US 3245185 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1966 D. R. ROWE 3,245,185
BUILDING PANELS Filed April 2, 1963 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR DONALD E? ROWE WQW ATTORNEY BUILDING PANELS Filed April 2, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3 i 20 FIG. 7A 52 20 INVENTOR BY DONALD R ROWE April 12, 1966 D. R. ROWE 3,245,185
BUILDING PANELS Filed April 2, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 I 53 F/a 5 [-761 7 33 3 3 INVENTOR DONALD E. ROWE ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,245,185 BUILDENG PANELS Donald R. Rowe, Montgomery County, Md. (6439 Brooks Lane, Washington 16, D.C.) Filed Apr. 2, 1963, Ser. No. 270,002 4 Claims. (Cl. 52-315) The present invention relates to building structures and more particularly to a building panel particularly useful for providing a finished wall surface for the exterior of buildings without requiring hand finishing of the surface 'after erection.
Heretofore various types of panels have been used in the erection of buildings but the panels have been excessively heavy in the order of 27 poundsper square foot requiring heavy foundations and heavy supporting structures. Also with the prior panels auxiliary studding arrangement had to be provided to support the inside wall finish regardless of whether such finish was a conventional plaster wall on lath or a dry wall using conventional gypsum board. The prior art has not provided an effective panel construction which would be adaptable for rapid and inexpensive construction methods and consequently the use of large panels in buildings has been limited because of the expense of erection and the additional costs of finishing.
An object of the present invention is to provide a building panel which overcomes the objections of the prior art structures.
A further object is to provide a building panel with an attractive stucco type stone finish with the panel being of minimum weight in the order of 14 pounds per square foot.
A further object is to provide a method making a thin construction panel of accurate dimensions to assure that the panel will be accommodated in the panel receiving space provided in a building.
A further object is to provide a panel having a hollow stud construction to provide for insulation and for the passage of utility pipes and wires withinthethickness of the finished walls.
Another object is to make a thin wall which increases the useful square foot area of the building.
Another object is to provide a panel frame structure positively supporting arelatively thin light weight reinforcing wire mesh about which reinforcing wire mesh a concrete slab of air entrained cement mixture is cast providing a finished wall structure.
Other and further objects will be apparent as the description proceeds and upon reference to the acco npanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is an elevation of a fragment of a building faced with the panels of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective of panels made ac cording to the present invention forming a corner of a building and resting on the upper surface of a floor and showing utility connections within the studding forming the panel support and also, a magnified circular area to show the, surface stone finish.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged vertical section taken substantially on line 3-3 of FIG. 1 with the center portionof the panel broken away and showing the securernentof the end channels of the panel by means of bolts secured into sockets on the upper surface-of the floor therebeneath and on the under surface of the floor thereabove.
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary detail showing in elevation the spot welding connections at a corner of the side and end channel members.
FIG. 5 is an end view of the corner connection showing the overlapping arrangement of the flanges of the end and side channel members.
3,245,185 Patented Apr. 12, 1966 FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary horizontal section taken substantially on line 6-6 of FIG. 1 showing the connection between a panel made according to the present invention and a window alongside thereof.
-FIG. 7 is a horizontal section taken substantially on line 77 of FIG. 1 showing the connection between the two adjacent panels without side offsets or returns made according to the present invention and also showing the dry wall secured to the inner flanges of the channels of the panel by sheet metal screws.
FIG. 7A is a perspective of a fragment of a panel showing an alternate form of intermediate stud receiving rails retaining the dry wall in position.
FIG. 8 is a perspective of a panel with its suspending frame still in position after removal of the panel from the mold and showing the arrangement of side and end channel members and the intermediate stud members.
FIG. 9 is a vertical section taken through a panel frame substantially on line 9-9 of FIG. 8 with the panel frame in a mold after the facing stones in the plastic cement mix are in place on the linoleum bottom of the mold.
FIG. 10 is a perspective of a corner fragment of a mold with the panel of FIG, 8 still in the mold.
FIG. 11 is a perspective of a fragment of a mold of the type used in casting a panel of the type shown in FIG. 6 illustrating how the offset is accurately determined.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, a fragment of a building having floors 10, 11 is closed by a plurality of panels 12, 13, 13, 12, and 14 with a window panel 15 between the panels 13, 13 and plastic panels 16, 16 above and below the window 15 so that the Window 15 and plastic panels 16 extend from floor 10 to floor 11. The same arrangement of panels can be provided in the floor therehelow and the floor thereabove or the windows can be arranged in staggered relations on the adjacent floors.
FIG. 1 for simplicity has the same arrangement of panels and windows on each floor. The floors 10 and 11 are shown extending outwardly forming a ledge beyond the panels 12 to 16 inclusive and such ledge provides a type of awning which is shown of a small width to save space.
Each panel 12 to 14 has a channel shaped side member 17 at each edge and an end channel member 18 at each end and one or more longitudinal channel members 19, 19 intermediate the side members 17 forming a panel supporting and attaching frame. The ends of the side and intermediate channel members are received within the end channels 18 and the flanges of the side and intermediate members are secured to the inner surface of the flanges of the end channels 18 by a plurality of spot Welds 20-. The detail of this construction in the corner is fragmentarily shown in elevation in FIG. 4 and in fragmentary end viewin FIG. 5.
The assembly of the ends of the side channel members 17 and intermediate channel members 19 with the end channel members 18 is easily made as the channel members are ofrelatively thin galvanized sheet steel material. A channel used in a panel has the web. and flanges formed of sheet galvanized metal .025 inch thick with the web being; two and a half inches wide and the flanges being 1.4 inches wide and with the free edges of the channels being formed into inturned. lips L 0.2 inch wide with the material in the lips being folded back on itself providing a strong and smooth finished stud structure as shown. The lip L is cut away to provide a single thickness of the flange where the ends of the side and intermediate members are received in the end members. The thin nature-of the channel members provides for ease of positioning in manufacturing the panel supporting frame and also provides for the light weight construction of the panel including the concrete slab 23 with its stone facing and body of air entrained concrete. The average weight of the finished panel is approximately. 14. pounds per.
square foot which is about half the weight of present wall structures. Also the finished panel wall of the present invention including the dry wall is only about one half the thickness of a six inch cinder block wall with a stucco exterior surface.
Wire mesh reinforcing 21 of the type made of the circular cross section Wires welded together at the intersections forming a relatively thin foraminous sheet is fixedly mounted to the outer flanges of the side and intermediate channel members 17 and 19 by means of studs 22 welded to the outer flanges and to the wire mesh 21 with the studs 22 being of a length to maintain the midplane of the wire mesh'21 in spaced relation from the flanges substantially half the thickness of the slab 23. The wire mesh 21 is shown terminating one-half inch from the edges of the concrete slab 23 surrounding the reinforcing mesh 21. The slab 23 is shown as being one inch thick and extending into face to face contact with the outer surfaces of the outer flanges of the side, end, and intermediate channel members 17, 17, 18, 18, and 19, 19 respectively, the wire mesh 21 being bent sharply at right angles as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7 where the slab is provided with an offset extension in surface contact with the Web of a side channel 17 reinforcing the offset extension or return portion of the slab. The reinforcing rods in the wire mesh terminate approximately one-half inch from the inner edge of the offset and the wire mesh is securely fixed by the studs 23 to the outer flanges of the channel members and to the webs of side channel members 17.
The weld joints between the studs 22 and channels and the wire mesh 21 are coated with zinc by spraying or otherwise so that all metal parts in the concrete are protected against corrosion.
The offset 23X is shown terminating intermediate the outer and inner flanges of side member 17 as clearly shown in FIG. 6 leaving a rabbet type groove between the side channel member 17 and the inner edge of the offset 23X. This rabbet received the extruded aluminum window frame member 24 which supports a conventional glass window pane intermediate the top and bottom of the frame and supports plastic panels 16, 16 above and below the window 15. The window 15 may be of the type which can be opened for ventilation or may be of the fixed pane window type as shown. The window frame structure 24 is retained in intimate contact with the edge of the offset 23X by having the front flange 24F engage the edge of the offset 23X as clearly shown in FIG. 6 and such flange 24F is urged into intimate contact with the offset by suitable fastening means such as a plate-like lever member 25 having a fulcrum lug 25' received in an aperture in the web of side channel member 17 and adjustably secured intermediate its edges by a screw 26 passing freely through another aperture in the web of side channel member 17 and threaded into an aperture in the plate 25 whereby tightening the screw 26 causes pressure contact between the outer edge of the plate 25 and the flange 24F. The frame 24 of the window frame may also have a rabbet formed by an inner flange 241 and an inwardly extending flange 24J for receiving the edge of dry wall board 33 in a neat finished manner.
The window frame 24 shown in FIG. 1 is supported at each side'edge in a similar manner to that shown in FIG. 6 and secured to the floors 10 and 11 by bolts similar to those used for securing the panels in position.
The panels are secured in position in a building in the manner shown in FIG. 3 with the panel being of a length slightly less than the distance between the floors 1t) and 11 to permit ease of erection of the panels. The webs of the channels are provided with apertures or openings for receiving fastening screws 27 threaded into internally threaded sockets 28 on the under surface of the floor and screws 27 threaded into internally threaded expansion type female sockets 29 placed in apertures drilled into the .upper surface of the floor therebelow. The end channels 18 of the panels are spaced from the adjacent surface of the floors by horseshoe shaped washers 30, 30 which are pushed into position from the inside of the building in embracing relation to the securing bolts 27. The securing bolts 27 are provided with rectangular shaped washers 31, 31 placed in the end channel members 18 and having apertures in registry with the apertures in the webs of the end channel members so that after the panel is in position the securing screws 27 are tightened down securely retaining the panel in fixed position. It will be apparent that at least four screws with cooperating sockets are used for a single panel and that the spacers 30 are of proper thickness to avoid excessive local stress and strains on the channels, the horseshoe shaped spacers 30 being provided in varying thickness to accommodate for inaccuracies in the building construction. The panel is designed to he in the order of /2 inch shorter than the spacing between the upper surface of one floor and the lower surface of the floor thereabove. The panel is made to a module to fit the space and preferably to a module to cooperate with building products on the market. A three by eight foot panel is satisfactory for some uses.
The sockets 28 on the undersurface of the floor are positioned in proper location on the concrete form prior to pouring the concrete mix while the upper surface of the floor 10 shown in FIG. 3 is made substantially smooth without a socket therein to simplify the cement finishing. After the floor is cast and before it becomes excessively hard the recess 32 for receiving the expansion socket is drilled in the fresh concrete in the proper location and the expansion socket is placed therein for receiving the bolt 27.
Insulation 38A is placed in the space between the channel studs 17 and 19 and may be a foam insulation such as urethane applied in place even after the panel is se cured in place and the utility pipes 49 and the like are in place. The insulation may be applied by spraying or by any suitable means.
After erection of the panel and securment thereof in position by the bolts 27 and after the insulation 33A is in place the inner wall covering such as dry Wall 33 is applied to the inner flanges of the panels by means of self-tapping sheet metal screws 34 passing through the dry wall and threaded into the inner flanges of the channel members by conventional type of screw driving equipment. The channels 17 and 19 provide studding on the panels which readily receives the lath or dry wall 33 and retains the screws 34 as they are driven in position. The dry wall shown in the drawings is received in the rabbet formed by the flanges MI and 2% in the window frame 24 as clearly shown in FIG. 6 for example and two adjacent sections of dry wall 33 are shown in abutting relation in FIG. 7. Adjacent panels such as 12, 12 in FIG. 7 are secured together by bolts 35 passing through registering apertures in the webs of the side members 17 with a fiber horseshoe type spacing washer 36 providing for taking the reaction of the bolt 35 to avoid excessive bending of the side channel members. Suitable washers similar to 30 are used to cooperate with bolts 35 to distribute the forces. Caulking 37 is applied in the vertical space between panels and caulking 38 is applied in the space between the ends of the panel and the floors.
The panel supporting frame is assembled and welded together and the reinforcing wire mesh 21 is welded to the frame and all welded joints are coated with a spray of hot zinc to protect against corrosion.
A mold comprising a base 40 has a layer of linoleum 4 1 or the like positioned thereon extending beyond the ends of the base and has sides 42, 42 secured to the side edges of the base by any suitable means such as nails or other suitable means such as clamps with the upper edges of the sides 42 being spaced from the upper surface of the linoleum precisely the thickness of the completed .panel including the slab of concrete 23 and the panel supporting channel frame;
End walls; 43, 43 having their lower edges resting on the linoleum are secured in position by nails or other suitable means such as clamps and the upper edges of the end walls 43 lie in the same plane with the upper edges of the side walls 42 and the inner flanges of the panel supporting frame to act as screed guides for the inner edge of the offset or return extension 23X of the concrete slab. A cement retarder is placed on the linoleum and on the inner surfaces of mold side members to slow down the rate. of setting of the concrete in contact with the mold to expedite the removal of cement from; thefacing stones 44.
Before the panel supporting frame is placed on the mold. an 8 inch high slump cementvmixture of facing stones 44 and air entrained cement mixture is placed on the linoleum within the mold to a thickness in the order of one-half inch and thefacingstones and the high slump cement mixture is trowelled into place so that the flats of the stones 44 he substantially in the plane of the upper surface of the linoleum.
After the stones 44 in. the high slump concrete are properly positioned as observed by the workmen, the panel supporting frame is suspended in the mold with the wire reinforcing mes-h extending downwardly into the mold with such wire meshlying substantially one-half inch from the upper surface of the linoleum bottom 41 of the mold retaining the stones 44 in the desired position.
The panel supporting frame of side member 17, intermediate members 18 and end members 19 with the wire mesh 21 secured thereto is placed in position in the mold by means of a suspension frame formed of transverse angle bars 44, 44 and a longitudinal angle bar 45 positively connected to the centers of angle bars 44, 44 by suitable angle bracket members 46, 46 and bolts. The horizontal flanges of angle bars 44 are secured by bolts 47 to the inner flanges of the side and intermediate channel members 17 and 19 so that the frame may be suspended by any suitable hoisting equipment through an aperture 48 in the vertical flange of angle bar 45. The angle bars 44, 44 are spaced apart substantially one-quarter the length of the panel to effectively distribute the weight on the side and intermediate channel members. The channel members 44 are shown supported on the up per edge-s of the mold side members 42, 42 to maintain the wire mesh 21 in accurate spaced relation to the linoleum bottom of the mold.
After the panel supporting frame is accurately positioned in the mold the remainder of the concretewhich is a low 3" slump cement mixture is poured over the wire mesh to the level of the outer flanges of the channel members. The space between the side channels 17 and the side members 42 of the mold is filled with a cement mixture including facing stones 44 placed against the sides 42, 42 of the mold to the height of the inner flanges of channel members and the upper edge of the side mold members to provide a full thickness offset 14X in the panel. The upper flange of the side member 17 and the top edges of the mold sides 42, 42 of the mold provide a screed guide to form an accurate offset 14X shown at the right edge of panel 14 in FIG. 1.
Where panelsof the type illustrated at 12 are formed, the side channel members 17 will substantially engage the side mold members 42, 42 and it is unnecessary to provide a retarder on side mold members 42, 42. Where a partial offset such as that shown at 23X in FIG. 6 is to be formed on one or both edges of the panel, the mold side members are made narrower as shown by narrow side members 42A shown in FIG. 11. The upper edges 42B of sides 42A are spaced above the linoleum 41 the amount of the offset from the front of the panel. Suitable spacing blocks 42C are provided on the upper edge of the sides 4213 to receive and support the angle bars 44 of the suspension frame so that the angle bars 44 will support the panel supporting frame in the correct location for the wire mesh 21 to be spaced above the linoleum onehalf inch in the example illustrated. The flexible linoleum bottom 41 which is loose on the support 40 serves tobreak the vacuum between the slab and bottom to permit the raising of the panel after a relatively short setting period without danger of the slab of relatively green concrete breaking. The linoleum 41 which is loose on the bottom 40' is removed a portion at a time if there is any sticking and the sides 42 and ends 43 of the mold are removed before the panel is raised by the suspension frame 44,44, 45 through a lifting cable 48A passing through aperture 48-.
To provide the bevel at the side edges of panel 12 a triangular cross section strip may be inserted in the corner of the mold between each side 42 and the linoleum 41 before the high slump cement mix with the facing stones 44 is placed in the mold.
It will be apparent that the finished panels may have either one or both side edges finished in the manner shown with complete full thickness offset 14X (FIGS. 1, 8 and 10) or part thickness offset 23X (FIGS. 6 and 11) or no offset (FIGS. 7 and 1).
It will be understood that the face of the panel is brushed with a wire brush after removal of the panel from the mold, the retard serving to keep the surface concrete from setting rapidly so that the cement between the surface stones and the cement on the surface of the stones can be removed by wire brushing to produce a clean and neat appearance avoiding or reducing expensive cleaning with acids. After the cleaning, the outside surface of the panel is treated with a waterproofing treatment by brushing or spraying a waterproof coating thereon. The panel may be removed from the mold within about twenty hours after casting which simplifies cleaning of the mold for the next panel and also increases the capacity of each mold to assure maximum economy.
No. 12 gage reinforcing 2" mesh is used in the present invention thereby reducing the weight of the reinforcing mesh by approximately one-quarter the weight No. 6 gage mesh. The thickness of the wire mesh reinforcing is reduced by one-half assuming that the wire mesh reinforcing is of round wire. In concrete panels heretofore known it was necessary to have two inch concrete slabs with No. 6 gage reinforcing mesh to obtain satisfactory panels.
With the present invention the thickness of the panel is reduced in half and the thickness of the reinforcing is reduced in half with the resulting weight of the complete panel being reduced in half so that a building constructed with the panels of the present invention will be of proportionately reduced weight and resulting reduced cost for the foundation and supporting structure and completed building.
The thickness of a wall made with the present panel is reduced in half thereby increasing the useful floor area of the building by the saving in thickness of the wall from approximately 8 inches in prior structures to approximately 4 inches with the panel construction of the present in- Vention.
An alternate form of intermediate stud in the form of an I-beam is shown in FIG. 7A in which a pair of channel members 51, 51 have their webs arranged in closely spaced parallel relation to receive nails 53 with the Webs having troughlike configurations 56 adjacent each edge arranged in known manner in parallel relation to provide a space 52 between the webs to receive nails 53 by means of which the dry wall board or plaster lath 54 is secured in position thereby avoiding the necessity of using screws for this purpose. The channel members 50 and 51 are secured together by welding or the like so the nails are securely retained between the webs. This sheet metal nailing stud is an item on the market and available for construction and is used in lieu of channel studs 19 in the previously described modifications. A concrete slab 55 similar to that previously described with reinforcing mesh is secured by studs 22 to the outer surface of the flmiges of the channels 51, 51 forming the I-beam stud structure.
The webs of the channels 17, 18, 19 and 51 are provided with openings 50 for the passage of utility lines 49 where required and such openings can be provided in the channels before the panels are made up orthe openings can be cut on the building site in the required location.
The light weight construction of the panels permits easy handling with lighter weight equipment and the finished panels can be carried on edge in trucks thereby increasing the capacity of the trucks. Relatively narrow panels can be used and the desired area covered since the caulking and sealing can be effectively carried out. The reinforcing mesh used in the present panel is not stiff but is sufliciently strong to serve as reinforcing after the concrete is set for as short a period as twenty hours.
Heretofore in making two inch thick panels the reinforcing has been excessively heavy in weight as Well as in the thickness of the reinforcing mesh to prevent sagging of the reinforcing mesh while the slab was being lifted.
It has unexpectedly been found that a relatively light Weight mesh can be used with a thin slab of concrete where the metal slab supporting frame in the present invention is used thereby reducing the weight of the panel so that the load causing sagging of the panel during lifting is only 14 pounds instead of 27 pounds per square foot.
It will be apparent that various changes can be made within the spirit of the invention as defined by the valid scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A non-load bearing light weight building panel cornprising a frame of relatively light structural members secured together forming a frame, foraminous sheet material positioned in spaced relation and overlying said structural members, a plurality of relatively light spacers of small transverse section arranged in spaced relation to each other and extending between said foraminous sheet material and said structural members and fixedly secured at one end to said foraminous sheet material and at the other end to said structural members of said frame, Weather resistant rigid solid plastic material surrounding said foraminous sheet and being bounded by an inner face portion lying between the structural members and the foraminous sheet, the last mentioned portion contacting said members and being confined inwardly to a location where the spacers are connected to said structural members whereby the structural members are free from embedment in said plastic material and being bounded by an outer face portion lying outside of said foraminous sheet away from said frame, means to secure said building panels to each other andto adjacent floors of a building, and means to secure an interior finish on the frame of said building panel whereby the building panel provides the complete prefinished wall unit.
2. The invention according to claim 1 in which the structural members are relatively thin channel shaped members extending along the periphery of the panel with the flanges extending inwardly, and additional .channel members are provided intermediate the sides thereof to provide means for mounting the interior finish of the wall. 1
3. The invention according to claim 1 in which the foraminous material extends over at least one edge of .the frame and thesolid plastic material extends along the length of said at least one edge, thereby forming a finished corner.
4. The invention according to claim 1 in which the surface of the plastic material away from the frame is formed with small particles of smaller transverse dimension than the thickness of the plastic material between said surface of the plastic away from said frame and the foraminous material, some of said plastic material being removed from the surface of the panel away from the frame to provide an ornamental surface on the exterior face of the panel.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 995,069 6/1911 Lewen 52-431 1,160,340 11/1915 Stretch 52587 1,182,421 5/1916 Ramsey 52251 1,627,171 5/1927 Gottschalk 52373 1,707,026 3/ 1929 Schuster 52-98 1,856,906 5/1932 Carvel 264-256 1,997,809 4/1935 Cole 52-281 2,057,444 10/ 1936 OReilly 52236 2,058,386 10/1936 Parsons 52-290 2,114,386 4/1938- Killian 52601 2,137,767 11/1938 Betcone 52-244 2,205,545 6/1940 Schmitt 5227 2,296,453 9/1942 Satfert 264256 2,540,305 2/ 1951 Tomlinson 52 242 2,63 6,377 4/1953 Hilpert 52334 2,703,289 3/1955 Willson 52-612 X 2,740,162 4/ 1956 Knight 264256 2,781,657 2/1957 Taylor 52-227 2,883,852 4/ 1959 Midby 52236 2,964,821 12/1960 Meehan 52677 3,064,392 11/1962 Avril 52-250 FRANK ABBOTT, Prim-a'ry Examiner.