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Publication numberUS3242621 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 29, 1966
Filing dateMay 5, 1961
Priority dateMay 5, 1961
Publication numberUS 3242621 A, US 3242621A, US-A-3242621, US3242621 A, US3242621A
InventorsTemple Willson Lou
Original AssigneeTemple Willson Lou
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cover-supporting member of end-united segments
US 3242621 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 29, 1966 c. D. wlLLsoN COVER-SUPPORTING MEMBER OF END-UNITED SEGMENTS Filed May 5, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 March 29, 1966 c. D. wlLLsoN 3,242,621

COVER-SUPPORTING MEMBER OF END-UNITED SEGMENTS Filed May 5, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR United States Patent 3,242,621 COVER-SUPIQRTING MEMBER 0F END-UNITED SEGMENTS Corwin D. Willson, 525 Goldengate St., Lake Orion, Mich.; Lou Temple Willson, execntrix of said Corwin D. Willson, deceased Filed May 5, 1961, Ser. No. 108,088 11 Claims. (Cl. 52-'86) This invention relates to longitudinally-extended structural members made up of butt-joined segments to support opposite facings of a wall, iloor or roof. Depending on the span and loading, the structural members made according to the invention will generally range from the more slender rib-type described in my Patents Nos. 2,427,937 and 2,627,949 to the much stiffer skeletal girder-type described in my co-pending application Ser. No. 604,398 now abandoned which, through application Ser. No. 280,754, now abandoned, is related to the unelected species described but not claimed in those patents. Because the more important drawings herein were taken from the abovementioned co-pending application, this constitutes a continuation-in-part of that application.

The principal object of the invention is a metallic structural member of substantial stillness even though formed of butt-joined segments, each having a web extending between opposite anges that make up opposite sides of the segment. Where the distances to be spanned and the loading to be borne are minimal, the web and flanges may be formed of strip metal, but where the distances to be spanned and the loading to be borne are maximal or substantial, the essential strength is obtained in a girder having a cross section resembling a skeletal I-beam in cross section, the principal longitudinal elements and the criss-crossing transverse elements being held and welded at their points of juncture while each of the main elements extending from end to end of each segment is independently and separately held by means outside the segments in a state of prestress exceeding the limits of design load. A hydraulic machine for independently prestressing one of said main elements in compression and separately prestressing another of said main elements in compression and holding the main elements prestressed while they and the crosswise elements are being welded together is an essential part of the invention.

Another object of the invention is a skeletal girder that can be built up to be either rectilinear or curvilinear in its lengthwise center axis from wire elements having opposite end-lengths held in longitudinal grooves in opposite end-lengths of the girder and there welded under stress.

Another object of the invention is a member made up of end-butted segments so secured against endwise disengagement that an aperture extends continuously along opposite sides of the member from one end to the opposite end thereof, each aperture leading into a separate metal-walled inner hollow housing, a shoulder parallel with the aperture, the structure being such that fastening elements such as wedging strips, batten strips, nails, screws or staples may be driven into the separated inner hollows and caught by the shoulders therein.

Another object of the invention is a cover-supporting member of end-united segments arching from sill ,to opposite sill of a shelter structure and having means along opposite sides, including rows of apertures for securing outer and inner facings of edge-butted covering material to said opposite sides.

These and other new features and objects of the invention are hereinafter more fully described and claimed and the preferred forms of my family of new structural ICC members is shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a side view of my skeletal girder made up of two longitudinally rectilinear butt-joined segments each having an open web of criss-crossed Wire elements.

FIG. 2 is a general cross section of a segment taken on line 2 2 of FIG. 1 and showing the web extending rectilinearly between parallel opposite anges as in an I-beam.

FIG. 3 shows a girder segment in a machine for separately subjecting the main longitudinally extending elements to prestress, one in tension and another in compression, exceeding the limits of design load.

FIG. 4 is a side view of my skeletal girder made up of three longitudinally curvilinear butt-joined segments supporting opposite sides of a shelter structure, arching over the space enclosed and having opposite ends resting on ground supports.

FIG. 5 is a transverse section of my cover-supporting member of end-united segments at the butt-joint between butted segments taken on line S-SA of FIG. 1 and on lines S-SB and S-SC of FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is taken from FIG. 14 of the co-pending application and shows the butt-joint between two segments, one of which may be substituted for the horseshoe-shaped nailing tube in the top portion of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a cross section of the butt-joint between two segments of an alternate rib supporting opposite facings of a wall wherein the stresses to be resisted under load are too meager to require the girder types shown in FIGS. 1 and 4.

FIG. 8 is an alternate cross lsection of the nailing tube of FIG. 5 wherein the inner member is a crosswise resilient tube open along one side, but here is a closed electric conduit.

FIG. 9 is a side view of the nailing tube of FIGS. 5 and 8.

FIG. 10 is a cross section of an alternate type of nail receiving, nail-holding element substitutable for the nailreceiving element of FIG. 5.

FIG. 1l is a side view of the nail-holding element of FIG. 10.

In FIG. 1 of the drawings, the skeletal girder 1 is made up of two butt-joined segments A and B, only an endlength of the B segment being shown since it duplicates the A segment which is a welded composite of slender metallic elements 2 extending parallel with the lengthwise center axis 1 1 and piercing spreaders 3 which are xed transversely of the girder and in spaced relation along said axis. As shown in FIG. 2, each spreader 3 (shown in much greater detail in FIG. 5) i-s made up of a triangular upper portion 4 and a lower triangular portion 5, the two triangular portions 4 and 5 being held by shank 6 in xed relation on opposite sides of said axis. Through the three apexes 4a, 4b, 4c of upper triangular portion 4 and through the three apexes 5a, Sb, 5c of lower triangular portion 5, the lengthwise metallic elements 2 extend from one end of the segment to the opposite end thereof. Midway between the upper apexes 4a and 4b another metallic element extends lengthwise of the segment. This element 7 may resemble or differ from element 8 that extends lengthwise of the segment between lower apexes 5a and 5b. Either or both elements 7 and 8 may be like elements 2, i.e., Wire or rods. Preferably, elements 7 and 8 make up the means whereby opposite facings 9 and 10 are secured to the skeletal girder as hereinafter described.

The term skeletal girder will be understood herein to refer to a structural member which serves equally as a beam or column, the member having a central web extending between anges that make up opposite sides of the member. For example, the upper flange 11 of my girder is skeletal because it is made up of spaced elements 2 passing through the 4a and 4b apexes of spreaders 3, of element 7 and of the upper flange portion 12 of all the spreaders 3; and the lower flange 13 is skeletal because it is made up of elements 2 passing through the 5a and 5b apexes of all the spreaders 3, of element 8 and of the lower flange portion 14 of spreaders 3, and central web 15 is skeletal because it extends along a straight line between elements 7 and 8 and is made up of elements 2 extending through the 4crand 5c apexes of spreaders 3 by shank 6 and by other web elements hereinafter described. FIG. 2 shows that my skeletal girder in a series of cross sections thereof .taken through each spreader 3 resembles the cross section of an I-beam except for the diagonal bracing elements 16 which extend from the outer lateral margins of ilanges 11 and 13 to intermediate side parts 17 of web 15. These bracing elements 15 make up the two inner sides of triangular portions 4 and 5. In FIG. 1, diagonal bracers 18, herein called diagonals are shown criss-crossing longitudinally extending elements 2, called herein slender element, between each pair of spreaders 3 and FIG. 3 shows how each element 2 may be independently and separately prestressed and held prestressed above the limits of design load on segmental girder 1 while diagonals 18 are being welded to elements 2 -at their points of juncture or contact.

FIG. 3 shows a machine for accomplishing this multifold operation largely by automation. Outer housing 19` has end compartments 21? and 21 and central compartment 22 wherein the elements making up my skeletal girder are united in segments which then may be buttjoined in the field or on the erection site so that they are readily moved, raised and united by hand because of their lightness. End compartments and 21 house hydraulic cylinders 23 having pistons 24 to which are attached chucks 25 capable of grasping and holding opposite endlengths of elements 2, 7 and 8 individually and separately. Hydraulic fluid is then pumped into 'and bled from cylinders I23 by means of fluid passages 26. The prestressing of these main longitudinally extending elements is valueless unless the substantial prestress can be maintained. The teaching of the prior art concerning the use of screw threads and nuts in tautening cables and rods has little relevancy where elements 2 consist of wire. Engineers in the Beloit, Wis., plant of Flexicore tauten reinforcing rods in a mold with threaded nuts but have told me they do no ligure that the slight amount of prestress thus obtained is sufficient to enter into any consideration relative to the strength of their beams and panels. By the machine shown in FIG. 3 it is possible to exert stresses exceeding the yield strength of the stressed elements and to prestress such elements beyond the limits of design load will 'be understood to mean herein up to one-half or even two-thirds of the yield limits of the individual elements, an amount of prestress that cannot be maintained by screw threads and nuts. To meet this problem, the invention proposes a unique and effective solution. In FIGS. 1 and 3, it is noted that between the pairs of spreaders 3 in opposite end-lengths of segment A are lixed web-plates 27 (shown in section in FIG. 5) which may be of perforate or imperforate sheet metal having longitudinally extending grooves 28 into which opposite end-lengths 29 of elements 2 lit. While cylinders 23 hold elements 2 and, in some instances elements 7 and 8, prestressed, end-lengths 29 are laterally held in grooves 28 by welding. A minimum of such lateral welding does a maximum job of holding slender metallic elements prestressed against sheer. In FIG. 3, lower group 30 of electrodes and upper group 31 of electrodes are hinged at 32 to housing 19 to securely hold longitudinals 2, 7 and 8 and diagonale 18 and spreaders 3 together while welding the elements at their many points of juncture or contact, the groups of ele-ctrodes being then swung open to release the welded composite, opposite end-lengths of the longitudinal elements held by chucks 25 being clipped ott. It is possible, because of the skeletal nature of the segments, to form opposite skeletal lianges 11 and 13 to have diag-onals 18 welded to them also and ilanges 11 and 13 and web 15 may be formed in sub-assemblies and the sub-assemblies may be welded together to achieve a stiler girder than appears to have been contemplated by the prior art to be of such light weight.

=As FIG. 4 indicates, the lengthwise center axis 1-1 of my segmental girder may be constantly curved and inside rim 33 and outside rim 34 of my girder may be concentric, and opposite ends 35 and 36 of my upright arching girder may rest on ground supports 37 (which may also represent the tops of opposite walls). Inner rim 33 is seen to be substantially shorter than outer -rim 34. In FIG. 4, girder 1a is seen to be made up of three butt-joined segments C, D and E, and all the spaced spreaders 3 lie along radial lines having a common center. The joints between the butted segments C, D and E must ensure against endwise disengagement 4by means other than coverings 9 land 10. FIG. 5 shows that triangular portions 4 and 5 and shank portion 6 of each spreader 3 is laininated and consists of two plies 38 and 39 of flat wire welded together. This permit-s final assembly of subassemblies and achieves an incredibly strong :structure of the spreaders preventing lateral relative moment of elements 2 under load. The laminar structure of the spreaders 3 forms loops L at the 4 abc and the 5 abc apexes, loops that may `be strengthened by grommets clinched around each loop or by eyelets (not shown). Even where spreader 3 is laminated from lightweight Hat wire, the rigidity is exceptional because both triangular portions 4 and 5 are bisected by the inner laminations which are space-enclosing and three-sided. The merit of triangulation in the design of skeletal girders is well -understood but is not shown in the prior art used in this manner and it imparts to the girder both between its top and bottom and between its opposite sides an unusual stiffness considering the small amount of metal used.

Across the meeting ends of the butted segments extend lengths of common tie members 40a and 40h and shanks 41 of fasteners 42 pass through opposed members 40a :and 40h as well as through web-plates 27. Marginal parts of tie members 40a .and 4011 extend partly around tubular housing 43 and 44 which here are coincidental with elements 7 and 8. Horseshoe-'shaped upper housing 43 holds inside and in spaced relation with it an inner element 45 shown in FIG. 5 to consist of a metallic strip deformed to consist of a tube open along one side at slot 46. Where tube 4S is formed of rail steel containing a higher than average amount of carbon, it achieves the resilience of a very stili spring and tube 45 may be described as an open spring-steel loop extending from one end to the opposite end of the segment. Thus the outwardly open hollow 47 extending lengthwise of the segment between the inside surface of housing 43 and the outside surface of spring loop 45 may Ibe initially smaller near slot 46 than nail 48 driven into the hollow 47 from the side of either of two apertures 49 and 5()` extending along the topside of segments A and B and of segments C, D and E, continuously from end to end of each segment. At the same time, the parts of open hollow near to apertures 49 and 50 may be larger than the diameter of nail 48. And driving nail 48 into the innermost portion of hollow 47 will thus be against the resilience of spring loop 45 and this overcomes one of the drawbacks of prior nailing slots: a rigidity that compels the nail and the slot to be dimensioned within extremely close limits. As nail 48 is driven into inner hollow 47, it is bent about shoulders 54 and 55 formed by the inner contours of housing 43 and open tube 45 which holds the lengthwise bent fastener securely held Iby the shoulders. Panels 51 and 52 making up facing 9 may be butted edge to edge and two parallel rows 'of nails 48 may be driven through apertures 49 and S0 into the same housing 43. Common tie members 40a and 401) leave shoulders 54 and 55 continuously accessible to the entrance of fasteners 48 into apertures 49 and 50 from one end to the opposite end of girder 1 or la.

Tubular housing 44 of FIG. 5 is merely a more compact form of the tubular rib of butt-joined segments shown by itself in FIG. 6 which represents an improvef ment of the rib made up of butt-joined segments described in my Patent No. 2,427,937 but here having two flattened flanges 56a and 56b extending in the same plane to receive flatwise covering sheets 57a and 57b against the outer sides of the flattened flanges and covering sheet flanges or loops 58a and 5812 are caught around the c-ontiguous margins of anges 56a and 56b and wedging strip 59 is driven through the open aperture between the engaged elements and caught therebetween by narrow waist 60 of strip 59, shoulders 61a and 61b of the Wedging strip 59 preventing the thickened margins of entered loops 58o `and 58b from being withdrawn from the interior 62 of housing 44h. The butt-joint between the two endbutted housing 44b is effected by tie members 40C and 40d extending across meetinf7 end-lengths of the butted housings whereupon fasteners 63 pierce inner spacers 64, the butted housings 44b and tie members 40C and 40d to hold the segments against endwise disengagement. A segmented rib formed by this means is appropriate where spans are minimal and where the weather tightness on only the -outer covering is essential. Primarily herein, tubular housings 44 and 44h are shown as parts, actual or potential, of my skeletal girders 1 and 1a, :and as providing 'fastening means for covering means on one or both sides of the girder.

FIG. 7 shows an alternate rib of butt-joined segments 66 each made up of two tubular members secured together intermittently back to back according to a nonelected species of my Patent No. 2,627,949 but differing from the elected special in vital particulars. No intermittent inner spacers such as 64 are required to form a butt-joint between butted segments 66 because each segment has a stiff web 67 made up of portions 68 of the two tubular housings 69a and 69h here shown secured intermittently together by welds 70, web 67 extending rectilmearly crosswise of the segment 66 -between flanges 71a, 71h, 71e and 71d, which play the same role in securing covering sheets 72 to segment 66 as flanges 56a and 56b play in the FIG. 6 structure. It -will be noted that FIG 7 shows two spaced hollows 62a and 62b which extend from one end to the opposite end of each segment 66. In butt-joining two segments 66 end to end, common tie members 40 extend across meeting ends of the butted segments and are pierced by fasteners 63 which are drawn up tightly against the resistance of web 67. Otherwise the structure resembles the FIG. 6 structure but secures spaced opposite facings 9 and 10 of a wall or roof to the butt-joined segmental rib member.

In FIGS. 5, 6 and 7, the wedging strips 59 may have solid cross sections of metal, extruded plastics or of a resilient rubber-like material highly resistant to weatherdamage such as neoprene. FIG. 8 shows how the metallic inner tube 73 is held in spaced relation with most of the inner surface of horseshoe housing 43 having flanges 56C by nodes 74 pressed into the walls of housing 43 in spaced groups .to bulge inwardly, and the ovular cross section of inner tube 73 assures its being snugly held by nodes 74, which are spaced in transverse groups lengthwise of housing 43. Here inner tube 73 is wholly closed to constitute a conduit for electric cable 75 having insulated wires 75a. How the transverse groups of nodes 74 are spaced lengthwise of housing 43 is shown in FIG. 9.

FIG. is a cross section of an alternate form of nailing strip that may form a part of my segmental girder, this strip having a U-shaped outer 4housing 76 walling a hollow little thicker than the nail 48 .to be driven into the hard-set nail-receiving and nail-holding composition in hollow 77, such as tar and sawdust, which composition 78 is poured while in plastic form .into housing 76 to solidify there. Opposite sides of housing 76 may be held against spreading by fasteners 79, such as staples, driven through both sides of housing 76 and clenched at Si). The spacing of fasteners 79 lengthwise of housing 76 is shown in FIG. 10.

Although my Patent No. 2,627,949 shows a number of forms that my segmented rib might take, none having a web between pairs of opposite flanges and that enclose two spaced hollows extending from end to opposite end of the .butt-joined segments (such as constituted the nonelected species shown in application Ser. No. 280,7 54 and claimed in my co-pending Ser. No. 604,398) have been as succinctly described as herein where much of the material has been divided out from that described in the co-pending application with a great improvement in clarity. Here the description relates only to a family of end-butted segments that make up structural load-bearing members that .are subjected by high winds to stresses tending to pull the segments apart and collapse the structure, particularly where the `girder takes the form shown in FIG. 4 and has to take account of snow-loads.

To keep .the drawings from becoming too complicated to be easily understood, diagonals are shown only in FIGS. 1 and 2 but it will be understood that similar diagonals may be applied across the top and bottom skeletal flanges 1l and i3 while the longitudinals 2 are under prestress. Heretofore tension elements have been prestressed against the compressive resistance of very dense concrete, but here no concrete need be involved. Cylinders 23 permit the main longitudinally extending elements 2, 7 and 8 to be individually prestressed either in tension or compression and how the girders are to be used: i.e., as beams or columns, will deter-mine which elements are prestressed in tension, which in compression. However, it should be pointed out that tubular housings 43 and 44 on opposite sides of the lengthwise center axis are ideally suited t0 serve as compressive elements which when united with the other elements of each segment are fully adequate to hold the prestress in tension on the six elements 2.

The invention describes a family of ribs and skeletal girders made up of butt-joined segments of which some are formed largely of wire and deformed strip metal, others wholly of strip metal, and supporting sheet-s or panels or boards of covering material to provide spaced opposite sides of a wall structure. Fasteners for securing opposite wall faces may comprise nails, staples, screws, wedging or batten strips of solid cross section and formed from metal, extruded plastics or resilient material such as an artificial rubber resistant to weathering.

The drawings, being illustrative only, are more or less diagrammatic in character and it is to be observed that vario-us changes in the character of the various parts may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims; and it will be understood that any of the variants and modifications inthe parts essential to achieving my family of novel segmental skeletal girders and butt-joined rib segments may be used separately and in any desired combination.

Having thus fully described my invention, its utility, manner of fabrication while main elements of the structure are prestressed up to two-thirds their yield strength, and utilization in a shelter enclosure, what I claim and desire to secure Iby Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. In a housing of the cover-holding frame type, a frame member of butt-joined segments each made up of metallic components comprising strips fashioned rectilinearly and concavely in cross section and secured intermittently lengthwise in fixed lateral relation and walling continuously along opposite sides 'slots inwardly opening into separate hollow interiors of the respective segment, and means to fasten the segments end-toend comprising common tie members lying across meeting ends of butted segments and means transxing said tie members and only one component of each seg-ment to lock the same together without interrupting access through said slots into said separate hollow interiors.

2. The structure of claim 1 wherein each segment has anges extending along opposite sides of said slots.

3. In a housing of the cover-holding frame type, a frame member of butt-joined segments each made u-p of metallic components comprising strips fashioned rectilinearly and Iconcavely in cross section and curvilinearly in longitudinal section and secured intermittently lengthwise in tixed lateral relation and walling along continuously lengthwise curved opposite sides slots inwardly opening into spaced and separate hollow interiors of the respective segment, and means to fasten the segments end-toend comprising common tie members lying across only the exterior meeting ends of butted segments and means transixing said tie members and only one component of each segment to lock the same together Without interrupting access through said slots into said separate interiors.

4. The structure of claim 3 wherein said frame member has pairs of lengthwise curved flanges extending along opposite margins of a crosswise rectilinear web.

5. In a housing of the cover-holding frame type, a frame member of butt-joined segments each having continuously along opposite sides slots inwardly opening into spaced and separately walled hollow interiors housing shoulders extending continuously lengthwise of said interiors, each segment being made up of metallic components comprising strips fashioned rectilinearly and con- -cavely in cross section and secured intermittently lengthwise in fixed lateral relation, and means to tasten a pair of the segments end-to-end comprising common tie members lying only exteriorly across meeting ends of butted segments and means ltransiixing said tie members and only one component of each segment to lock the same together without interrupting access through said slots to said shoulders.

6. The structure of claim 5 wherein each of said segments comprises skeletal flanges rigidly fixed along opposed margins of askeletal web.

7. In a housing of the cover-holding trame type, joints between metallic components of a frame member, said components being grouped in two longitudinal segments of said member, each segment housing continuously along opposite sides slots inwardly opening into separately walled interiors of the respective segment, and components of each segment comprising strips fashioned rectilinearly .and .concavely in cross section; some of Said joints consisting of means securing metallic components of each segment intermittently lengthwise in fixed lateral relation, and another of said joints consisting of common tie members lying across meeting ends of the two segments when .butted end-to-end and means translixing said tie members and only one component of each segment to lock the same together without interrupting access through said slots into the separately walled interiors.

8. The structure of claim 7 wherein along one side of said frame member, said strips wall a pair of slots extending continuously in spaced relation trom one end to the opposite end of said member.

9. In a housing of the cover-holding frame type, joints between metallic components of a frame member made up of butted longitudinal segments each comprising strips fashioned rectilinearly and concavely in cross section and walling continuously along concentric opposite sides slots opening into separate interiors of the respective segment: some of said joints consisting of means securing the fashioned strips of each segment intermittently lengthwise in fixed lateral relation, and another of said joints being a butt-joint consistin-g of common tie members lying across the outer sides of meeting ends of two butted segments and means transfixing said tie members and only one component of each of said meeting ends to lock the same together without interrupting access through said slots into said separate interiors.

l0. In a housing of .the cover-holding frame type, joints between segmental gro-ups of metallic components of a frame member, each group made up of strips fashioned rectilinearly and concavely in cross section to wall continuously along opposite sides slots inwardly opening into separate interiors housing shoulders continuously lengthwise thereof: said joints comprising means securing the strips of any one group intermittently lengthwise in xed lateral relation and a butt joint between an end-to-end vpair of segmental groups comprising common tie members lying across meeting ends of said pair to lock the same together against endwise separation and without interrupting access through said slots to said shoulders in said separate interiors.

11. The structure of claim 1t) wherein some of said components are lengths of wire and some of said joints are wire-to-wire welds and other of said joints are stripto-wire welds.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 158,983 l/l875 Sampson 52-731 852,898 5/1907 Owen et al 52-648 992,994 5/ 1911 Smith 52-729 2,029,645 2/1936 Waugh 52-377 2,106,084 l/l938 Coddington 52-376 2,140,313 12/1938 Dellinbarger et al. 52648 2,465,074 3/1949 Edge 52--653 2,477,394 7/1949 Spiker 52-377 2,499,478 3/1950 Feser 52-81 2,627,949 2/1953 Willson 189-36 2,686,578 8/1954 Edge et al 52-364 2,822,068 2/1958 Hendrix 52-226 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,000,420 10/1951 France.

290,809 8/ 1953 Switzerland.

RICHARD W. COOKE, IR., Primary Examiner.

WILLIAM I. MUSHAKE, JOEL REZNEK, IACOB L.

NACKENOFF, HENRY C. SUTHERLAND,

Examiners.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7616977 *Jan 28, 2006Nov 10, 2009Scott David NortmanMethod and apparatus for motorized control of an automobile radio cover
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/86, 52/377, 52/470, 52/479
International ClassificationE04B2/58, E04C3/04, E04C3/40, E04C3/38, E04C3/10, E04C3/08, E04B2/62
Cooperative ClassificationE04C3/40, E04C2003/0417, E04C2003/043, E04C2003/0434, E04C2003/0491, E04B2/62, E04C2003/0413, E04C2003/0452, E04C3/10, E04C3/08
European ClassificationE04C3/08, E04B2/62, E04C3/40, E04C3/10