Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3241611 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 22, 1966
Filing dateApr 10, 1963
Priority dateApr 10, 1963
Publication numberUS 3241611 A, US 3241611A, US-A-3241611, US3241611 A, US3241611A
InventorsLynn Dougan John
Original AssigneeEquity Oil Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Recovery of petroleum products from oil shale
US 3241611 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 22, 1966 J. DouGAN RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM OIL SHALE Filed April l0, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 VHI INVENTOR. JOHN l.. DOUGAN ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 J. L. DouGAN 3,241,611

RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM OIL SHALE Filed April lO, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATMOSPHERIC FLOW RATE (CUBIC FEET DAY X 106) INVEN TOR. JOHN L.. DOUGAN ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 J. L. DOUGAN 3,241,611

RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROMOIL SHALE Filed April l0, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 6.o 8.o 0,0 NATURAL GAS FLOW RATE-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE (cualc FEET/ DAY x 06) FEET DAY X 105) N o4 METHANE RELEASED AND IN DECOMPOSlTION GASES 8.o |o.o NATURAL GAS FLow RATE -ATMosPHERxc PRESSURE (culc FEET DAY x m6) INVENTOR. JOHN l.. DOUGAN BY@ Mal j( ATTORNEYS United States Patent O M The invention relates to the art of heat-treating oil `shale for the recovery of thermal decomposition products therefrom, 'and particularly to such treatment carried out while the oil shale remains in its natural location underground, i.e. in situ, although it is also possible to derive certain advantages of the invention by carrying out the process within a pressurized retort. In either instance, the quality of the decomposition products is superior to that of products obtained by previously known processes.

An efficient and economical process for the recovery of petroleum products from oil shale has long been sought. Because Iof the high cost 4of mining the shale for subsequent processing, efforts have been directed in many instances to thermal decomposition of the organic content of the shale in situ. This involves the supplying of decomposing heat to the underground formation and the conducting of decomposition products from such formation to surface areas.

Most of the in-situ processes proposed heretofore have relied in whole or in part on the burning of a portion of the carbonaceous constituent of the shale, known as kerogen, for supplying much or all of the decomposing heat required. For this purpose, air or an oxygencontaining gas has been introduced into the formation along with heating means capable of raising the temperature of a portion of the shale to the ignition point.

In some special instances it has been proposed that a heated gas, inert to combustion, be introduced into the formation as a heat-transfer agent. In these instances,

.either the formation concerned is naturally porous, as in the case of porous tar sands of the Athabasca region of Canada, as distinguished from non-porous oil shales, see Pelzer U.S. Patent No. 3,040,809, or the proposal has involved the use of explosives to shatter impervious oil shale formations, see Hoover et al. U.S. Patent No. 1,422,204, the taking advantage of naturally porous strata in such formations, see Huntington U.S. Patent No. 2,969,226, or `the driving of drifts of gas flow into and through such formation, see Kiel U.S. Patent No. 2,974,937.

The process of the present invention utilizes natural gas, containing methane -as a principal constituent, for conveying kerogen-decomposing heat to the formation and products of distillation from the formation. Because this gas contains nothing that contaminates the products produced by the `decomposition of kerogen and transmits heat more eciently th-an do other gases that could be used, it is an ideal carrier for such products of decomposition. It will not reduce the heating value of `the product gases, and it will carry sufficient heat to effect the desired decomposition. Moreover, its own decomposition temperature (between 932 F. and 1292 F., depending upon its composition) is low enough to give .automatic protection against any accompanying decomposition of the host rock (decomposition of alkaline `earth metal carbonates occurs at well over 1292 R).

In addition, it is highly significant that natural gas is substantially oxygen-free and, therefore, inert so far as oxidation of the kerogen is concerned.

Another advantage accompanying the use of natural gas as a fluid heating medium is a solvent stripping action.

The gas is a solvent for thermally decomposed kerogen 3,241,611 Patented Mar. 22, 1966 ICC and exercises a solvent-stripping action with respect to the oil shale by penetrating whatever pores naturally exist in such shale (although oil shale is generally regarded as impervious it often contains minute po-res or hair-line cracks) or are artifically developed during treatment (by the dissolving or corroding `action of both the introduced carrier gas and the evolved gases), it being realized that the natural gas is introduced under a pressure of from about to 500 p.s.i.g.

A feature of the invention is the changing of the pressure of the solvent carrier gas periodically to effect what may be regarded as a pulsating action of such gas with respect to the shale formation being treated. When the pressure is reduced, gases and vapors within the shale are permitted to escape; when the pressure is increased, the solvent carrier gas is forced into whatever voids are left by decomposition of the kerogen and by escape of the resulting gases and vapors. Thus, there is a periodic cleansing action exerted on the thermally treated oil shale by the very gas which carries the heat to the shale, as well as an intimacy of contact between the gas and shale not heretofore achieved in the art.

The process of the invention is described in detail hereinafter and is illustrated in the accompanying drawings with respect to specific procedures presently regarded as the best mode of carrying out the invention in practice. From these, additional objects and features of the invention will become apparent.

In the drawings:

FIG. l schematically represents, in perspective and in vertical section taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. 2, a typical installation of equipment capable of carrying out the process with respect to a natural underground deposit of oil shale with which it is associated;

FIG. 2, a top plan view of the installation, progressive expansion being indicated by broken lines;

FIG. 3, a fragmentaryrvertical section taken on the line 3--3 of FIG. l and drawn to a considerably larger scale;

FIG. 4, a portion of the installation and of the progressive well-layout pattern of FIG. 2 drawn to a larger scale and amplified to indicate, by dotted lines, well casings, underground flow channels, and initial gas-penetration areas;

FIG. 5, a graph depicting the relationship between ow rate of the natural gas carrier fluid calculated at atmospheric pressure, temperature of discharge gases and vapors, and energy input to the shale zone being treated;

FIG. 6, a graph depicting the relationship between flow rate of the natural gas carrier fluid at atmospheric pressure, temper-ature of discharge gases and vapors, and quantity of shale which will be heated to a decomposition temperature of 932 F.; and

FIG. 7, a graph depicting the relationship between flow rate of the natural gas carrier fluid at atmospheric pressure, temperature of discharge gases and vapors, andthe quantity of methane released by the decomposed kerogen.

Referring to the drawings:

There are a variety of ways in which the natural gas carrier fluid can be injected into the underground deposit of oil shale and the products of distillation recovered. It is preferred, however, and a feature of the invention that one or more extraction wells be drilled to intersect an injection Well at the bottom of that `portion of the oil shale deposit which is to be treated, the wells being cased and insulated down tothe treatment Zone, but being uncased within the treatment zone, whereby .the hot natur-al gas will freely .circulate from injection well to extraction well or wells and will come into intimate contact with exposed `surfaces of the shale within the treatment zone.

An advantageous arrangement of wells, which lends itself to a progressive expansion of the workings in a most economical manner, is illustrated in FIGS. 1, 2, and 3 with respect to a deposit of oil shale 10 covered by barren overburden 11.

There, an injection well 12 is drilled through the overburden and into the deposit of oil shale to a level a that establishes the lower limit of a shale treatment zone and that avoids Iany water zone that may exist. A depth of a thousand feet or more is not unusual in an instance of this type, depending upon the natural formation encountered.

Six extraction wells 13 are drilled symmetrically and concentrically around the injection well in hexagonal for-mation. They parallel the injection well through much of their depths, but have their lower end portions 13a slammed toward and intersecting its bottom to establish free flow communication therewith.

This hexagonal arrangement makes for economical expansion of the workings in successive similar hexagonal groups indicated by broken lines in FIGS. 2 and 4, such groups having injection wells 12A, 12B, 12C, etc. and new extraction wells 13A, 13B, 13C, etc., but each successive working group making use of two injection wells of a preceding, worked-out group.

Both the injection well 112 and the extraction wells 13 of each hexagonal group of wells are double cased from the surface down to a level which establishes the upper limit 10b of the shale treatment zone, see the casings 14 and 15, respectively, in FIG. 3, and the treatment zone 16 in FIG. l. Thermal insulation 17 of any suitable type is inserted between the two casings. The extent of the annular space bet-Ween the casings is determined in each instance by the circumstances, it being realized that the purpose is to prevent undue loss of heat from hot fluid passing through ythe inner casings. A typical installation will have the wells spaced at twenty foot intervals and will utilize nine inch diameter steel pipe for the outer casing and two and one-half inch diameter steel pipe for the inner casing.

As previously indicated, natural gas is injected into the decomposition zone as a heating medium for the shale and as a carrier fluid for products of distillation. -For this purpose, there is provided at the surface suitable gas compressing, heating, and injecting equipment and suitable product recovery equipment. In the illustrated installation, natural gas is supplied through a pipe 18 and a valved by-pass 19 to a compressor 20 from any suitable source, such as a storage tank (not shown). Alfter being compressed to a suitable extent, ordinarily about 500 p.s.i.g., it is passed into preferably a gas-tired furnace 21, where it is -circulated through a suitable heat exchanger (not shown) and heated to an injection temperature above 662 F. (minimum optimum decomposition temperature of kerogen), but sui'liciently below its decomposition te-mperature to insure stability (about 932 F. in most instances). Then, still under pressure, it is passed through suitable piping 15a into the inner casing of injection Well 12.

This pressurized, hot, natural gas travels down into the uncased lower portion 12a of the injection well and into .the uncased lower portions 13a of the extraction wells 13, directly contacting the exposed shale faces of the several uncased well portions.

A sufiicient quantity of the compressed, hot, natural gas is introduced (determined both by the carrying capacity of the inner casing 1S, the depth of the wells, the length and diameters of `the uncased portions 12a and 13a, and the input pressure) to heat a supercal layer of the shale to the distillation temperature of the contained kerogen, i.e. between 626 F. Iand 1022 F. In this connection, it should be noted that the heat capacity of natu-ral gas is 0.910 B.t.u. per pound at 932 F. and that it requires 0.314 B.t.u.s `to raise the temperature of one pound of oil shale one degree F. under ordinary conditions. It is significant that this heat capacity is approximately two and a half times as great as that of any other gas that would be practical to use, and that natural gas is substantially oxygen-free and therefore chemically inert with respect to the kerogen.

`It has been found experimentally that the optimum temperature for decomposition of kerogen and the rapid evolution of decomposition products is -about 824 F. In order to attain that working .temperature in the forma tion, `the natural gas will normally be introduced at a temperature of 932 1:".

It should be apparent that the exact gas injection temperature, pressure, and rate will depend upon the circumstances in each appli-cation of the present process in actual practice and that calculations will have to be made in accordance with sound engineering practice based upon available data concerning theI particular deposit and conditions peculiar thereto.

In any event, the thermal decomposing and solvent action of the hot, natural gas carrier 11u-id, and of such carrier uid augmented by product gases `and vapors, against the exposed faces of the uncased well portions 12a and 13a, will either cause spent portions of the shale to Slough olf, exposing fresh shale for treatment, or will render such `shale permeable and susceptible to extension of the treatment backwardly from such well portions, depending upon the nature of the particular host rock.

In this way, the kerogen components of the shale in treatment zone 16 will be decomposed progressively outwardly from the uncased well portions 12a and 13a, somewhat as indicated at 16a in FIG. 4, and the shale in such zone will be effectively worked in situ.

The natural gas `carrier fluid, accompanied by decomposition product vapors and gases, passes upwardly through the extraction wells 13 into product recovery lines 22 and into and through condensers 23 intenposed in such line, were the decomposition vapors condense, leaving the natural gas carrier fluid to pass through pipe 24 back to the compressor 20, the heater 21, pipeline 15a, and injection well 12, thereby completing a circuit. The liquitied decomposition products pass through pipes 25 and 26 to storage tanks 27 and 28, respectively.

The natural gas supply line 18 leads directly to the gas burner (not shown) of furnace 21 and supplies furnace fuel. Whenever the quantity of natural gas carrier iluid is suiciently augmented by meth-ane and other suitable decomposition components of the kerogen content of the shale being treated, the valved by-pass 19 may be opened to permit part of the recycled gas to be burned as fuel for the furnace.

In order to achieve maximum contact between the hot natural gas and the kerogen content of the shale, it is a feature of the invention that a pulsating action be imparted to the gas within the bore holes. This can be accomplished by alternately slowing down and speeding up the compressor for time intervals which may vary from a few minutes to an hour or more, or by opening and closing valves (indicated as such) at the upper ends of the extraction wells 13 for such time intervals. The pressure differentials for effecting this pulsating action can vary widely, depending upon the circumstances. A differential of about 50 p.s.i.g. should suce in most instances.

A preferred procedure in the operation of each successive hexagonal well group when utilizing a constant gasinjection pressure is to commence the operation with the valves of all extraction wells closed and to keep them closed until the pressure gauge (not shown) reaches the desired maximum pressure. Then the valve of one of the extraction wells 13 is opened, permitting part of the natural gas carrier uid and the product vapors carried thereby to flow out of the well system.

When the pressure drops the prescribed extent, the valve is closed and the pressure permitted to again build up to the desired maximum. Thereupon, the valve of the next extraction well 13 is opened, and so on around and around the circumferential series of extraction wells until the treatment zone associated with the particular hexagonal group of wells is exhausted of its kerogen content.

When the wells of a succeeding hexagonal group are drilled, it is only necessary to plug the slanted lower portions 13a of .the two existing extraction wells which are to be used with the new group and to drill new lower portions slanted in the proper direction to intersect the injection Well of such new group.

The graph of FIG. 5 is used to determine the quantity of thermal energy in terms of B.t.u.s per day that is transferred to the shale in the treatment zone when the discharge temperature of the carrier gas leaving such zone and its injection rate in terms of cubic feet per day are known. These can, of course, be easily ascertained by the use of appropriate instruments at the surface. Thus, if the carrier gas were leaving the formation at a measured temperature of 600 F. and the flow rate were maintained at 3.0)(106 cubic Ift./ day at the injection Well, the energy transferred to the shale deposit would be 52.5 106 B.t.u.

The graph of FIG. 6 is used to determine the quantity of shale that can be heated up to a maximum of 932 F. on the assumption that all the energy transferred to the shale is confined in the particular zone being treated. Again, if the discharge temperature of the carrier gas and its injection rate are measured, the quantity of shale can be read from the graph. Thus, if the carrier gas were leaving the shale formation at a temperature of 600 F. and the flow rate were maintained at 4.0 106 cubic ft./day at the injection well, 2,200 cubic ft. of shale would be heated from 60 F. to 932 F.

The graph of FIG. 7 indicates how much methane iS released from the decomposed kerogen in terms of cubic feet per day when the same temperature and injection rate previously indicated are measured.

Although the composition of natural gas varies somewhat from source to source, a typical composition is as follows:

Percent Methane 91.6 Ethane 4.9 Propane 1.1 Butane 0.5 Nitrogen 1.7 Carbon dioxide 0.1

The oxidizing capacity present by reason of the very small quantity of carbon dioxide is inconsequential.

The petroleum condensate obtained as a decomposition product of the process is unique among shale oils. Thus, the API gravity at 60 F. of shale oil produced by a typical experimental run of the present process, using natural gas at a pressure of 300 p.s.i.g., was 29.5, whereas the normal API gravity at 60 F. for shale oil is below 20.

In instances where mined shale is treated in a pressurized retort, rather than shale in situ, the procedure is essentially similar so far as use of natural gas as a carrier iluid for both heat and the products of kerogen decomposition is concerned. A mass of oil shale is rst introduced into the retort, the retort is sealed, and natural gas is then injected under pressure into intimate contact with the shale, there being a Withdrawal of gas and accompanying products of decomposition either continuously or periodically within the limits of a minimum pressure to be maintained, and there being a recycling of the natural gas .following extraction of the products. The feature of pulsating the carrier fluid is applicable here also.

Whereas there is here illustrated and specically described a certain preferred procedure which is presently regarded as the best mode of carrying out the invention, it should be understood that various changes may be made and other constructions adapted without departing from the inventive subject matter particularly pointed out and claimed herebelow.

I claim:

1. A process of recovering petroleum products from oil shale in situ, comprising introducing into a substantially impermeable and undisturbed natural `deposit of oil shale underground a suicient quantity of natural gas, whose major constituent is methane, at su'icient temperature and suiiicient pressure to exert -a combined thermal and solvent action thereon for releasing the kerogen from areas of the oil shale with which it comes in contact and for permeabilizing such oil shale to open up normally inaccessible areas thereof to thermal decomposition of kerogen; and withdrawing from said underground deposit said natural gas along with distillation vapors and gases intermingled therewith.

2. The procescs of claim 1, including pulsating the gas into intimate contact with the shale.

3. The process of claim 1, including separating decomposition vapors from the gases and recycling lsaid gases.

4. The process of claim 2, including bleeding olf some of the gases before recycling them.

5. A process of recovering petroleum products from oil shale in situ, comprising drilling at least two wells adjacent each other into a substantially impermeable and undisturbed natural deposit of oil shale underground so that at least their lower portions have oil shale facings; circulating through said wells a suflcient quantity of natural gas, whose major constituent is methane, at sufficient temperature and suicient pressure to exert a cornbined thermal and solvent action on the exposed oil shale for releasing the kerogen and for permeabilizing the oil shale to open up normally inaccessible areas thereof to thermal decomposition of kerogen; and separating decomposition vapors from said gas at the surface.

6. The process of claim 5, including insulating the wells against the loss of heat down to the upper level of the oil shale zone to be treated.

7. The process of claim 5, including pulsating the gas into intimate contact with the shale.

8. The process of claim S, wherein there are six extraction Wells concentrically and symmetrically surrounding an injection Well in hexagonal formation; and wherein similar groups of wells are drilled successively, following working out of an immediately preceding group, so as to respectively utilize two of the extraction wells of said preceding group.

9. A process of recovering petroleum products from the organic content of normally impermeable, petroleumproducing, mixed organic and inorganic earth materials in situ underground, comprising introducing into such irnpermeable earth materials substantially undisturbed in situ a suicient quantity of natural gas, whose major constituent is methane, at suicient temperature and sucient pressure to exert a combined thermal and solvent action thereon for releasing the organic component of said earth materials with which it comes in contact and for perrneabilizing such earth materials to open up normally inaccessible areas thereof to thermal decomposition of organic constituents thereof.

10. The process of claim 9, including pulsating the gas into intimate contact with the earth materials.

References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 895,612 8/1908 Baker 166--57 1,422,204 7/ 1922 Hoover 166-40 X 2,148,717 2/1939 Whitney 166-57 X 2,421,528 6/ 1947 Steffen 16640 X 2,793,696 5/1957 Morse 166-11 2,813,583 11/1957 Marx et al 166-40 X 2,875,830 3/1959 Martin 166--7 2,909,337 9/ 1959 Hennig 166-1 (Other references on following page) 7 UNITED STATES PATENTS Purre 166-11 X Dew et a1. 166-11 X Woodruff 166-11 X Kiel 166-11 X Crawford et al. 166-11 8 3,040,809 6/1962 Pelzer 166-11 X 3,055,423 9/1962 Parker 166-11 3,109,781 11/1963 Natland 208-11 X 5 CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.

BENJAMIN HERSH, Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US895612 *Jun 11, 1902Aug 11, 1908Delos R BakerApparatus for extracting the volatilizable contents of sedimentary strata.
US1422204 *Dec 19, 1919Jul 11, 1922Brown Thomas EMethod for working oil shales
US2148717 *Jan 21, 1937Feb 28, 1939Whitney Alvin MProcess of extracting oil from oil sands
US2421528 *Jul 26, 1944Jun 3, 1947Steffen Ralph MUnderground oil recovery
US2793696 *Jul 22, 1954May 28, 1957Pan American Petroleum CorpOil recovery by underground combustion
US2813583 *Dec 6, 1954Nov 19, 1957Phillips Petroleum CoProcess for recovery of petroleum from sands and shale
US2875830 *Feb 4, 1954Mar 3, 1959Oil Recovery CorpMethod of recovery of oil by injection of hydrocarbon solution of carbon dioxide into oil structure
US2909337 *Sep 1, 1955Oct 20, 1959Cons Electrodynamics CorpTape transport control
US2911206 *Mar 8, 1957Nov 3, 1959Phillips Petroleum CoIn situ retorting of oil shale
US2954218 *Dec 17, 1956Sep 27, 1960Continental Oil CoIn situ roasting and leaching of uranium ores
US2970826 *Nov 21, 1958Feb 7, 1961Texaco IncRecovery of oil from oil shale
US2974937 *Nov 3, 1958Mar 14, 1961Jersey Prod Res CoPetroleum recovery from carbonaceous formations
US3004595 *Mar 21, 1958Oct 17, 1961Phillips Petroleum CoIn situ combustion of carbonaceous strata
US3040809 *Jun 5, 1957Jun 26, 1962Sinclair Oil & Gas CompanyProcess for recovering viscous crude oil from unconsolidated formations
US3055423 *May 4, 1959Sep 25, 1962Phillips Petroleum CoControlling selective plugging of carbonaceous strata for controlled production of thermal drive
US3109781 *Nov 6, 1958Nov 5, 1963Richfield Oil CorpCombined apparatus of a retort, fractionator and heater for treating hydrocarboniferous material
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3348883 *Dec 27, 1965Oct 24, 1967Int Salt CoMethod for concomitant mining and beneficiation of soluble mineral
US3351132 *Jul 16, 1965Nov 7, 1967Equity Oil CompanyPost-primary thermal method of recovering oil from oil wells and the like
US3358756 *Mar 12, 1965Dec 19, 1967Shell Oil CoMethod for in situ recovery of solid or semi-solid petroleum deposits
US3386508 *Feb 21, 1966Jun 4, 1968Exxon Production Research CoProcess and system for the recovery of viscous oil
US3456735 *Feb 1, 1967Jul 22, 1969Exxon Production Research CoMethod for completing wells to prevent paraffin deposits
US3468376 *Feb 10, 1967Sep 23, 1969Mobil Oil CorpThermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons
US3474863 *Jul 28, 1967Oct 28, 1969Shell Oil CoShale oil extraction process
US3480082 *Sep 25, 1967Nov 25, 1969Continental Oil CoIn situ retorting of oil shale using co2 as heat carrier
US3493060 *Apr 16, 1968Feb 3, 1970Woods Res & DevIn situ recovery of earth minerals and derivative compounds by laser
US3593790 *Jan 2, 1969Jul 20, 1971Shell Oil CoMethod for producing shale oil from an oil shale formation
US4222437 *May 14, 1979Sep 16, 1980Karol SabolMethod for in situ gas production from coal seams
US4325432 *Apr 7, 1980Apr 20, 1982Henry John TMethod of oil recovery
US4438816 *May 13, 1982Mar 27, 1984Uop Inc.Process for recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale
US4446921 *Mar 16, 1982May 8, 1984Fried. Krupp Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter HaftungMethod for underground gasification of solid fuels
US4449586 *Jun 11, 1982May 22, 1984Uop Inc.Process for the recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale
US4487260 *Mar 1, 1984Dec 11, 1984Texaco Inc.In situ production of hydrocarbons including shale oil
US6581684Apr 24, 2001Jun 24, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce sulfur containing formation fluids
US6588504Apr 24, 2001Jul 8, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce nitrogen and/or sulfur containing formation fluids
US6591906Apr 24, 2001Jul 15, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected oxygen content
US6591907Apr 24, 2001Jul 15, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6607033Apr 24, 2001Aug 19, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn Situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a condensate
US6609570Apr 24, 2001Aug 26, 2003Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation and ammonia production
US6684948Jan 15, 2002Feb 3, 2004Marshall T. SavageApparatus and method for heating subterranean formations using fuel cells
US6688387Apr 24, 2001Feb 10, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a hydrocarbon condensate
US6698515Apr 24, 2001Mar 2, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6702016Apr 24, 2001Mar 9, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with heat sources located at an edge of a formation layer
US6708758Apr 24, 2001Mar 23, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6712135Apr 24, 2001Mar 30, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation in reducing environment
US6712136Apr 24, 2001Mar 30, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a selected production well spacing
US6712137Apr 24, 2001Mar 30, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6715546Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation through a heat source wellbore
US6715547Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to form a substantially uniform, high permeability formation
US6715548Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce nitrogen containing formation fluids
US6715549Apr 24, 2001Apr 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected atomic oxygen to carbon ratio
US6719047Apr 24, 2001Apr 13, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation in a hydrogen-rich environment
US6722429Apr 24, 2001Apr 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation leaving one or more selected unprocessed areas
US6722430Apr 24, 2001Apr 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with a selected oxygen content and/or selected O/C ratio
US6722431Apr 24, 2001Apr 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of hydrocarbons within a relatively permeable formation
US6725920Apr 24, 2001Apr 27, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to convert a selected amount of total organic carbon into hydrocarbon products
US6725921Apr 24, 2001Apr 27, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6725928Apr 24, 2001Apr 27, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a distributed combustor
US6729395Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected ratio of heat sources to production wells
US6729396Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range
US6729397Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected vitrinite reflectance
US6729401Apr 24, 2001May 4, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation and ammonia production
US6732794Apr 24, 2001May 11, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture with a selected hydrogen content
US6732795Apr 24, 2001May 11, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to pyrolyze a selected percentage of hydrocarbon material
US6732796Apr 24, 2001May 11, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation, the synthesis gas having a selected H2 to CO ratio
US6736215Apr 24, 2001May 18, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation, in situ production of synthesis gas, and carbon dioxide sequestration
US6739393Apr 24, 2001May 25, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation and tuning production
US6739394Apr 24, 2001May 25, 2004Shell Oil CompanyProduction of synthesis gas from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US6742587Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to form a substantially uniform, relatively high permeable formation
US6742588Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce formation fluids having a relatively low olefin content
US6742589Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using repeating triangular patterns of heat sources
US6742593Apr 24, 2001Jun 1, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using heat transfer from a heat transfer fluid to heat the formation
US6745831Apr 24, 2001Jun 8, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation by controlling a pressure of the formation
US6745832Apr 24, 2001Jun 8, 2004Shell Oil CompanySitu thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to control product composition
US6745837Apr 24, 2001Jun 8, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a controlled heating rate
US6749021Apr 24, 2001Jun 15, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using a controlled heating rate
US6752210Apr 24, 2001Jun 22, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using heat sources positioned within open wellbores
US6758268Apr 24, 2001Jul 6, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using a relatively slow heating rate
US6761216Apr 24, 2001Jul 13, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6763886Apr 24, 2001Jul 20, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation with carbon dioxide sequestration
US6769483Apr 24, 2001Aug 3, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using conductor in conduit heat sources
US6769485Apr 24, 2001Aug 3, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ production of synthesis gas from a coal formation through a heat source wellbore
US6789625Apr 24, 2001Sep 14, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using exposed metal heat sources
US6805195Apr 24, 2001Oct 19, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce hydrocarbon fluids and synthesis gas
US6820688Apr 24, 2001Nov 23, 2004Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of coal formation with a selected hydrogen content and/or selected H/C ratio
US6866097Apr 24, 2001Mar 15, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation to increase a permeability/porosity of the formation
US6877554Apr 24, 2001Apr 12, 2005Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US6994168Apr 24, 2001Feb 7, 2006Scott Lee WellingtonIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen to carbon ratio
US7032660Apr 24, 2002Apr 25, 2006Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation
US7182132Oct 15, 2003Feb 27, 2007Independant Energy Partners, Inc.Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US7441603Jul 30, 2004Oct 28, 2008Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyHydrocarbon recovery from impermeable oil shales
US7516785Oct 10, 2007Apr 14, 2009Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethod of developing subsurface freeze zone
US7516787Oct 10, 2007Apr 14, 2009Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethod of developing a subsurface freeze zone using formation fractures
US7575052 *Apr 21, 2006Aug 18, 2009Shell Oil CompanyIn situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7631691Dec 15, 2009Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US7644765Oct 19, 2007Jan 12, 2010Shell Oil CompanyHeating tar sands formations while controlling pressure
US7647971Dec 23, 2008Jan 19, 2010Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethod of developing subsurface freeze zone
US7647972Dec 23, 2008Jan 19, 2010Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanySubsurface freeze zone using formation fractures
US7669657Mar 2, 2010Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyEnhanced shale oil production by in situ heating using hydraulically fractured producing wells
US7673681Oct 19, 2007Mar 9, 2010Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with karsted zones
US7673786Apr 20, 2007Mar 9, 2010Shell Oil CompanyWelding shield for coupling heaters
US7677310Oct 19, 2007Mar 16, 2010Shell Oil CompanyCreating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations
US7677314Oct 19, 2007Mar 16, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMethod of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations
US7681647Mar 23, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMethod of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations
US7683296Mar 23, 2010Shell Oil CompanyAdjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters
US7703513Oct 19, 2007Apr 27, 2010Shell Oil CompanyWax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US7717171Oct 19, 2007May 18, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMoving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid
US7730945Oct 19, 2007Jun 8, 2010Shell Oil CompanyUsing geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process
US7730946Oct 19, 2007Jun 8, 2010Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with dolomite
US7730947Oct 19, 2007Jun 8, 2010Shell Oil CompanyCreating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US7735935Jun 1, 2007Jun 15, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals
US7785427Apr 20, 2007Aug 31, 2010Shell Oil CompanyHigh strength alloys
US7793722Apr 20, 2007Sep 14, 2010Shell Oil CompanyNon-ferromagnetic overburden casing
US7798220Apr 18, 2008Sep 21, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment
US7798221Sep 21, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7831134Apr 21, 2006Nov 9, 2010Shell Oil CompanyGrouped exposed metal heaters
US7832484Apr 18, 2008Nov 16, 2010Shell Oil CompanyMolten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation
US7841401Oct 19, 2007Nov 30, 2010Shell Oil CompanyGas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process
US7841408Apr 18, 2008Nov 30, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation
US7841425Nov 30, 2010Shell Oil CompanyDrilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures
US7845411Dec 7, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US7849922Dec 14, 2010Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US7857056Oct 15, 2008Dec 28, 2010Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyHydrocarbon recovery from impermeable oil shales using sets of fluid-heated fractures
US7860377Apr 21, 2006Dec 28, 2010Shell Oil CompanySubsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters
US7866385Apr 20, 2007Jan 11, 2011Shell Oil CompanyPower systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid
US7866386Oct 13, 2008Jan 11, 2011Shell Oil CompanyIn situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US7866388Jan 11, 2011Shell Oil CompanyHigh temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel
US7912358Apr 20, 2007Mar 22, 2011Shell Oil CompanyAlternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US7931086Apr 18, 2008Apr 26, 2011Shell Oil CompanyHeating systems for heating subsurface formations
US7942197Apr 21, 2006May 17, 2011Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US7942203May 17, 2011Shell Oil CompanyThermal processes for subsurface formations
US7950453Apr 18, 2008May 31, 2011Shell Oil CompanyDownhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US7980312 *Jul 19, 2011Hill Gilman AIntegrated in situ retorting and refining of oil shale
US7986869Apr 21, 2006Jul 26, 2011Shell Oil CompanyVarying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters
US8011451Sep 6, 2011Shell Oil CompanyRanging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8027571Sep 27, 2011Shell Oil CompanyIn situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation
US8042610Oct 25, 2011Shell Oil CompanyParallel heater system for subsurface formations
US8070840Apr 21, 2006Dec 6, 2011Shell Oil CompanyTreatment of gas from an in situ conversion process
US8082995Dec 27, 2011Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyOptimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
US8083813Dec 27, 2011Shell Oil CompanyMethods of producing transportation fuel
US8087460Jan 3, 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyGranular electrical connections for in situ formation heating
US8104537Jan 31, 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethod of developing subsurface freeze zone
US8113272Oct 13, 2008Feb 14, 2012Shell Oil CompanyThree-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US8122955Apr 18, 2008Feb 28, 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyDownhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8146661Oct 13, 2008Apr 3, 2012Shell Oil CompanyCryogenic treatment of gas
US8146664May 21, 2008Apr 3, 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyUtilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock
US8146669Oct 13, 2008Apr 3, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMulti-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation
US8151877Apr 18, 2008Apr 10, 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyDownhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US8151880Dec 9, 2010Apr 10, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMethods of making transportation fuel
US8151884Oct 10, 2007Apr 10, 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyCombined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource
US8151907Apr 10, 2009Apr 10, 2012Shell Oil CompanyDual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US8162059Apr 24, 2012Shell Oil CompanyInduction heaters used to heat subsurface formations
US8162405Apr 24, 2012Shell Oil CompanyUsing tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8172335May 8, 2012Shell Oil CompanyElectrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8177305Apr 10, 2009May 15, 2012Shell Oil CompanyHeater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8191630Apr 28, 2010Jun 5, 2012Shell Oil CompanyCreating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US8192682Apr 26, 2010Jun 5, 2012Shell Oil CompanyHigh strength alloys
US8196658Jun 12, 2012Shell Oil CompanyIrregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US8205674Jun 26, 2012Mountain West Energy Inc.Apparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of hydrocarbons
US8220539Jul 17, 2012Shell Oil CompanyControlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation
US8224163Oct 24, 2003Jul 17, 2012Shell Oil CompanyVariable frequency temperature limited heaters
US8224164Oct 24, 2003Jul 17, 2012Shell Oil CompanyInsulated conductor temperature limited heaters
US8224165Jul 17, 2012Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor
US8225866Jul 21, 2010Jul 24, 2012Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8230927May 16, 2011Jul 31, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMethods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process
US8230929Jul 31, 2012Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMethods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation
US8233782Jul 31, 2012Shell Oil CompanyGrouped exposed metal heaters
US8238730Aug 7, 2012Shell Oil CompanyHigh voltage temperature limited heaters
US8240774Aug 14, 2012Shell Oil CompanySolution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US8256512Oct 9, 2009Sep 4, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMovable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8261823Sep 11, 2012Hill Gilman AIntegrated in situ retorting and refining of oil shale
US8261832Sep 11, 2012Shell Oil CompanyHeating subsurface formations with fluids
US8267170Sep 18, 2012Shell Oil CompanyOffset barrier wells in subsurface formations
US8267185Sep 18, 2012Shell Oil CompanyCirculated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation
US8272455Sep 25, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMethods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US8276661Oct 2, 2012Shell Oil CompanyHeating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier
US8281861Oct 9, 2012Shell Oil CompanyCirculated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US8327681Dec 11, 2012Shell Oil CompanyWellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes
US8327932Apr 9, 2010Dec 11, 2012Shell Oil CompanyRecovering energy from a subsurface formation
US8353347Oct 9, 2009Jan 15, 2013Shell Oil CompanyDeployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8355623Jan 15, 2013Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters with high power factors
US8381815Apr 18, 2008Feb 26, 2013Shell Oil CompanyProduction from multiple zones of a tar sands formation
US8434555Apr 9, 2010May 7, 2013Shell Oil CompanyIrregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation
US8448707May 28, 2013Shell Oil CompanyNon-conducting heater casings
US8459359Apr 18, 2008Jun 11, 2013Shell Oil CompanyTreating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones
US8485252Jul 11, 2012Jul 16, 2013Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8536497Oct 13, 2008Sep 17, 2013Shell Oil CompanyMethods for forming long subsurface heaters
US8540020Apr 21, 2010Sep 24, 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyConverting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources
US8555971May 31, 2012Oct 15, 2013Shell Oil CompanyTreating tar sands formations with dolomite
US8562078Nov 25, 2009Oct 22, 2013Shell Oil CompanyHydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8579031May 17, 2011Nov 12, 2013Shell Oil CompanyThermal processes for subsurface formations
US8596355Dec 10, 2010Dec 3, 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyOptimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
US8606091Oct 20, 2006Dec 10, 2013Shell Oil CompanySubsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates
US8608249Apr 26, 2010Dec 17, 2013Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation
US8616279Jan 7, 2010Dec 31, 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyWater treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating
US8616280Jun 17, 2011Dec 31, 2013Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyWellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis
US8622127Jun 17, 2011Jan 7, 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyOlefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation
US8622133Mar 7, 2008Jan 7, 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyResistive heater for in situ formation heating
US8627887Dec 8, 2008Jan 14, 2014Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8631866Apr 8, 2011Jan 21, 2014Shell Oil CompanyLeak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US8636323Nov 25, 2009Jan 28, 2014Shell Oil CompanyMines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8641150Dec 11, 2009Feb 4, 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyIn situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery
US8662175Apr 18, 2008Mar 4, 2014Shell Oil CompanyVarying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities
US8701768Apr 8, 2011Apr 22, 2014Shell Oil CompanyMethods for treating hydrocarbon formations
US8701769Apr 8, 2011Apr 22, 2014Shell Oil CompanyMethods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology
US8701788Dec 22, 2011Apr 22, 2014Chevron U.S.A. Inc.Preconditioning a subsurface shale formation by removing extractible organics
US8739874Apr 8, 2011Jun 3, 2014Shell Oil CompanyMethods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations
US8752904Apr 10, 2009Jun 17, 2014Shell Oil CompanyHeated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8770284Apr 19, 2013Jul 8, 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanySystems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material
US8789586Jul 12, 2013Jul 29, 2014Shell Oil CompanyIn situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation
US8791396Apr 18, 2008Jul 29, 2014Shell Oil CompanyFloating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US8820406Apr 8, 2011Sep 2, 2014Shell Oil CompanyElectrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore
US8833453Apr 8, 2011Sep 16, 2014Shell Oil CompanyElectrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness
US8839860Dec 22, 2011Sep 23, 2014Chevron U.S.A. Inc.In-situ Kerogen conversion and product isolation
US8851170Apr 9, 2010Oct 7, 2014Shell Oil CompanyHeater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation
US8851177Dec 22, 2011Oct 7, 2014Chevron U.S.A. Inc.In-situ kerogen conversion and oxidant regeneration
US8857506May 24, 2013Oct 14, 2014Shell Oil CompanyAlternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes
US8863839Nov 15, 2010Oct 21, 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyEnhanced convection for in situ pyrolysis of organic-rich rock formations
US8875789Aug 8, 2011Nov 4, 2014Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyProcess for producing hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant
US8881806Oct 9, 2009Nov 11, 2014Shell Oil CompanySystems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors
US8893793 *Feb 12, 2010Nov 25, 2014General Synfuels International, Inc.Apparatus and methods for the recovery of hydrocarbonaceous and additional products from oil shale and oil sands
US8936089Dec 22, 2011Jan 20, 2015Chevron U.S.A. Inc.In-situ kerogen conversion and recovery
US8992771May 25, 2012Mar 31, 2015Chevron U.S.A. Inc.Isolating lubricating oils from subsurface shale formations
US8997869Dec 22, 2011Apr 7, 2015Chevron U.S.A. Inc.In-situ kerogen conversion and product upgrading
US9016370Apr 6, 2012Apr 28, 2015Shell Oil CompanyPartial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment
US9022109Jan 21, 2014May 5, 2015Shell Oil CompanyLeak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations
US9022118Oct 9, 2009May 5, 2015Shell Oil CompanyDouble insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations
US9033033Dec 22, 2011May 19, 2015Chevron U.S.A. Inc.Electrokinetic enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil shale
US9033042Apr 8, 2011May 19, 2015Shell Oil CompanyForming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9051829Oct 9, 2009Jun 9, 2015Shell Oil CompanyPerforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations
US9080441Oct 26, 2012Jul 14, 2015Exxonmobil Upstream Research CompanyMultiple electrical connections to optimize heating for in situ pyrolysis
US9085972Aug 6, 2012Jul 21, 2015Gilman A. HillIntegrated in situ retorting and refining of heavy-oil and tar sand deposits
US9127523Apr 8, 2011Sep 8, 2015Shell Oil CompanyBarrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US9127538Apr 8, 2011Sep 8, 2015Shell Oil CompanyMethodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation
US9129728Oct 9, 2009Sep 8, 2015Shell Oil CompanySystems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores
US9133398Dec 22, 2011Sep 15, 2015Chevron U.S.A. Inc.In-situ kerogen conversion and recycling
US9181467Dec 22, 2011Nov 10, 2015Uchicago Argonne, LlcPreparation and use of nano-catalysts for in-situ reaction with kerogen
US9181780Apr 18, 2008Nov 10, 2015Shell Oil CompanyControlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations
US9309755Oct 4, 2012Apr 12, 2016Shell Oil CompanyThermal expansion accommodation for circulated fluid systems used to heat subsurface formations
US20020027001 *Apr 24, 2001Mar 7, 2002Wellington Scott L.In situ thermal processing of a coal formation to produce a selected gas mixture
US20020040778 *Apr 24, 2001Apr 11, 2002Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation with a selected hydrogen content
US20020046883 *Apr 24, 2001Apr 25, 2002Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a coal formation using pressure and/or temperature control
US20020049360 *Apr 24, 2001Apr 25, 2002Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce a mixture including ammonia
US20020076212 *Apr 24, 2001Jun 20, 2002Etuan ZhangIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation producing a mixture with oxygenated hydrocarbons
US20020132862 *Apr 24, 2001Sep 19, 2002Vinegar Harold J.Production of synthesis gas from a coal formation
US20030173080 *Apr 24, 2002Sep 18, 2003Berchenko Ilya EmilIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20030192691 *Oct 24, 2002Oct 16, 2003Vinegar Harold J.In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers
US20030192693 *Oct 24, 2002Oct 16, 2003Wellington Scott LeeIn situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation to produce heated fluids
US20040144541 *Oct 24, 2003Jul 29, 2004Picha Mark GregoryForming wellbores using acoustic methods
US20040145969 *Oct 24, 2003Jul 29, 2004Taixu BaiInhibiting wellbore deformation during in situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20050016729 *Oct 15, 2003Jan 27, 2005Savage Marshall T.Linearly scalable geothermic fuel cells
US20070023186 *Jul 30, 2004Feb 1, 2007Kaminsky Robert DHydrocarbon recovery from impermeable oil shales
US20070045266 *Apr 21, 2006Mar 1, 2007Sandberg Chester LIn situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system
US20070056726 *Sep 13, 2006Mar 15, 2007Shurtleff James KApparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of oil from oil shale
US20070137857 *Apr 21, 2006Jun 21, 2007Vinegar Harold JLow temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers
US20080035348 *Apr 20, 2007Feb 14, 2008Vitek John MTemperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material
US20080087420 *Oct 10, 2007Apr 17, 2008Kaminsky Robert DOptimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development
US20080087426 *Oct 10, 2007Apr 17, 2008Kaminsky Robert DMethod of developing a subsurface freeze zone using formation fractures
US20080173442 *Apr 20, 2007Jul 24, 2008Vinegar Harold JSulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations
US20080173443 *Jan 25, 2008Jul 24, 2008Symington William AMethods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons
US20080173444 *Apr 20, 2007Jul 24, 2008Francis Marion StoneAlternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes
US20080173450 *Apr 20, 2007Jul 24, 2008Bernard GoldbergTime sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20080207970 *Oct 10, 2007Aug 28, 2008Meurer William PHeating an organic-rich rock formation in situ to produce products with improved properties
US20080217016 *Oct 19, 2007Sep 11, 2008George Leo StegemeierCreating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations
US20080230219 *Mar 7, 2008Sep 25, 2008Kaminsky Robert DResistive heater for in situ formation heating
US20080257552 *Apr 17, 2008Oct 23, 2008Shurtleff J KevinApparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of hydrocarbons
US20080271885 *Mar 7, 2008Nov 6, 2008Kaminsky Robert DGranular electrical connections for in situ formation heating
US20080283241 *Apr 18, 2008Nov 20, 2008Kaminsky Robert DDownhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US20080283246 *Oct 19, 2007Nov 20, 2008John Michael KaranikasHeating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures
US20080289819 *May 21, 2008Nov 27, 2008Kaminsky Robert DUtilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock
US20080290719 *May 21, 2008Nov 27, 2008Kaminsky Robert DProcess for producing Hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant
US20080314593 *Jun 1, 2007Dec 25, 2008Shell Oil CompanyIn situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources
US20090038795 *Oct 15, 2008Feb 12, 2009Kaminsky Robert DHydrocarbon Recovery From Impermeable Oil Shales Using Sets of Fluid-Heated Fractures
US20090050319 *Apr 18, 2008Feb 26, 2009Kaminsky Robert DDownhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations
US20090084547 *Apr 18, 2008Apr 2, 2009Walter Farman FarmayanDownhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations
US20090090509 *Apr 18, 2008Apr 9, 2009Vinegar Harold JIn situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation
US20090101348 *Dec 23, 2008Apr 23, 2009Kaminsky Robert DMethod of Developing Subsurface Freeze Zone
US20090145598 *Nov 14, 2008Jun 11, 2009Symington William AOptimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
US20090194269 *Oct 13, 2008Aug 6, 2009Vinegar Harold JThree-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations
US20090194282 *Oct 13, 2008Aug 6, 2009Gary Lee BeerIn situ oxidation of subsurface formations
US20090194329 *Oct 13, 2008Aug 6, 2009Rosalvina Ramona GuimeransMethods for forming wellbores in heated formations
US20090200031 *Oct 13, 2008Aug 13, 2009David Scott MillerIrregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090200854 *Oct 13, 2008Aug 13, 2009Vinegar Harold JSolution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds
US20090260823 *Oct 22, 2009Robert George Prince-WrightMines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090260824 *Oct 22, 2009David Booth BurnsHydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US20090272578 *Nov 5, 2009Macdonald Duncan CharlesDual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations
US20100078169 *Apr 1, 2010Symington William AMethods of Treating Suberranean Formation To Convert Organic Matter Into Producible Hydrocarbons
US20100089575 *Dec 11, 2009Apr 15, 2010Kaminsky Robert DIn Situ Co-Development of Oil Shale With Mineral Recovery
US20100089585 *Dec 15, 2009Apr 15, 2010Kaminsky Robert DMethod of Developing Subsurface Freeze Zone
US20100096137 *Oct 9, 2009Apr 22, 2010Scott Vinh NguyenCirculated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations
US20100101793 *Aug 28, 2009Apr 29, 2010Symington William AElectrically Conductive Methods For Heating A Subsurface Formation To Convert Organic Matter Into Hydrocarbon Fluids
US20100218946 *Sep 2, 2010Symington William AWater Treatment Following Shale Oil Production By In Situ Heating
US20100282460 *Nov 11, 2010Stone Matthew TConverting Organic Matter From A Subterranean Formation Into Producible Hydrocarbons By Controlling Production Operations Based On Availability Of One Or More Production Resources
US20100319909 *Feb 25, 2010Dec 23, 2010Symington William AEnhanced Shale Oil Production By In Situ Heating Using Hydraulically Fractured Producing Wells
US20110132600 *Jun 9, 2011Robert D KaminskyOptimized Well Spacing For In Situ Shale Oil Development
US20110146982 *Jun 23, 2011Kaminsky Robert DEnhanced Convection For In Situ Pyrolysis of Organic-Rich Rock Formations
US20110198083 *Feb 12, 2010Aug 18, 2011Lockhart Michael DApparatus and methods for the recovery of hydrocarbonaceous and additional products from oil shale and oil sands
US20120125613 *Sep 11, 2009May 24, 2012Bilhete LouisMethod and Apparatus for Underground Oil Extraction
EP0875661A1 *Apr 28, 1997Nov 4, 1998Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V.Method for moving equipment in a well system
EP2098683A1Mar 4, 2008Sep 9, 2009ExxonMobil Upstream Research CompanyOptimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence
WO2007033371A2 *Sep 14, 2006Mar 22, 2007Kevin ShurtleffApparatus, system, and method for in-situ extraction of oil from oil shale
WO2008063239A1 *Jun 8, 2007May 29, 2008Shale And Sands Oil Recovery LlcMethod for extraction of hydrocarbons from limestone formations
Classifications
U.S. Classification166/245, 166/266, 166/402
International ClassificationE21B36/00, E21B43/24, E21B43/16
Cooperative ClassificationE21B36/00, E21B36/003, E21B43/24
European ClassificationE21B36/00C, E21B43/24, E21B36/00