US 3239912 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 1966 J. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 3, 3
CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD Filed Jan. 15, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 I 1 l 1NVENTOR Hen/a2 J 8006/19/20 JOHN E. EadnneTuE/Z BY lilo/M 75 March 15, 1966 .1. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 3,239,912
CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD Filed Jan. 15, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 "a ,M Y I [1' INVENTORS Her-Hue J. Eauafifle Jaw/v E. aaunaswiws-e March 15, 1966 J. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 3,239,912
CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Jan. 15, 1962 IN V EN TOR fiber-Hue J BOI/CHHED JOHN 6. Baumeflerwsz W, mrm
M 1966 J. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 1 CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD Filed Jan. 15, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 BY J HN K fifiuneer/vsk March 1966 J. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 3,239,912
CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD Filed Jan. 15, 1962 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 R IN VENTORS Her/4 ue J. Baaaawep BY W1 March 1966 J. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 3,239,912
CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD w x Z 096 a MW 6 m h Wwu M mam m J m 8 M Ale JO// BY VRH Filed Jan. 15. 1962 M24, Zaz/rm Mar'lh 1966 J. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 3,239,912
CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 Filed Jan. 15, 1962 March 1966 J. R. BAUMGARTNER ETAL 3,239,912
CONTINUOUS FORGING METHOD 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed Jan. 15, 1962 AK E 0 w; Z 5 W 5 5 m Je w 2 N U Z HY B United States Patent 3,239,912 CUNTINUOUS FORGING METHQD John R. Baumgartner, Fort Lauderdale, Fla, and Arthur J. Bouchard, Milwaukee, Wis., assignors to Bennett American Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Filed Jan. 15, 1962, Ser. No. 166,031 4 Claims. (Cl. 29148.4)
This invention relates to a continuous forging method and apparatus. The invention will be described with particular reference to the forging of balls, as there are especial advantages in the use of the invention for this purpose.
Objects of the invention are to provide improved control of the grain of the metal and to expedite the forging operation and reduce cost, thereby producing a superior product at reduced expense.
Bar stock is subdivided into slugs by pinch-off dies which cause surface grain to converge. These slugs are continuously delivered without rehandling into a feeder which advances them singly to the forging dies. These compress the slugs axially and expand them diametrically with symmetrical grain distribution.
Each die is pivotally mounted on its respective carrier and controlled by a cam for cooperation with the complementary die on the other carrier. As the dies approach each other in the rotation of their respective carriers, cams hold them open to receive the slugs. The feeder delivers each slug with its ends pocketed in the respective dies. The dies thereupon oscillate into alignment and are maintained in alignment as they approach each other and move toward the common diameter of the respective carriers. As they reach that diameter, the dies make substantial contact and the forging operation is completed.
Since the dies are in alignment as they approach contact, their movement with respect to the slug is rectilinear and the grain distribution is symmetrical notwithstanding rotative movement of the carriers. The product differs materially from what it might otherwise be. For example, a ball which is molded between dies which are fixed on the peripheries of the carriers will have little or no flash on one side and an excessive flash on the other and there will be corresponding imbalance in the distribution of the grain pattern.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a view in side elevation of a forging apparatus embodying the invention.
FIG. 2 is a view in end elevation of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1, portions being broken away.
FIG. 3 is a view taken in section on the line 3-3 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is an enlarged detail view taken in section on line 4-4 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 5 is a detail view taken in section on line 5--5 of FIG. 4.
FIG. 6 is a further enlarged detail view in perspective showing one of the pinch-off dies.
FIG. 7 is a detail view showing portions of consecutive and partially separated slugs resulting from the operation of the pinch-off dies.
FIG. 8 is an enlarged view taken in section on the line 8-8 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 9 is a view taken in section on the line 9-9 of FIG. 8, portions of the feeder being shown in side elevation.
FIG. 10 is a view taken in section on the line 10-10 of FIG. 9.
FIG. 11 is a detail view in perspective of the lefthand cover plate of the camming mechanism shown in FIG. 9.
FIG. 12 is a view in side elevation of the righthand cover plate of the mechanism shown in FIG. 9.
FIG. 13 is a fragmentary detail view on the line 13-13 of FIG. 12.
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary detail view taken in section on the line 14-14 of FIG. 10.
FIG. 15 is a fragmentary detail view in section on the line 1515 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 16 is a view taken in section on an enlarged scale on the line 1616 of FIG. 15.
FIG. 17, FIG. 18 and FIG. 19 are enlarged detail views taken in section showing successive relative positions of complementary dies as they oscillate upon their respective carriers in the course of a forging operation.
FIG. 20 is a view in side elevation showing a modified embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 21 is a fragmentary plan view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 20.
FIG. 22 is a view taken in section on the line 2222 of FIG. 21.
FIG. 23 is an enlarged detail view partially in side elevation and partially in section through the pinch-off and slug delivery mechanism of this embodiment.
FIG. 24 is a view taken in section on line 24-24 of FIG. 23.
FIG. 25 is a fragmentary detail view taken from the viewpoint indicated at 2525 in FIG. 23.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1 to 19, inclusive, no means is illustrated for heating the work. It will be understood that the rod stock 1 may either be cold or it may have been heated before being fed into pinch-off dies shown in FIGS. 5 and 6. The shafts 3 and 5 carry rotors 7 and 9 upon which complementary pinch-off dies 13 are mounted. A detail of one of the dies appears in FIG. 6. It has flanges at 15 for anchoring it to its rotor and its outer surface 17 is arcuately finished on the radius of the rotor. At its opposite sides are channelshaped obliquely disposed cuts at 19 and 21 for forming upper margins which nearly meet at 23 in a pinch-off edge.
As like dies on the respective rotors 7 and 9 come together upon the intervening rod stock 1, the rod becomes subdivided into slugs 25 which, in this embodiment, are not completely separated but remain united by a readily frangible neck at 27 (see FIG. 7).
The concave form of the channeled surfaces 19, 21 of the respective pinch-off dies 13 shapes the ends of respective slugs conically at 29. The grain longitudinally of the surface of the bar or rod 1 is formed symmetrically inwardly toward the neck 27 at the apex of conical surface 29.
As the work leaves the pinch-off dies, the partially severed slugs pass through a sleeve 31 in cover plate 33 of a device which breaks off the slugs and delivers them to the feeder. The still-connected slugs are in continuous movement. In the course of their advance, the slug at the end of the series is engaged by the arm 35 of a star wheel 39 (FIG. 9). By the time the end of the leading slug encounters the partition 41, it will be broken free of the ensuing slug and caused to move circumferentially clockwise from the dotted line position shown in FIG. 12. The partition 41 has an open arcuate slot at 43 toward which the slug is urged in the course of its clockwise movement, being subjected to endwise pressure of the fixed cam 45 carried by the cover plate 33. By the time the slug has completed of arcuate movement, it will have passed through the partition 41 and will have been urged by the cam surface 47 into one of the notches 49 of rotor 51 as shown in dotted lines in FIG. 9. This rotor has peripheral grooves at 53 which J intersect the notches 49 to receive the margins of the paired disks 55 of the feeder.
Rotor 51 moves counterclockwise as viewed in FIG. 10. It receives one of the slugs 25 directly above the shaft 39. As slugs rotate to positions below shaft 39, they enter successive radial slots 57 of the feeder disks 55 and, substantially concurrently, the ends of the slugs enter guide channels 61 of the stationary feeder arms 63. There are two such arms in the form of plates having mounting flanges 64. The arms are spaced to receive the disks 55 between them. The form of the slots 61 is clearly indicated in FIGS. 2, 8 and 10.
With their ends guided by the slots 61, the slugs are at first caused to move centrally inwardly of the feeder disks 55 and are finally discharged radially of the disks as the disks rotate. In the course of feeding movement, the slugs become securely centered on the feeder disks as shown in FIG. 14. The conically tapered ends 29 of the respective slugs 25 are projecting somewhat beyond the bases of the feeder disks to be received into the channels 61 of guide arms 63 (FIG.
The shafts 65, 66 mount carriers 67 69 for rock shafts 71, 73 in which the forging dies 75, 77 are fixed as shown in FIGS. 17 to 19. For ball production, the pocket 79 of each of these dies is hemispherical and each may be equipped, if desired, with a work-ejecting plunger 81 reciprocably supported diametrically of the respective rock shafts and provided with a head at 83 within the cylindrical surface of the rock shaft.
As clearly shown in FIGS. and 16, the respective rock shafts have arms 85 provided with cam follower rollers 87 operating in the cam slots 89 of fixed cam elements 91. The general form of the cam slots is shown in FIG. 15. The form is so determined that as the carriers rotate oppositely in the manner indicated by the arrows 93, 94 in FIG. 15, the complementary dies 75, 77 of each set will be held open in the approximately radial positions in which they are illustrated in FIG. 17 until the feeder disks 55 deliver a slug into the respective die sockets 79. The slug is considerably longer than the diameter of the coacting sockets but is initially of considerably smaller radius.
FIG. 18 shows how the interaction of the sam slots 89 and the cam follower rollers 87 oscillates rock shafts 71 and 73 in their respective carriers 67 and 69 to a position in which their sockets 79 are now in axial alignment. This position of the parts is maintained until the forging operation is complete. At the stage shown in FIG. 18, the approach of the forging dies 75 and 77 has already begun to compress the slug 25 axially, its tapered ends 29 having aligned themselves with the axes of sockets 79 and the axial pressure having caused the slug to bulge at its center.
In the position of the parts shown in FIG. 19, the forging dies 75, 77 have not quite reached the point of closest approach, being still above the common diameter of the carriers indicated by the line 85. FIG. 15 shows the dies fully engaged but even in the positions of the dies in FIG. 19 the slug has been compressed to nearly spherical form. It will be observed that the deformation thereof is necessarily entirely symmetrical as the result of the fact that the dies 75, 77 are moved toward each other in rectilinear alignment notwithstanding the fact that their translative movement upon their respective carriers 67, 69 is rotative.
Because of the fact that the dies move rectilinearly and their surfaces are parallel in approaching full engagement, any flash will by symmetrically and substantially uniformly distributed. Moreover, because of such rectilinear movement, it is possible to calculate the amount of metal in the slug sufliciently closely so that there will be a minimum of flash, it being unnecessary to allow for any voids such as sometimes result when rotary forging dies are not thus compensated to approach in rectilinear alignment.
As the dies 75, 77 move beyond the point of full engagement, the successive completed balls 90 are discharged into an appropriate receptacle or delivery trough 91 (FIG. 15).
The forging may be done with the slugs cold, or the metal may have been heated. While there is nothing special about the driving connections, these will be described briefly.
The power input pulley is shown at 93 in FIG. 2. It is mounted on a drive shaft 95 having a pinion 96 meshing with gear 97 on shaft 99. The gear 101 on shaft 99 meshes with gear 103 upon shaft 66, this being one of the shafts which mounts a forging die carrier 69. It is intergeared with shaft 65 by means of gear 105. Shaft 65 carries the other forging die carrier 67.
The gear 103 not only meshes with gear 105 but also meshes with a gear 107 on shaft 109, the latter having a smaller gear 111 meshing with gear 113 on shaft 5 which carries the lower pinch-off die rotor 9. The upper pinch-off shaft 3 carries gear 115 meshing with gear 113 as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. It is, of course, important that the pinch-off die shafts be intergeared for accurate operation in unison.
The drive of the various slug feeding devices is taken from gear 105. Meshing with gear 105 is a gear 117 on the shaft 119. From shaft 119 motion is transmitted through the bevel gears 121, 123 to the shaft 125 for feeder means 55 (FIGS. 1 and 2).
Through the intermediate gear 127, meshing with gear 117, motion is transmitted to gear 129 on shaft 131. The bevel gear 133 on shaft 131 meshes with bevel gear 135 on the shaft 39 as shown and described in connection with FIG. 9, this being the mechanism which moves the successive slugs onto the feeder disks 55.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 20 to 23, inclusive, there is diagrammatically illustrated a heating furnace 141, the use of which is optional. Heat rolls 143 propel the rod stock 1 into the furnace, where it follows a circuitous path to assure adequate heating. The rod issues through the sleeve 145, which is provided at its end with a guide 107 for delivering the stock to the pinch-off dies. These are similar to the dies described above but preferably completely sever the slugs. The present embodiment contemplates slug delivery through complementary channel-forming means 149 providing a channel 151 through which the formed slugs are delivered arcuately into engagement with the thread 153 of a screw 155 which forces the slugs apart and propels them in slightly spaced relationship along the channel 157 which parallels the screw. This channel leads into a housing 159 where the slugs are picked up by the rotor arms 35 and ultimately delivered to the feeder disk means 55 as in the embodiment previously disclosed.
Both embodiments as disclosed are especially designed to practice the grain distribution method contemplated by the present invention but the method may be practiced otherwise, and even with hand-operated apparatus.
The metal rod from which the slugs are cut has longitudinal grain which it is desired to distribute as symmetrically as possible from pole to pole of the resulting balls. Accordingly, when the slugs are severed from the rod, this is done by pinching them off rather than cutting them off, the pinching operation being so conducted that as far as possible the surface of the rod is formed inwardly from all sides toward the rod axis. Each resulting slug is a generally cylindrical elongated body tapering at each end toward an apex. The diameter of the body is materially less than the diameter of the ultimate ball but its length is correspondingly greater than the diameter of the ultimate ball.
The slug is centered in cup-shaped open forging dies which are initially at an angle to receive the slug but move into perfect alignment before closing so that the final operation of the method includes axial compression of the elongated slug to reduce its length and correspondingly increase its width or diameter symmetrically so that the convergence of the grain toward the apices is maintained. Thus the surface of the finished product is almost entirely made up of the surface metal of the original bar and the initially longitudinal surface grain of the metal is distributed with as much regularity as possible from pole to pole of the resulting sphere, the poles being defined as the points most remote from the plane at which the dies meet. Since any flash will represent an interruption, to some extent, of the continuity of grain pattern, it is important that any flash produced in the practice of this method be substantially symmetrically distributed and of minimum amount.
It will, of course, be understood that in the preferred practice of the method the operation and the movement of the work are continuous to the discharge of the completed product. Ordinarily this product may be a ball but the dies may be shaped to produce non-spherical products, if desired.
1. A method of forging which includes the continuous movement of complementary forging dies upon circuitous paths upon which such dies close upon each other in the course of their continuous movement, the advance of stock, the successive severance of slugs from the end of such stock, the movement of severed slugs between the continuously moving forging dies, adjusting the respective dies into alignment in engagement with said slugs and closing the dies toward each other axially of the slug with which they are engaged and maintaining the dies in alignment as they close whereby radial distribution of the material of the slug between the dies is substantially uniform.
2. A method of forging which includes the continuous movement of complementary forging dies upon circuitous paths upon which such dies close upon each other in the course of their continuous movement, the continuous advance of stock, the severance of slugs from the advancing stock, the movement of severed slugs between the continuously moving forging dies, positioning the ends of each slug centered between forging dies and moving the dies toward each other axially of the slug so centered and thereby pressing the slug longitudinally with substantially uniform distribution of radial flow of the material of the slug.
3. A method of forging which includes continuous movement of complementary forging dies upon tangential arcuate paths upon which said dies close in registry, delivering successive slugs between said dies, and adjusting the respective dies into alignment in engagement with said slugs and maintaining them in alignment as they close notwithstanding their movement on said arcuate paths.
4. A method of forging which includes continuous movement of complementary forging dies upon tangential circular paths, said dies closing when they register with each other in proximate positions on their respective paths, introducing slugs between said dies to be forged thereby as the dies approach closing positions, and adjusting the dies into mutual alignment and holding them in aligned positions parallel to their positions when closed and continuing to hold the dies in said aligned positions during substantially the entire period of their forging action on said slugs.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 801,267 10/ 1905 Reid 29-343 1,573,487 2/ 1926 German 29--34.3 2,132,853 10/1938 Kearney 29-343 2,614,317 10/1952 Deussen 29-l48.4 2,801,556 8/1957 Gronemeyer 72191 2,963,772 12/ 1960 Niles 29-148.4
FOREIGN PATENTS 669,464 12/ 1938 Germany.
WHITMORE A. WILTZ, Primary Examiner.