US 3247046 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 19, 1966 E. FAZEKAS 3,247,046
STAINED WINDOW AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed Nov. 21, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Q9 2K9 ah! I A \\\3 l A (Mk INVENTOR. EMDRE TAZEKAS ATTOENEYS United States Patent 3,247,046 STAKNED WENDOW AND METHGD 01 MAKING THE SAME Ends-e Fazekas, River Edge, N.J., assignor to QMealia Research and Development, inc, a corporation of New York Filed Nov. 21, 1962, Ser. No. 239,234 7 Claims. (Cl. 161-5) This invention relates in general to new and useful improvements in stained window construction, and more specifically to novel stained windows formed of plastic materials and the method of making the same.
The preparation of stained glass is an old and well known art. In forming a stained glass window, the window is first broken up into the desired colors after which the colored glass is arranged in mosaic pattern and the figure or design is painted thereon. The painted designs are then set, such as by firing, after which the glass is placed in an iron frame with horizontal bars running across the frame at certain intervals to reinforce the glass mosaic. Lead strips are then placed between the fragments of glass and the entire plate is baked in an oven. During which time the paintedon designs are definitely set. The cutting of the glass into fragments follows a prescribed law and the number of bars across the frame is fixed for a particular sized window. Accordingly, following the known stained glass art, the design often has to be broken in uncomplementary spots. Also, the reinforcements break the design and make the window extremely heavy. Because of the expense of the original construction, the window is oftentimes protected by a wire screen or additional glass which is of further expense and weight.
In accordance with this invention, it is proposed to provide a simulated stained glass window which will match the known type of stained glass windows in appearance and which will have sufficient strength so that very large unbroken windows on the order of 10' x 12 may be formed without the usual undesirable horizontal reinforcing bars.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel simulated stained glass window which is of a light-weight construction so as to greatly reduce the necessary strength of the supporting frame therefor.
Another object of this invention is to form stained windows of colored plastic wherein the window may be more quickly formed of less expensive materials so that the resultant window is much more inexpensive than the conventional stained glass windows.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a novel stained window which is formed of plastic and which is internally reinforced by simulating the conventional lead strips of stained glass windows through the use of plastic and metal combination epoxy, such as conventional plastic steels, whereby larger otherwise unsupported window areas may be formed.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel stained window construction wherein the window is formed of a plastic backing sheet having colored pieces of plastic overlying the same, and there being a developed photographic emulsion between the colored pieces and the backing sheet to provide for a desired design in the colored window.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a novel method of forming a simulated window of plastic materials wherein :a plastic backing sheet is provided and the customary design of lead strips for a stained window are formed in the backing sheet, colored plastic is disposed in overlying relation to the backing sheet in accordance with the design, and the grooves are filled with a high strength plastic metal to simultaneously simulate lead strips and reinforce the assembly of the backing ice sheet and the plastic pieces, with the shape of the groove providing a lock for added assurance to the adherence of the plastic sheets.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel method of forming a stained window wherein the window is formed of plastic material as opposed to glass and the process is relatively simple as opposed to the manufacture of stained glass window.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a novel stained window which is formed of plastic materials and which have color characteristics corresponding to stained glass windows and at the same time may be readily formed at a cost much less than that of stained glass.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel method of forming a stained window wherein the window is formed of plastic materials and includes a backing sheet and colored plastic pieces which may either be cut and set in place or which may be cast in place.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a novel method of forming stained windows wherein the principal materials of construction are plastic pieces and wherein a developed photographic emulsion is provided, the photographic emulsion being disposed on either a backing sheet of the window, individual colored plastic pieces, or on a separate film embedded within the window construction whereby life-like characteristics may be incorporated into the Window utilizing photographic methods.
With the above and other objects in view that will hereinafter appear, the nature of the invention will be more clearly understood by a reference to the following detailed description, the appended claims and the several views illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a stained window formed in accordance with this invention and showing the over-all details thereof.
FIGURES 2-6 are fragmentary sectional views taken through various components of a stained window and show one method of forming the stained window of FIG- URE 1.
FIGURE 7 is a transverse sectional view similar to FIGURE 6 and showing a slightly modified form of window construction.
FIGURE 8 is a transverse sectional view similar to FIGURE 6 and showing still another modified form of window construction.
FIGURES 9-15 are transverse sectional views with intermediate portions broken away through the various components utilized in another method of forming the window of FIGURE 1 and sequentially show the steps of forming such a window.
FIGURE 16 is a horizontal sectional view similar to FIGURE 15 and shows a slightly modified form of window construction.
FIGURE 17 is another sectional view similar to FIG- URE 15 and shows still another modification of the window of FIGURE 15.
FIGURE 18 is a transverse sectional view with an intermediate portion omitted of still another form of window construction wherein the reinforcing has been omitted.
FIGURES 19-21 are transverse sectional views with intermediate portions omitted and showing the various steps followed in the forming of the window of FIGURE 1 utilizing still another method.
Referring now to the drawings in detail, it will be seen that there is illustrated in FIGURE 1 a stained window formed in accordance with this invention and which has been actually made and installed in a church. The stained window is generally referred to by the numeral 25 and is of a one panel construction although it is greater than life-size and many times the size of a permissible stained window formed utilizing the stained glass art.
Referring now to FIGURES 2-6 in particular, it will be seen that there are illustrated the steps of one method of forming the window 25. In accordance with this method, a desired size of translucent or transparent or patterned plastic sheet 26 is provided. The peripheral edges of the sheet 26 are built up with tape 27 or like material to define a dam to a desired depth. Then a liquid plastic 28 is poured onto the surface of the backing sheet 26 to the desired depth, as is illustrated in FIG- URE 3.
Before the liquid plastic 28 has been poured onto the backing sheet 26, heavy sheets of plastic which may be white and other colors have been cut to provide plastic pieces 29 in accordance with the design of the window. These pre-cut plastic pieces are carefully set on the liquid plastic 28 in their proper positions, making sure that air bubbles are eliminated. The assembly shown in FIGURE 4 is then permitted to cure, during which curing time the liquid plastic penetrates the adjoining surfaces of the backing sheet 26 and the colored pieces 29 to bond the same together into one rigid thermoset piece of plastic.
The assembly of FIGURE 4, after having been cured, is routed along the lines of the predetermined pattern to provide double dovetail cross-sectional grooves 30 which pass entirely through the colored pieces 29, the layer of liquid plastic 28 and into the backing sheet 26. As is clearly shown in FIGURE 5, assuming the backing sheet has a depth a, the grooves 30 are routed so that the remaining thickness of the backing sheet is a thickness b with b being substantially one-half a.
The grooves 30, after having been formed in accordance with the desired pattern, are then filled with a plastic metal 31 which, when hard, both simulates the lead strips of a conventional type of stained glass window and serves as an integral reinforcement for the stained window 25. The window 25 described above may be formed with the backing sheet 26 formed of acrylic or polymethylmethacrylate plastics, fiberglass or other material reinforced plastic, or like plastics, which are readily available on the market. The liquid plastic 28 may be of various compositions. Known compositions to be suitable include a solution of unsaturated polyester dissolved in styrene monomer made by Rohm & Haas. To these materials then may be added promoters such as a cobalt accelerator including cobalt naphthenate,, or a catalyst such as MEK peroxide which is 60% methylethyl, ketone peroxide in dimethyl .phthalate. The plastic metal 31 is preferably a commercially available epoxy and a typical example is that made by Devcon Company named Plastic Steel which is composed of 80% steel and plastic epoxy using a hardener with a promoter and catalyst. A similar material is sold by Borden.
When it is desired to incorporate a design in the window other than that possible utilizing only the colored pieces of plastic 29 and the plastic metal 31, the backing sheet 26 may be provided with a surface applied photographic emulsion 32 which has been developed, the emulsion 32 having been placed on the backing sheet 26 and developed prior to the application of the liquid plastic 28. It is to be noted that the plastic metal 31 passes through the emulsion 32. It is also to be understood that although no sub-coat has been illustrated between the backing sheet 26 and the emulsion 32, such a subcoat may be provided. It is also to be understood that the emulsion 32 may be a similar layer so as to provide the black and white only or may be of multiple layers to provide for color.
Another modification of the basic window construction is illustrated in FIGURE 8 wherein a design other than that provided by the colored pieces of plastic 29 is obtained by inserting between two layers of the liquid plastic 28 a developed photographic film 33. The photographic 4 film 33 may be of the black and white type or may be of of a colored type. It is to be noted that the plastic metal strips 31 pass through the film 33.
With respect to the modification set forth above in FIGURES 7 and 8, it is to be understood that the photographic emulsion 32 of the photographic film 33 may be either of the over-all type or may be limited to specific areas, such as the facial areas of the window.
Reference is now made to FIGURES 9 through 15 wherein there is illustrated the steps of another method of forming a window, such as the window 25. In accordance with this method, a backing sheet 35 of translucent or transparent plastic and of the desired size is provided. The desired design is drawn on tracing paper 36 which is applied over the backing sheet 35 utilizing some type of removable adhesive, such as rubber cement. The backing sheet 35 is then machine grooved to provide grooves 37 in the upper surface thereof in accordance with the desired design. It is to be noted that it is shown in FIGURE 10 that the backing sheet has a thickness a and that the grooves 37 are of a depth so that the remaining thickness of the backing sheet is b. The depth b will range from 50% to approximately of the depth a.
After the grooves 37 have been formed, pieces of colored plastic 38, which have been cut and arranged in accordance with the desired design, are placed into overlying relation with respect to the tracing paper 36 and in between the grooves 37. The grooves 37 and the spaces between the colored pieces 38 are then filled with a suitable clay or glazing compound 40. This compound, if desired, may be a plastiline. The colored plastic pieces 38 and the tracing paper 36 are then removed, as is shown in FIGURE 13. The backing sheet 35 is now surrounded with a border tape 41 if it has not been previously so provided so that a slight dam is made surrounding the periphery of the backing sheet 45. A thin layer of liquid plastic, such as the liquid plastic 28 is then poured into overlying relation to the backing sheet 35. This liquid plastic, which is referred to by the numeral 42, is poured into each of the spaces defined by the material 40. The colored plastic pieces 38 are then immediately returned to the backing sheet 35 in overlying relation to the liquid plastic 42 and without the trapping of air bubbles. The assembly is permitted to cure for a time, such as 24 hours at room temperature. The liquid plastic 42 rigidly bonds the backing sheet 35 and the colored pieces 38 together as a unit. The material 40 disposed within the grooves 37 and between the colored pieces 38 is then removed, as is shown in FIGURE 14. The grooves previously occupied by the material 40 are replaced by a suitable plastic metal 43, such as those hereinabove described. The completed window, which may be the window 25, is then suitably mounted in a prepared frame 44.
In the frame mount of FIGURE 16 in particular, there is illustrated a slightly modified form of window constructron which may be made either in accordance with the method shown in FIGURES 2 through 6 or in accordance w th the method shown in FIGURES 9 through 15. The window construction of FIGURE 16, which is referred to by the numeral 45, includes a plastic backing sheet 46 and colored pieces of plastic 47. Intermediate the backing sheet 46 and the colored pieces 47 is a suitable subcoat layer 48 over which is disposed a photographic emulsion layer 49, which photographic emulsion has been developed. A layer 59 of bonding material overlies the layer of photographic emulsion 49. The bonding matertal may be provided with a conventional ultraviolet retardant. At this time it is pointed out that a ltmgh only one layer of photographic emulsion 49 has been illustrated, such as would be suitable for black and white, numerous such layers may be provided to provide colored photography. It is also pointed out at this time that the emulsion layer 49 could be part of photographic film as opposed to being deposited directly on the backing sheet 46. The entire window 45 is provided with a design of grooves into which there has been placed plastic metal 51, such as the plastic metal 31 or 43.
Referring now to FIGURE 17, it will be seen that the window 45 may be protected by the addition of a transparent resin layer 52 overlying the entire window of FIGURE 16. This plastic layer is preferably a hard weather resistant resin.
At this time it is pointed out that the individual colored pieces of plastic describe-d hereinabove need not be of the same color throughout. The individual colored pieces of plastic may be stained as desired to provide for the necessary contrast and shading. Further, if it is so desired, in lieu of placing the photographic emulsion on the backing sheets, the photographic emulsion may be applied in the afore-described manner to the rear surfaces of the individual colored pieces of plastic.
Reference is now made to another method of forming a window, such as the window 25. This method is best illustrated in FIGURES 19, 20 and 21 and reference is first made to FIGURE 19 wherein there is illustrated a backing sheet 53 which is formed of a translucent or transparent plastic material. The upper surface of the backing sheet 53 is provided with grooves 54 of a desired design in accordance with the design of the window. After the backing sheet 53 has been grooved, as shown in FIGURE 19, plastic metal 55 is deposited in the grooves 54 and built up therefrom to provide a series of small dams, as is clearly shown in FIGURE 20. Further, tape is applied around the peripheral surface of the backing sheet 53, the tape being referred to by the numeral 56. It is desired that the plastic metal 55 and the tape 56 be of a common height.
After the suitable dams have been formed by the application of the tape 56 and the plastic metal 55, liquid colored plastic 57 is poured into the individual areas in accordance with the color requirements of the over-all design.
At this time it is pointed out that the plastic metal described hereina-bove not only serves a decorative purpose and functions as a rigid reinforcement, including the lock for added assurance to the adherence of the plastic sheets, but also serves to slow down the normal cold flow of the plastic material to maintain the shape of the window. This is a very desirable feature from a practical standpoint where the shape of the window is to be maintained for a long period of time.
With respect to the coloring of the individual plastic pieces, it is to be understood that only a limited number of colors are obtainable. Further, in the forming of a stained window, it is not desired that all sections thereof be of the same color throughout the individual section. It has been found that clear and colored plastics may be colored by a simple, yet permanent coloring process. In accordance with this invention, a removable mask may be applied to the plastic piece and the mask removed when it is desired to color the plastic. The plastic is then placed in a color bath and kept in the bath from one-half minute to five minutes or more depending upon the desired density of color. The plastic is then washed and the design in color of the plastic piece is achieved in the area where it was not masked and produces a sharp edge design where the mask ended. The dye penetrates vertically into the plastic and the color density and shading is varied in accordance with the depth of penetration.
It is also possible to simulate stained glass windows by a photographic process. Accordingly, reference is made to a window construction illustrated in FIGURE 18 and generally referred to by the numeral 60. The window 60 includes a transparent or translucent backing sheet 61 to which there is applied a sub-coat layer 62. A conventional type of photographic emulsion 63 is applied over the sub-coat 62 and developed. A conventional sealing coat 64 is applied over the photographic emulsion 63 to seal the same and effect a bonding thereof to an overlying transparent sheet 65 of plastic. If desired, the sealing layer 64 may have incorporated therein an ultraviolet retardant. Although only one layer of photographic emulsion 63 has been illustrated so as to provide for a black and white coloring, if it is desired to provide for colors, there will be the usual numerous layers of photographic emulsion.
A plastic window formed in accordance with this invention weighs about one-third to one-half as much as a stained glass window. Therefore, even should the plastic window be unreinforced, a much larger plastic window panel may be applied than is possible with a stained glass window.
It is to be understood that the stained windows for-med in accordance with this invention are completely sealed and are not subject to deterioration from the elements by internal attack. It is also to be understood that unlike stained glass windows, which requires light to pass therethrough, plastic windows will reflect a certain amount of light so as to have a pleasing appearance from the interior of the building and the exterior thereof.
Although only preferred embodiments of the invention have been specifically set forth herein, it is to be understood that minor variations may be made in the invention, as defined by the appended claims.
1. A stained window comprising a translucent plastic backing sheet, an intermediate layer of translucent plastic, and overlying colored pieces of translucent plastic bonded to said plastic backing sheet by said intermediate layer of plastic, and combined reinforcing and divider strips of high strength plastic metal extending between and bordering said colored pieces of plastic, said divider strips simulating conventional leaded strips and being interlocked with both said backing sheet and said colored pieces to provide an integral reinforcing whereby a large unsupported window as compared to stained glass is possible, the connection between said divider strip and said backing sheet being in the form of grooves in said backing sheet and said divider strips filling and being interlocked said grooves.
2. A stained window in accordance with claim 1 wherein a developed photographic emulsion is disposed between said backing sheet and said colored plastic pieces.
3. The stained window of claim 1 wherein said intermediate plastic layer is utilized as a carrier for an ultraviolet retardant.
4. The stained window of claim 1 wherein said colored pieces are cast in place.
5. A method of forming a stained window comprising the steps of providing a rigid translucent plastic backing sheet, forming grooves in one face of the backing sheet, filling the grooves with a high strength plastic metal projecting above the backing sheet to provide a plurality of dams with said plastic metal forming divider strips and reinforcing for the entire window, forming a peripheral dam around the periphery of the backing sheet, and then pouring liquid colored translucent plastic into areas defined by the dams in accordance with the desired pattern.
6. A method of forming a stained window comprising the steps of providing a rigid translucent plastic backing sheet, bonding colored translucent plastic pieces to the backing sheet in accordance with the desired pattern, forming grooves between the colored plastic pieces and down into the surface of the backing sheet in accordance with the pattern, and then filling the grooves with a plastic metal.
7. A method of forming a stained window comprising the steps of providing a rigid translucent plastic backing sheet, forming grooves in one face of the backing sheet, forming dams in and above the grooves and around the periphery of the backing sheet, pouring a liquid translucent plastic into areas defined by the dams, applying preformed colored translucent plastic pieces to the liquid plastic, removing the dams, and applying a high strength plastic metal in the grooves and between the colored plastic pieces with the plastic metal forming divider strips between the colored plastic pieces and reinforcing the entire window.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Warga 161-5 Bayne 156-63 Stark 161-5 Sohn 161-7 Stuempges 161-5 XR Peik 161-53 X Gick 161-5 8 Navarre 161-2 Marcus. Kreier 156-245 Baut et a1 161-4 Weir.
FOREIGN PATENTS Canada. France. France.
JACOB H. STEINBERG, Primary Examiner.
ALEXANDER WYMAN, Examiner.