|Publication number||US3246362 A|
|Publication date||Apr 19, 1966|
|Filing date||Jan 22, 1962|
|Priority date||Jan 22, 1962|
|Publication number||US 3246362 A, US 3246362A, US-A-3246362, US3246362 A, US3246362A|
|Original Assignee||Jackson Exit Device Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (47), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
A. JACKSON A ril 19, 1966 DOOR CLOSER 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 22, 1962 1 7N095 W JQGA S'OA/ I N VENTOR.
107 7' @zQ/VEJG N QW RN QMV NWNMH April 1966 A. JACKSON 3,246,362
DOOR CLOSER Filed Jan. 22, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 fi/l/fiQEW JOCK $0M INVENTOR.
BY 70 70a 7 a United States Patent 3,246,362 DOOR CLOSER Andrew Jackson, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to Jackson Exit Device Corporation, Los Angeles, Calif., a corporation of California Filed Jan. 22, 1962, Ser. No. 167,559 4 Claims. (Cl. 1651) novel door closer of simple and compact construction and adapted to be positioned and concealed in the header or overhead portion of the door frame.
Another object of this invention is to provide a door closer having novel valving means for controlling the closing and/ or latching speed of the door.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a door closer having a valve for controlling the checking speed of the door, said valve incorporating a novel safety feature which prevents adjustment of the valve to a point where the door would fail to close completely.
Other objects and advantages of this invention it is believed, will be readily apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments thereof when read in connection with the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a bottom plan view of the closer of this invention; partly broken away, the parts of the closer being in the door-open position. I
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken substantially on the line 2-2 of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary sectional view, similar to FIGURE 1, but illustrating the closer parts in the door-closed position.
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken substantially on the line 4-4 of FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view taken substantially on the line 55 of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary sectional view, similar to FIGURE 2, but illustrating a modified form of the invention.
FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary sectional view, similar to FIGURE 5, but illustrating a modified form of the invention.
Briefly, the present invention consists of an improved door closer of the spring actuated, hydraulic dash pot type, having improved valving means for the hydraulic fluid for controlling the speed of closing of the door, either the initial closing speed or the final closing or latching speed, or both; having improved structure for operation of the pivot or spindle member; and having novel interconnecting means between the spring or springs and the pivot member, the closer parts being so designed and arranged as to provide a simple and compact structure.
Referring now to the drawings, the closer of the present invention as shown in FIGURES 1 through 5 is generally designated 10 and has a housing formed of top and bottom walls 13 and 14, side walls 15, an end wall 16, the other end wall being provided by a pair of plug members 17. The entire hollow portion within the housing forms a reservoir for a supply of oil (not shown) or other hydraulic fluid. A central partition 18 extends partially in from one end, the partition and the side walls forming a pair of hollow cylinders 19 for a pair of pistons 20.
The bottom wall 14 is provided with a threaded open- 3,246,362 Patented Apr. 19, 1866 ing in which is engaged a threaded cover plate 21, the plate having a boss 22 with a central opening 23. Extending through the opening is the spindle or door pivot member 24, this member having a non-circular end portion 24a for attachment to a door such as for reception in a non-circular hole in a door hinge arm (not shown). The'mernber 24 also includes cylindrical portion 25 journaled in the ball bearing 26, a pair of shoulder or collar portions 27 and 23, and an end cylindrical portion 29 journaled in the ball bearing 30. An annular oil seal 39 is provided around the portion 25.
The closer is provided with a pair of coil springs 31, one end of each bearing against one of a pair of internal wall portions 32, the other end bearing against one of the pistons 20. Means are provided for operably connecting the springs to the spindle member 24 and as shown in the drawings, these means may include a pair of spaced plate members 35 and 36, each provided with a slot 37, 38 within each of which is received the appropriate one of the shoulders 27 and 28. A piston rod 40 is connected at one end to each of the pistons 20 by means of a pin 41. The other ends of the rods 40 are secured to the plates 35 and 36 by means of pins 42. The plates 35 and 36 are further spaced apart by means of three cam follower rollers 43, 44 and 45 mounted for rotation on the respective shafts 48, 49 and 50. A cam 51 is carried on the spindle member 24 between the shoulder portions 27 and 28, the cam having a cam surface '52 with a pair of hold-open recesses 53 and a pair of hold-closed recesses 54.
Valve means are provided for the hydraulic fluid and as shown in the drawings, these means may include a ball valve member 58 positioned to close against a valve seat 59 formed in one of the portions 20 between a central bore 60 and enlarged counterbore 61, a pin 62 preventing dislodgernent of the ball from the counter-bore. The initial closing speed of the door is controlled by means of a valve formed by one of the pistons 20 operating in conjunction with a tapered groove 65 formed in the surface of one of the cylinders 19. Control of the final closing or latching speed of the door is accomplished by means of a control valve 7 i), which includes a valve stem 71 threadedly connected to the partition 18 and extending into a bore 75 formed therein. The inner end of the stem 71 is of reduced diameter, having a groove 76 formed therein, the groove being V-shaped, both in plan view and in radial section. The reduced diameter end of the valve stem extends into a reduced diameter counter-bore '78, which bore in turn communicates with a bore 79 leading to the hydraulic fluid reservoir. A pair of ports 80 lead from the bore 75 into the interior of the cylinders 19. As will be noted that there is a slight clearance between the valve stem and the bore 75, for a purpose to be explained below.
In installation and use of the closer 10, it is rigidly mounted in the door frame, preferably in a concealed position in the header or overhead portion of the frame. The non-circular portion 24a of the spindle member 24 is connected to the door to form one of the door pivots and to be turned by opening and closing of the door, such as by inserting it in a mating non-circular hinge arm (not shown) which is carried on the door, in a manner familiar to those skilled in the art. The door, shown in phantom lines in FIGURE 1, is in the full open position in this figure. In this position it will be noted that the cam follower 44 is seated in the hold-open recess 53 and, by virtue of the forces exerted by the springs 31 in a direction to tend to move the pistons 20 and hence the plate members 35 and 36 and the follower 44 to the right as seen in FIGURE 1, the follower 44 is caused to bear firmly against the cam surface defining the recess 53,
thus holding the door in the full open position. It will be noted that the recess 53 is located on a portion of the cam surface having an over center relationship with respect to the pivotal motion of the cam and that because of this location, additional compression of spring 31 with resultant axial movement of follower 44 is required to unseat the follower from its hold-open position. It will be understood that for swinging doors, the cam follower 43 engages in the other recess 53 to hold the door open in the other position.
The door is easily closed by swinging it manually against the spring tension, to clear the cam follower out of the recess, whereupon the energy stored in the springs during opening of the door (described below) is released to move the pistons and the connected plate members 35 and 36 to the right as seen in FIGURE 1. Thus, the cam follower roller 44 bears against the cam surface 52, rotating the cam 51 and its associated spindle member 24, forcing the door toward the closed position. At the same time, the movement of the pistons 20 to the right places the oil in the cylinders 19 under pressure, the oil in turn forcing the ball 58 onto its seat 59. The oil in the cylinders 19 can then move out into the main portion of the oil reservoir only through the groove 65, the speed of such flow and hence the speed of closing of the door being governed primarily by the dimensions of the groove 65. As the piston 20 moves to the right, it gradually cuts off the flow of oil through the groove 65, until the end of the groove is completely covered by the piston, whereupon the latching speed valve '70 comes into play and controls the speed of the continued flow of oil from the cylinders 19 through the valve 70 into the bore 79 and hence into the main oil reservoir, depending upon the adjustment of the valve.
It will be noted that even if the valve 70 is inadvertently fully closed, as by turning the valve stem 71 all the way in, a small flow of oil will still pass through the valve 70, that is, through the ports 80 from the cylinders 19 and into the main oil reservoir via the clearance between the valve stem and bore 75, the groove 76 and the ports 78 and 79. Thus, even though the valve 70 is not properly adjusted, there will be some flow of oil to permit complete closing and latching of the door. The valve is adapted to be adjusted to vary this latching speed, which is generally desired to be slower than the initial closing speed, such adjustment merely comprising turning the valve stem 71 until the desired volume of the groove 76 is in communication with the ports 80.
During opening of the door, the above-described sequence of operation is virtually reversed. Thus, as the door is manually opened, the parts move from the position shown in FIGURE 3 to that shown in FIGURES '1 and 2, the pistons 20 moving to the left as seen onthese latter figures. During this movement, oil flows from the main reservoir through the port 60, forcing the ball 58 off its seat, so that a portion of the oil in the main reservoir can be displaced back into the cylinders 19. Also during this opening of the door, the springs 31 are compressed, storing up energy to be expended during the closing operation.
A modified form of closer 10a is illustrated in FIG- URES 6 and 7. This embodiment of the invention is substantially the same as described above, including piston rods a, pistons 20a, cylinders 19a, partition 18a, valve 70a, port 79a, and ports 80a, but here the V-shaped groove 65 is replaced by a valve 700, which provides adjustment of the initial closing speed. The construction and operation of the 'valve 70c and its associated ports is identical to that of 70 and 70a, the valve having a stem 710 working in a bore 750, the reduced end of the valve stem having a V-groove 76c, ports 800 being provided for passage of oil therethrough and through the bore 78c to the bore 79a, in the manner described above.
Having fully described my invention, it is to be understood that I do not wish to be limited to the details set forth, but my invention is of the full scope of the appended claims.
1. A door closer comprising the combination of a housing forming a reservoir for hydraulic fluid, a spindle member rotatably mounted in said housing and providing a means of attachment of said closer to a door, a cylinder formed interiorly of said housing and forming an auxiliary reservoir, a piston operable in said cylinder and having a piston rod, means interconnecting said piston and said spindle member for rotation of said spindle memiber upon movement of said piston in said cylinder including a cam follower carried by said piston rod and a cam carried on said spindle member, said cam having a cam surface engageable by said cam follower and said cam surface having a hold-open recess therein, said recess being positioned on a portion of the cam surface having an over center relationship with respect to the pivotal motion of the cam, spring means adapted to be compressed upon rotation of said spindle member in a door-opening direction and requiring additional compression of said spring to unseat said cam follower from the said hold-open recess in said cam surface, said spring means being operably connected to said piston to move the same forwardly into said cylinder upon closing of said door, valve means for permitting a main flow of fluid from said reservoir to said cylinder upon opening movement of the door and shutting off the main flow of fluid in the reverse direction from said cylinder to said reservoir during such forward movement of said piston, means permitting a restricted flow of fluid from said cylinder to the reservoir during such forward movement, and means for adjusting said restricted flow during the final portion of such forward movement, said last-named means comprising a valve including means preventing full shutting off of the flow of fluid through said valve.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein a pair of cam followers is provided, one operable for each direction of opening of said door.
3. A door closer comprising the combination of a housing forming a reservoir for hydraulic fluid, a spindle member rotatably mounted in said housing and providing a means of attachment of said closer to a door, a cylinder formed interiorly of said housing and forming an auxiliary reservoir, a piston operable in said cylinder, means interconnecting said piston and said spindle member for rotation of said spindle member upon movement of said piston in said cylinder, spring means adapted to be compressed upon rotation of said spindle member in a dooropening direction, said spring means being operably connected'to said piston to move the same forwardly into said cylinder upon closing of said door, valve means for permitting a'main flow of fluid from said reservoir to said cylinder upon opening movement of the door and shutting oif the main flow of fluid in the reverse direction from said cylinder to said reservoir during such forward movement of said piston, means permitting a restricted flow of fluid from said cylinder to the reservoir during such forward movement including an axially extending tapered groove formed in the cylinder wall, and means for adjusting said restricted flow during the final portion of such forward movement, said last-named means comprising a valve including means preventing full shutting off of the flow of fluid through said valve.
4. A door closer comprising the combination of a housting forming a reservoir for hydraulic fluid, a spindle member rotatably mounted in said housing and providing a means of attachment of said closer to a door, a cylinder formed interiorly of said housing and forming an auxiliary reservoir, a piston operable in said cylinder, means interconnecting said piston and said spindle member for rotation of said spindle member upon movement of said piston in said cylinder, spring means adapted to be compressed upon rotation of said spindle member in a door-opening direction, said spring means being operably connected to said piston to move the same forwardly into said cylinder upon closing of said door, valve means for permitting a main flow of fluid from said reservoir to said cylinder upon opening movement of the door and shutting off the main fiow of fluid in the reverse direction from said cylinder to said reservoir during such forward movement of said piston, means permitting a restricted flow of fluid from said cylinder to the reservoir during such forward movement, and means for adjusting said restricted flow during the final portion of such forward movement, said last-named means comprising a valve having a valve stem With a V,-shaped groove therein operable to pass fluid therethrough and said valve stem is received in a bore, a port leading from said cylinder to said bore, a second bore leading from said firstb-ore to said reservoir, and a clearance space provided between said valve stem and said first bore for preventing full shutting 011 of the flow of fiuid through said valve.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Norton 1662 Lonbom et a1 1655 Norton 16-56 Bommer 1655 Brady M 1652 Rollason 16-55 Ferguson 16-56 Carlson 16-55 Carlson 16--55 Pittenger 1655 X FOREIGN PATENTS JOSEPH D. SE'ERS, Primary Examiner.
DONLEY J. STOCKING, Examiner.
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|International Classification||E05F3/12, E05F3/10|
|Cooperative Classification||E05Y2800/298, E05F3/104, E05Y2201/20, E05F3/12, E05Y2201/458, E05Y2201/254|
|European Classification||E05F3/12, E05F3/10C|