|Publication number||US3244220 A|
|Publication date||Apr 5, 1966|
|Filing date||Jan 22, 1964|
|Priority date||Jan 22, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3244220 A, US 3244220A, US-A-3244220, US3244220 A, US3244220A|
|Inventors||John F Kloecker|
|Original Assignee||Erie City Iron Works|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (33), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 1966 J. F. KLOECKER 3,244,220
7 FURNACE FOR LOW AND HIGH HEAT VALUE FUELS Filed Jan. 22, 1964 1 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 April 5, 1966 J. F. KLOECKER 2 3,244,220
FURNACE FOR LOW AND HIGH HEAT VALUE FUELS Filed Jan. 22, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR FIGZ- ram/e4 W WWW) I April 1966 J. F. KLOECKER 3,244,220
FURNACE FOR LOW AND HIGH HEAT VALUE FUELS Filed Jan. 22, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 lNVEN TOR.
United States Patent ()fiice 3,244,220 Patented Apr. 5, 1966 3,244,220 FURNACE FOR LOW AND HIGH HEAT VALUE FUELS John F. Kloecker, Erie, Pa., assignor to Erie City Iron Works, Erie, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Jan. 22, 1964, Ser. No. 339,369 Claims. (Cl. 15811) Burners for burning fuels of low unit heat content such as blast furnace gas, gas turbine exhaust, wood waste, should embody a high degree of turbulence and should confine the heat of combustion within a limited space to assure rapid heating of the fuel and air mixture to the ignition point. The present invention accomplishes these objectives by thoroughly mixing fuel and air and burning this mixture in a refractory lined furnace. In the case of extremely low heat value fuels some supplementary fuel may be required to support combustion. This invention provides means for introducing this supplementary fuel to the mass of burning fuel within the ignition chamber of the burner. Any gaseous fuel or fuel burned in suspension is suitable in this burner either as primary fuel or as supplementary fuel to support combustion.
This invention is best described by referring to the accompanying drawings as follows:
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal section through the burner.
FIGURE 2 is a section through the air register on line 2-2 of PEG. 1.
FIGURE 3 is a section through the burner throat tile along line 3-3 of FIG. 1.
FIGURE 4 is a section on line 44 of FIG. 1 showing the primary fuel plenum chamber, the discharge ports, air passages, and combustion chamber lining.
FIGURE 5 is an adaptation of a pulverized coal discharge nozzle for firing supplementary fuel.
FIGURE 6 shows an alternate supplementary fuel gas burner arrangement placed centrally in burner throat.
FIGURE 7 isan alternate arrangement showing a square shaped combustion chamber. I
During operation, a low heat value gaseous fuel such as blast furnace gas, gas turbine exhaust, or others, enters the burner through a duct attached to flanged opening 1 communicating with a gas plenum chamber 2 (FIG. 4), extending completely around the combustion chamber which extendsaxially from the front of the burner. This gas may be cool or extremely hot. Gas, at equal pressure in the plenum chamber, then enters th'ecombustion chamber 3 through angularly spaced fuel ports 4. The degree of angularity of'these ports with the center line of the chamber can be varied to produce varying degrees of rotation in the combustion chamber.
Air for combustion is controllably introduced through flanged connection 5 which communicates with air plenum chamber 6 which extends completely around the combustion chamber. Air in plenum chamber 6 cools the steel wrapper sheet 7 of the combustion chamber which is in contact with and supports combustion chamber lining 8. From the air plenum chamber, air travels forwardly through passageways 9 and 10 formed between wrapper sheet 7 and concentric air duct plate 11 which forms the inside of gas plenum chamber 2. Air passes around and between fuel ports 4, whose passage is defined by plates 12 and 13. In traversing this passage, the air cools plates 7, 11, 12 and 13, and refractory linings 8 and 14. Refractory linings 8 and 14 may be of any type suitable for the temperature encountered. Refractory shapes may be supported by being part of a complete circle as shown, or may be attached to wrapper sheet 7 by other means. Refractory 14 between ports 4 may be shapes, plastic or castable, held in position by anchors 15 or other suitable After cooling the combustion chamber during its forward passage through passageways 10, the air is discharged in a heated condition in to the burner wind-box 16 at the front of the burner. Air movement from the wind-box may take one or more of three passages to the combustion chamber. Normally, when burning low heat value gas with a minimum of supplementary fuel, all of the combustion air flows through the burner register 17 (FIG. 2), where it receives a rotary motion from vanes 18. This air passes through burner housing 19, and flows through supplementary fuel gas manifold 20, and mixes with gas being discharged through ports 21. If oil is the supplementary fuel, the air mixes with the discharge froin burner tip 22. If a center fired gas burner (FIG. 6) is used, gas is discharged through ports 23. Pulverized coal may be introduced through nozzle 39 (FIG. 5). Supplementary fuel and air for combustion of the supplementary fuel flows through burner throat 24 and across throat tile 25 into the combustion chamber 3. This mass of burning supplementary fuel and air intersects the incoming streams of low heat value fuel entering through ports 4 and initiates and maintains its combustion. Combustion continues throughout the length of combustion chamber 3 to its exit.
Under some operating conditions it may become necessary to fire the furnace completely with fuel through gas manifold 20, oil tip 22, gas gun 23 or nozzle 30. When this situation exists, it is desirable to pressurize the gas plenum chamber 2 with air from wind-box 16. This air is transported through by-pass ducts 26, and is controlled by dampers 27. Under these conditions of operation it may be necessary to admit air longitudinally through ports 28, which are opened or closed by damper plate 29. The action of this air cools the refractory lining of the combustion chamber and also pushes the ignition point further along in the chamber.
Under some conditions, such as a full supply of low heat value fuel and an overload of supplementary fuel, the combustion chamber might reach an excessive temperature. When this occurs, air is admitted longitudinally through ports 28 which are opened or closed by damper plate 29. This opening decreases the amount of air required to flow through register 17 which has a turbulent rotary motion. At the same time the air moving longitudinally through ports 28 and parallel with combustion chamber lining pushes the ignition point toward the combustion chamber exit which lowers the temperature of linings 8 and 14.
Another application of this burner is for utilizing hot waste gas consisting mostly of hot air with some inert products of combustion such as exhaust gas from a gas turbine. In this case any air for combustion would be delivered to wind-box 16 through ducts 26 up to the limit of air available from waste gases. If more air is required for supplementary fuel fired through burner throat 24, it is provided by the usual fan through air plenum chamber 6. The usual condition is for more hot air and gas to be provided than is required for the supplementary fuel fired through burner throat. If it is attempted to put all of this excess air through a burner throat, the supplementary flame will be extinguished. My invention provides means for putting only that portion needed for combustion of supplementary fuel through the throat of the burner. A stable flame is accomplished and preserved before the mass of flame encounters the great amount of excess air in the hot waste gas entering through ports 4. Thus it becomes possible to utilize the sensible heat of the entire turbine exhaust without having it interfere with combustion of supplementary fuel.
Another application of this burner is for handling hogged wood waste and sander dust from sawmills and wood working facilities. Hogged fuel particles suspended in air can be blown'through ports 4 instead of gaseous fuels. Simultaneously aerated sander dust can be fired through nozzle 30 instead of pulverized coal. This assures drying and burning of wet wood chips producing a stable flame. This also provides a burning mass to discharge explosive sander dust into, thus assuring immediate ignition.
This burner is completely controllable by means of the usual dampers and fuel control valves, Control can be manual or fully automatic.
What is claimed as new is:
1. In a furnace having a wind-box for combustion air at the front of the furnace, a refractory lined combustion chamber extending axially from the wind-box, a supplementary fuel burner between the wind-box and combustion chamber directing its flame axially into the combustion chamber, a register for supplying combustion air from the wind-box to the supplementary fuel burner, means forming passageways for discharging combustion air from the wind-box axially along the lining, a combustion air chamber spaced from the front of the furnace, a passageway leading from the combustion air chamber to the wind-box in heat exchange relation to the combustion chamber, a plenum chamber for low heat value fuel surrounding the combustion chamber, means forming passageways extending from the plenum chamber tangentially into the combustion chamber along its length and providing a rotating mass of low heat fuel surrounding the supplementary burner flame, said flame intersect: ing the rotating mass and initiating the combustion of the low heat value fuel.
2. In a furnace having a front, a wind-box for combustion air at the front of the furnace, spaced inner and outer metal shells extending axially from the wind-box, a refractory lining for the inner shell providing a combustion chamber, said combustion chamber having a throat adjacent the wind-box, a supplementary fuel burner directing its flame axially through the throat into the combustion chamber, a register for supplying combustion air to the throat, means forming passageways for discharging combustion air from the wind-box axially along the lining, a combustion air chamber spaced from the front of the furnace and communicating with the space between the shells, the inner end of the space between the shells communicating with the wind-box, a plenum chamber for low heat value fuel surrounding the outer shell, means forming passageways extending from the plenum chamber tangentially into the combustion chamber along its length and providing a rotating mass of low heat value fuel surrounding the supplementary fuel burner flame, said 4 flame intersecting the rotating mass and initiating the combustion of the lowheat-valuefuel.
3. In a furnace having a wind-box for combustion air at the front of the furnace, spaced inner and outer metal shells extending axially from the wind-box, a refractory lining for the inner shell providing a combustion chamber, said combustion chamber having a throat adjacent the wind-box, a supplementary fuel burner directing its flame axially through the throat into the combustion chamber, a register for supplying combustion air to the throat, a combustion air chamber spaced from the front of the furnace and communicating with the space between the shells, the inner end of the space between the shells communicating with the wind-box, a plenum chamber for low heat value fuel surrounding the outer shell, means forming passageways extending from the plenum chamber tangentially into the combustion chamber along its length and providing a rotating mass of low heat value fuel surrounding the burner flame, said flame intersecting the rotating mass and initiating the combustion of the low heat value fuel.
4. In a furnace having a wind-box for combustion air at the front of the furnace, spaced inner and outer shells extending axially from the wind-box the inner shell providing a combustion chamber and the space between the shells providing a heat exchange passage for combustion air communicating with said wind-box, a burner for a first fuel having its flame directed axially into the combustion chamber from the wind-box, means formin passageways extending tangentially into the combustion chamher along its length and for supplying a rotating mass of a second fuel of low heat value surrounding the burner flame, said flame intersecting the rotating mass and initiating the combustion of the low heat value fuel.
5. The burner of claim 4 in which the first fuel is wood sander dust and the second fuel is wood waste particles.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Re. 25,086 11/1961 Lotz 11028 1,795,347 3/1931 Reese 1l028 2,672,402 3/1954 Stokes 158-11 2,986,206 5/1961 Boelsma 158ll 3,073,684 1/1964 Williams l5811 FOREIGN PATENTS 576,932 4/ 1946 Great Britain.
FREDERICK L. MATTESON, JR., Primary Examiner.
MEYER PERLIN, Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||431/167, 431/184, 110/244, 110/308, 431/5, 431/177, 431/175, 431/284|
|International Classification||F23D11/00, F23G7/06|
|Cooperative Classification||F23G7/065, F23D11/00|
|European Classification||F23D11/00, F23G7/06B3|