the purpose of simplicity, parts in both structures having similar functions are referred to by the same numerals.

The cylindrical metal casing 1 of this structure has (in the upper half) a snugly fitted metal liner 2, gasket (made of heat resistant material) 4, lower fuel block metal liner 6, and a fuze adapter retaining plate 8. The end plate 23 and the partition 9 (having the resilient container) is press fitted Within the liner 6. This cartridge type unit facilitates the placement or the removal of the pay load from the casing 1. The partition 9 in this case, in lieu of the graphite venturi 17, has an opening 10 containing the cylindrical exit tube 20. The ports 21 (only one of which is shown on the drawing of the exit tube) in this instance are closed through means of a suitable easy melting soft metal ferrule or plug 12 made of Woods metal or the like.

The operation of this apparatus is similar to that which was previously described and referred to in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, except in this case, the pressurized hot gases melt the plug 12 thereby opening the ports 21 for the agent to be squeezed therethrough.

Although the present invention may be utilized singularly in various ground applications, it is primarily designed to be placed in a cluster which is generally dropped from an aircraft. Each apparatus of the cluster is united through means of a length of wire which passes through the end of each fuze (as shown in the patent to Hale, 2,420,662). When the cluster is dropped from the aircraft the wire is automatically pulled out from the fuzes thereby arming each aerosol dispersion apparatus.

Various modifications may be made in location and type of fuze and tail assembly which may have extendible metal tail fins. The apparatus may be made up into aimable clusters for precision bombing and in the clusters additional safety and arming mechanism for preventing premature firing may be used, such as are known to be used in clustering incendiary bombs.

While the heretofore described aerosol dispersion apparatus exemplify preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that the invention is not confined to the precise details of construction herein set forth by way of illustration, as it is apparent that many changes and variations may be made therein, by those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention or exceeding the scope of the appended claims.

We claim:

1. An aerosol dispersion apparatus comprising:

(a) fuel chamber means having solid, gas producing fuel means and fuze means therein,

(b) agent chamber means having an outer wall mounted above said fuel chamber means, said agent chamber means having central tube means open to the outside to define gas dispersion exit means and communicating with said fuel chamber means through a central axial port proximate said fuel chamber means.

() resilient wall means located in said agent chamber means surrounding said central tube means and speced from the outer wall of said agent chamber means to define a void space communicating with said fuel chamber means, and an agent space communicating with said tube exit means by means of agent ports in said central tube means whereby hot gases from the combustion of said fuel means will force said resilient wall means inwardly and discharge the contents of said agent space through said agent ports into said tube means where said contents are aerosolized and carried to the outside by the hot gases issuing from said fuel chamber central port.

2. An aerosol dispersion apparatus comprising:

(a) fuel chamber means having solid, gas producing fuel means and fuze means therein,

(b) agent chamber means having an outer wall mounted above said fuel chamber,

(0) central tube means mounted in said agent chamber means open to the outside on one end and communicating with said fuel chamber means through a venturi opening on the end remote from said open end,

((1) resilient wall means located in said agent chamber means surrounding said tube means and spaced from the outer wall of said agent chamber means to define a void space which communicates with said fuel chamber by means of gas ports and an agent space which communicates with said tube means through agent ports adjacent to said venturi opening whereby hot gases from the combustion of said fuel means will force said resilient wall means inwardly and discharge the contents of said agent space into said tube means where said contents are aerosolized and carried to the outside by the hot gases issuing from said fuel chamber via said venturi opening.

3. An aerosol dispersion apparatus as set forth in claim 2 in which the central tube means comprises a rectangular tube whose major transverse length is substantially equal to the width of said resilient Wall means.

4. An aerosol dispersion apparatus as set forth in claim 2 in which the central tube means comprises a cylindrical tube and said agent ports are blocked by fusible plug.

5. An aerosol dispersion apparatus comprising:

(a) fuel chamber means having solid, gas producing fuel means and fuze means therein,

(b) agent chamber means having an outer wall mounted above said fuel chamber,

(c) rectangular tube means in and substantially bifurcating said agent chamber means, open to the outside on one end and communicating with said fuel chamber means on the other end through a venturi open- (d) resilient wall means locate in said agent chamber means surrounding said tube means and spaced from the outer wall of said agent chamber to define a void space communicating with said fuel chamber by means of gas ports, and an agent space communicating with said tube means through agent ports adjacent to said venturi opening whereby hot gases from the combustion of said fuel means will flow through said venturi and will melt and compress the contents of said agent space whereby said contents will flow through said agent ports adjacent to said venturi and said hot gases flowing through said gas ports will force said resilient wall means inwardly and discharge the melted contents of said agent space through said agent ports into said tube means where said contents are aerosolized and carried to the outside by the hot gases issuing from said fuel chamber means by way of said venturi opening.

' 6. An aerosol dispersion apparatus comprising:

(a) fuel chamber means having solid, gas producing fuel means and fuze means therein,

(b) agent chamber means having an outer wall mounted above said fuel chamber,

(0) cylindrical tube means in and extending through said agent chamber means open to the outside on one end, having blocked agent ports on the other inner end, and having a venturi opening adjacent said other inner end,

(d) resilient wall means located in said agent chamber means surrounding said tube means and spaced from the outer wall of said agent chamber to define a void space communicating with said fuel chamber means by means of gas ports and an agent space communicating with said tube means through agent ports adjacent to said venturi opening,

(e) fusible plug means in said tube means remote from said open end thereof blocking said agent ports whereby hot gases from the combustion of said fuel means will melt said fusible plug means, force said resilient wall means inwardly, and discharge the contents of said agent space into said tube means where said contents are aerosolized and carried to the outside by the hot gases issuing from said fuel chamber via said venturi opening.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2/1933 Young 102-65 7/1946 MacMillan et a1. 10265 X 4/1951 Blackford et al. 252359.1

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1897948 *Oct 15, 1931Feb 14, 1933Fed Lab IncHand grenade or aerial bomb
US2402968 *Aug 15, 1942Jul 2, 1946John VintonColored gas signal
US2546964 *Mar 26, 1946Apr 3, 1951Blackford Benjamin BSmoke generator
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3492944 *Apr 4, 1968Feb 3, 1970Us ArmyTwo compartment thermal generator sphere
US5874690 *Feb 6, 1998Feb 23, 1999Brunn; MichaelSmoke grenade with rapid ignition
US6047644 *Mar 18, 1998Apr 11, 2000The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyPropellant based aerosol generating device and method of use
US7845280 *Nov 11, 2008Dec 7, 2010Law Enforcement Technologies, Inc.Diversionary device with vertically deployed payload
US7946228 *May 9, 2008May 24, 2011Wendy Gainsborough, legal representativeSelf contained non toxic obscurant grenade and self-contained aerosol dispersing grenade
US8091480 *Nov 23, 2009Jan 10, 2012Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbhIrritation body with additional effect
US8616132 *Sep 3, 2009Dec 31, 2013Karl-Heinz DragerApparatus and method for distributing irritants or warfare agents
US20080028669 *Aug 21, 2007Feb 7, 2008Hurwitz Marni MInsect removal tape, debilitating spray formulation and method for using same
US20100199874 *Nov 23, 2009Aug 12, 2010Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbhIrritation body with additional effect
US20100275803 *Nov 11, 2008Nov 4, 2010Caldwell Marcus LDiversionary device with vertically deployed payload
US20100282108 *Nov 11, 2008Nov 11, 2010Caldwell Marcus LReplaceable cartridge for diversionary device
US20100294157 *May 9, 2008Nov 25, 2010Dindl Frank JSelf Contained Non Toxic Obscurant Grenade And Self-Contained Aerosol Dispersing Grenade
US20110088582 *Apr 21, 2011Rheinmetall Waffe Munition GmbhActive body for a submunition having effective agents
US20110219979 *Sep 3, 2009Sep 15, 2011Karl-Heinz DragerApparatus and method for distributing irritants or warfare agents
Classifications
U.S. Classification102/334, 102/368, 239/318, 239/340, 43/129
International ClassificationF42B12/50, F42B12/02, C06D7/00
Cooperative ClassificationF42B12/50, C06D7/00
European ClassificationC06D7/00, F42B12/50