US 3245857 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P" 2, 1966 G. A. RUTLEDGE 3,245,857
METHOD FOR MAKING LABELED CONTAINERS Filed May 15, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 WAXW /A PAPER /5 FIGZ #1) F0"- WAX /7 FIG.3
INVE N TOR GEORGE A. RUTLEDGE BY I a HIS ATTORNEYS April 12, 1966 a. A. RUTLEDGE METHOD FOR MAKING LABELED CONTAINERS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 15, 1962 lNVE NTOR GEORGE RUTLEDGE flaw HIS ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3 245,857 METHOD FOR MAKll lG LABELED CONTAINERS George A. Rutledge, Richmond, Va., assignor to Reynolds Metals Company, Richmond, Va., a corporation of Delaware Filed May 15, 1962, Ser. No. 194,774 3 Claims. (Cl. 156281) This invention relates to improved methods and apparatus for labeling containers and the like, as well as to improved labeled containers and the like.
Heretofore, container manufacturers and the like have made containers, such as bottles of the re-usable type or of the disposable type, and have shipped or transported such containers to the container filling plants to be subsequently filled with the desired product and, thereafter, appropriately labeled at the container filling plant.
In this highly competitive field of supplying bottles to the bottling plants, a bottle manufacturer would be in the best competitive position if he could supply the bottles or containers to his bottle-filling customers with the bottles or containers already appropriately labeled, so that the bottler would not be involved in the expensive labeling procedure.
However, in the past, no container manufacturer has been able to satisfactorily secure a label to a bottle or the like which can withstand the subsequent washing or sterilizing operations required by the bottler before the container can be filled with the desired product.
Further, when the bottles or containers are filled with beer and the like, the subsequent pasteurizing operation on the filled containers tended to destroy the securement of the prior known labels.
According to the teachings of this invention, however, improved methods and apparatus are provided whereby the bottle or container manufacturer can readily and inexpensively apply labels to the bottles or containers in such a manner that the labeled bottles and containers can withstand subsequent washing and pasteurizing operations of the bottler at the bottle filling plants without adversely affecting the securement of the labels to the bottles or containers, whereby the bottler can dispense with the labeling operations normally required of him in the past.
Therefore, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved method having one or more of the novel features set forth above or hereinafter shown or described.
Another object of this invention is to provide an improved container made by such a method or the like.
A further object of this invention is to provide an improved apparatus having one or more of the novel features set forth above or hereinafter shown or described.
Other objects, uses and advantages of this invention are apparent from a reading of this description, which proceeds with reference to the accompanying drawings forming a part thereof and wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of one type of container made and labeled by the method and apparatus of this invention.
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary, cross-sectional view of one type of label utilized by this invention.
FIGURES 3 and 4 are respectively views similar to FIGURE 2, illustrating other types of labeling material utilized by this invention.
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged, fragmentary cross-sectional view taken on line 55 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 6 is a schematic view illustrating the method and apparatus of this invention.
While the various features of this invention are hereinafter described and illustrated as being particularly adaptable for making and/or labeling beer containers, it is to be understood that the various features of this invention ice can be utilized singly or in any combination thereof to make and/ or label other types of containers as desired.
Therefore, this invention is not to be limited to only the embodiment illustrated in the drawings, because the drawings are merely utilized to illustrate one of the wide variety of uses of this invention.
Referring now to FIGURE 1, an improved container of this invention is generally indicated by the reference numeral 10 and comprises a disposable or so-called noreturn bottle filled with beer 11 or the like and having a suitable cap 12 and product identifying label 13 applied thereto in a manner hereinafter described.
As previously set forth, such bottles 10 are normally made by a bottle manufacturer and are subsequently shipped to the various bottle-filling plants in an unlabeled condition, because prior known labeling means and apparatus have been ineffective to secure labels to the bottles 10 in such a manner that the labels can withstand subsequent bottle washing and pasteurizing operations accomplished at the bottle filling plants whereby the bottler has been required to subsequently apply the labels to the filled bottles prior to casing or boxing the same and after the washing and pasteurizing operations.
However, according to the teachings of this invention, the bottle manufacturer can now readily and inexpensively apply the labels 13 to the bottles 10 before the bottles 10 are conveyed to the various bottle-filling plants and the labels 13 will remain secured to the bottles 10 even though the labels 13 are subject to washing and pasteurizing operations by the bottler.
Therefore, it can be seen that the bottle manufacturer utilizing the teachings of this invention is in a better competitive position than the other bottle manufacturers because the particular bottle manufacturer utilizing this invention can supply prelabeled bottles to various bottlefilling plants, whereby the bottle-filling plants need not maintain expensive machinery or personnel to subsequently label such bottles in the manner previously required.
While various labels 13 can be utilized in accordance with the teachings of this invention, the more commonly utilized labels comprise a lamination having an outer metallic foil face suitably imprinted with the desired advertising and other information media whereby the foil face provides an attractive labeling structure that has great eye-appeal.
In the past, such labels were normally applied to the bottles 10 by an adhesive which would lose its adhesive properties when subject to washing and pasteurization at the various bottle-filling plants and permit the labels to become detached from the bottles 10.
However, it has been found that when the labels are made in the following-manner, such lalbels can be utilized with the teachings of this invention in a manner having many advantages over prior known labels.
As illustrated in FIGURE 2, the particular label 13 of this invention and utilized with the bottle 10 of FIG- URE 1 comprises an outer metal foil sheet 14, an inner porous paper sheet 15, and an intermediate layer of migratory wax-like material 16 that is only adapted to melt and exude through the porous paper sheet '15 when heated to a temperature above the normal washing and pasteurizing temperatures required at the bottle-filling plants or the like.
For example, the metal foil sheet 14 can comprise an aluminum-containing foil sheet and the wax-like material 16 can comprise a microcrystalline wax or the like.
Such a labeling material 16 can :be Reyseal 0-12.
Another suitable labeling material of this invention is generally indicated 'by the reference numeral 17 in FIG- URE 3 and comprises an outer metal foil sheet 1 8 having a layer of wax-like material 19 on the rear surface 3 thereof that is adapted to melt and adhere to the bottle at a temperature above the temperatures required for the washing and pasteurizing operations at the bottle-filling plants.
One such labeling material 17 that has been found satisfactory with this invention comprises an aluminum-containing foil sheet 18 of approximately 0.0015 of an inch thick and a wax-like material 19 comprising approximately 85% parafiin wax and approximately of Elchem, the Elchem being a copolymer of ethylene vinyl acetate.
It has been found that the Elchem utilized in forming the wax-like material "19 provides sealing strength and eliminates or substantially reduces the paraffins poor adhesion to metal foil, poor flexibility and poor sealing strength.
Further, it has been found that percentage of Elchem in forming the wax-like material 19 should not be below 10%, because such lower percentages do not appreciatively reduce the above-mentioned poor properties of the parafiin and that the percentage of Elchem in forming the wax-like material 19 should not be over 20%, because such higher percentages render the wax-like material too viscous.
As illustrated in 'FIGURE 4, another suitable labeling material of this invention is generally indicated by the reference numeral 261 and comprises an outer metal foil sheet 21 laminated to an intermediate paper sheet 22 by a suitable adhesive 23. An outer porous paper sheet M- is laminated to the other side of the intermediate paper sheet 22 by a layer of a migratory wax-like material 25 that is adapted to melt and exude through the porous paper sheet 24 when heated to a temperature above the temperatures of the Washing and pasteurizing operations required at the bottle-filling plants for a purpose hereinafter described.
One example of such a labeling material 20 that is satisfactory is 'Reyseal 502.
Other types of heat-sealable labeling material can be utilized with this invention as long as the heat-sealing material thereof does not lose its adhering properties at the temperatures required for the washing and pasteurizing operations at the bottle-filling plants or the like.
For example, such additional labeling material can include other thermal activated adhesives, heat-scalable plastic films of the heat-shrinkable or non-heat-shrinkable types, and the like.
In addition, other suitable laminations of the types known as Reyseals can be utilized with the teachings of this invention.
The method and apparatus of this invention will now be described, and reference is made to FIGURE 6 wherein a typical bottle-making plant is disposed in the upper portion thereof and a typical bottle-filling plant is disposed in the lower portion thereof.
As illustrated in FIGURE 6, the bottles 10 are made by suitable bottle making machinery 26 at station 27 from a suitably heated mass of glass-like material in a conventional manner, whereby the subsequently formed bottles it have relatively high temperatures and must be subsequently cooled before the same can be packaged or cased and sent to the desired bottle-filling plant.
F or example, when the bottles 10 leave the bottle making machinery 26, the bottles 10 have a temperature of approximately 600 degrees Fahrenheit, whereby the temperature of the formed bottles 10 must be subsequently reduced to or near room temperature.
One means of reducing the temperature of the newly formed bottles lid comprises -a cooling chamber 2- 8, normally called a Lehr, that cools the bottles 10 in any suit able manner.
For example, the heated bottles 10 can be conveyed from the bottle making machinery 26 to the inlet end 2 9 of the cooling chamber or Lehr 28 by suitable conveying means 30, whereby the bottles 10 are conveyed through the cooling chamber 28 by suitable conveying means to the outlet end 311 where the temperatures of the bottles 10 are reduced to or near room temperature.
As the bottles 10 are conveyed through the cooling chamber 28 at station 32, the bottles 10 are removed from the cooling chamber 28 when the temperature of the bottles 10 have been reduced to a desired temperature in the order of 160 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, the bottles 10 being conveyed from the cooling chamber at that reduced temperature to a suitable labeling apparatus 33 at station 34 by conveying means 35.
While the bottles 10 are at the reduced temperatur thereof, the labeling material of this invention is applied thereto, either automatically by suitable machinery from roll or cut stock, such as by the method and apparatus disclosed in the co-pending application Serial No. 194,819, filed May 15, 1962, and entitled Method and Apparatus for Applying Labels to Containers or by hand as desired.
For example, the bottles 10 can be conveyed by the conveying means 35 to a suitable table or the like whereby various operators place the labels 13 around the bottles 1% so that the paper sides 15 thereof engage the exterior surfaces of the bottles 10 and the heat of the bottles 10 cause the intermediate Wax-like material 16 to melt and exude through the porous paper sheets 15 to make contact with the exterior surfaces of the bottles 10 to secure the labeling mate-rial 13 thereto.
Therefore, it can be seen that in this embodiment of the invention the latent heat of the bottles 10 is utilized to melt the intermediate wax-like material 16 to cause the material to exude through the perviou-s sheets 15 and make contact with the exterior surfaces of the bottles 19, whereby the exuded wax-like material secures the labels 13 to the bottles it), the impervious sheets 14 preventing the wax-like material 16 from migrating to the exterior of the labels 13.
After the labels 13 have been applied to the bottles 10 at the station 34. in the above manner, the labeled bottles 10 are conveyed back to the cooling chamber 28 by conveying means 36, whereby the labeled bottles 10 are continued to be moved through the cooling chamber 28 to the outlet end 31 thereof and have the temperature thereof further reduced to or near room temperature when the bottles 10 reach the'outlet 31 of the cooling chamber 28.
Thereafter, the labeled bottles 10 are conveyed from the cooling chamber 28 to a suitable casing or packaging machine 37 at station 38 by conveying means 39, whereby the labeled bottles 10 can be suitably cased or packaged for storage and/or subsequent shipping to a desired bottle-iilling plant or the like.
For example, the dotted line 40 in FIGURE 6 represents the cased bottles 16 being subsequently transported or shipped to the desired bottle-filling plant.
When the 'cased bottles 10 are received at a particular bottle-filling plant, the labeled bottles 10 are uncased by suitable machinery 41 at station 42 so that the bottles 10 can be fed by a conveyor 43 to a bottle washing ma chine 44 at station 45, the bottle washing apparatus 44 thoroughly cleaning the labeled bottles 10 at a temperature of approximately 155 degrees Fahrenheit, which is sufficient for cleaning purposes but will not adversely aftom the securement of the labels 13 to the bottles 10, because the wax-like material 16 of the labels 13 will not melt at such a temperature.
The Washed bottles 10 are delivered from the bottle washing apparatus 44 to suitable product-filling apparatus 46 at station 47 by conveying means .3, whereby the bottles 10 are filled with the desired product, such as beer or the like.
Thereafter, the filled bottles 10 are conveyed by conveying means 49 to suitable capping machinery 50 at station 51, whereby the caps 12 are placed on the opened ends of the bottles 10 to hermetically seal the beer 11 therein.
It has been found that prior known la-bels will not withstand the rough handling encountered at the bottlefilling apparatus 46 and capper 50, whereas the securement of the labels of this invention are not adversely affected by such machinery 46 and 50.
Subsequently, the capped bottles are conveyed by conveying means 52 to pasteurizing apparatus 53 at station 54, whereby the temperature of the filled bottles 10 is raised from approximately 60 degrees Fahrenheit to approximately 160 degrees Fahrenheit to thoroughly pasteurize the beer 11 in the bottles 10 and, thereafter, reduced to or near room temperature, the filled bottles remaining in the pasteurizing apparatus approximately twenty minutes.
However, because the wax-like material 16 of the labels 13 does not melt at the pasteurizing temperature, the labels 13 remain firmly secured to the bottles 10.
The pasteurized bottles 10 are fed by conveying means 55 to suitable casing or packaging machinery 56 at station 57, whereby the bottles 10 are suitably packaged for subsequent shipment to the various selling establishments.
As illustrated in FIGURE 6, the prior known bottles that were normally supplied to the bottle-filling plants without labels thereon were suitably labeled at station 58 by labeling machinery 59 disposed intermediate the pasteurizing station 54 and the casing station 57, whereby the bottler was required to maintain expensive labeling machinery 59 and appropriate personnel to operate the same to complete the bottling process.
However, it can be seen that by utilizing the teachings of this invention, the bottle-filling plants need not maintain such labeling equipment 59, or the labeling personnel required to operate and maintain the same, because the bottles 10 supplied thereto already have the labels 13 applied to the outer surfaces .thereof and the securement of the labels 13 will not be adversely affected by the bottle washing and pasteurizing operations at stations 45 and 54 for the above reasons.
Therefore, it can be seen that the bottle manufacturer utilizing the teachings of this invention is in a more desirous competitive position than the other bottle manufacturers and merely utilizes the latent heat resulting from the formation of the bottles 10 at station 27 to provide the means for heat sealing the labels 13 thereto in the manner previously described at station 34, whereby no additional heating operation is required to secure the labels 13 in place.
While the method and apparatus of this invention illustrated in FIGURE 6 are concerned with casing and uncasing operations at stations 38 and 42, as well as a transportion step at 40, it is to be understood that the bottlefilling plant could also make its own bottles in the above manner, whereby the bottles leaving the cooling chamber 28 can be fed directly to the bottle washer 44 to circumvent the steps 38, 40 and 42.
While the above features of this invention have been described in connection with bottle making machinery 26 for making glass-like containers, it is to be understood that the various features of this invention can be utilized with other types of containers as desired.
For example, the labels 13 and the like of this invention can be applied to metallic cans or the like by merely heating the metallic cans to the desired temperature that is sufficient to cause the labels 13 and the like to adhere thereto in the above manner.
Accordingly, it can be seen that this invention provides an improved method and apparatus for making and/or labeling containers or the like, as well as improved containers produced by such methods or apparatus.
Further, while this invention has been described in connection with unfilled containers, it is to be understood that the method and apparatus of this invention can be utilized in connection with filled containers or the like, as desired.
While the form of the invention now preferred has been disclosed as required by the statutes, other forms may be used, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow.
What is claimed is:
1. The method of making a labeled bottle comprising the steps of making said bottle from a heated mass whereby the resulting bottle has a certain latent temperature of formation thereof, progressively cooling said bottle from said certain latent temperature to a lower temperature that is sufiicient to cause a heat-sealable label to adhere to the exterior surface of said bottle, placing a label around said bottle while said bottle is at said lower temperature to cause said label to be heat-sealed to said bottle, and, thereafter, further cooling said bottle to a. further lower temperature.
2. The method as set forth in claim 1 wherein said steps of cooling said bottle take place in a cooling chamber and said step of labeling said bottle takes place outside said cooling chamber.
3. The method of making a labeled bottle with a label having an impervious outer face, a pervious inner face and an intermediate migratory wax material, comprising the steps of making said bottle from a heated mass whereby the resulting bottle has a certain latent temperature of formation thereof, progressively cooling said bottle from said certain latent temperature to a lower temperature that is sufficient to cause said wax material to exude through said pervious face and adhere to the exterior surface of said bottle, placing said label around said bottle while said bottle is at said lower temperature to cause the wax material of said label to secure said label to said bottle, and, thereafter, further cooling said bottle to a further lower temperature.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,797,868 3/1931 Kelchner 99181 2,159,993 5/1939 Krueger 40-310 2,446,414 8/ 1948 Farrell et a1.
2,474,619 6/1949 Farrell et a1.
2,714,952 8/1955 Ireton 2,925,801 2/ 1960 Bivins et al --62 X A. LOUIS MONACELL, Primary Examiner.
ABRAHAM H. WINKELSTEIN, Examiner.