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Publication numberUS3250755 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 10, 1966
Filing dateMar 19, 1962
Priority dateMar 21, 1961
Also published asDE1520249A1, DE1520289A1, DE1520289B2, DE1520289C3
Publication numberUS 3250755 A, US 3250755A, US-A-3250755, US3250755 A, US3250755A
InventorsZambelli Adolfo, Valvassori Alberto, Dall Asta Gino, Mazzanti Giorgio, Natta Giulio, Pasquon Italo
Original AssigneeMontedison Spa
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Copolymer of butene-2 and ethylene
US 3250755 A
Abstract  available in
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1966 5. NATTA ETAL 3,250,755

COPOLYMER OF BUTENE-Z AND ETHYLENE Filed March 19, 1962 X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN FOR THAT FRACTION OF CIS- COPOLYMER OF ETHYLENE AND BUTENE'Z NOT 1 EXTRACTABLE WITH ETHER BUT EXTRACTABLE WITH BOILING HEPTANE INTENSITY i 5' IO I5 20' 25' 30' 28 (CuK RADIATIONSI INVENTORS GIULIO NATTA GINO DALL'ASTA GIORGIO MAZZANTI ITALO PASQUON ALBERTO VALVASSORI BY ADOLFO ZAMBELLI ATTOR NEY.

United States Patent 22 Claims. 01. 260-882) The present invention relates to new high molecular weight, linear polymeric products. More particularly, the present invention relates to polymeric products of macromolecules in which recur the sequences of single chemical units corresponding to the general formula:

RI R11 OH o I roH2 H-OH- wherein R and R may be alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl, or which contain such units alternating with sequences of an even number of methylene groups.

According to the nomenclature proposed by M. L. Huggins, J. Polymer Sci. 8, 257 (1952), such polymeric products are defined as poly-(3,4-disubstituted butamers) and poly-(3,4-disubstituted butarners-co-ethamers).

The present invention also relates to a process for the preparation of the above mentioned polymeric products. This process is based upon the copolymerization of ethylene with an olefin containing an internal double bond and corresponding to the general formula:

wherein R and R have the above assigned values.

Hitherto the possibility of preparing linear copolymers having a high molecular weight from olefins containing an internal unsaturation and ethylene could not be foreseen.

The more usual coordinate anionic catalysts for low pressure polymerization of ethylene and a higher alphaolefin are typically transition metal compounds and organometallic compounds of Group I, II and III of the Periodic Table. However, such anionic catalysts do not promote the polymerization of olefins containing internal double bonds.

We have now surprisingly found that by using certain special catalyst systems, it is possible to prepare linear, high molecular weight copolymers of olefins having the general formula:

(wherein R and R have the previously mentioned values) with ethylene. An object of the present invention is therefore the obtaining of linear high molecular weight copolymers of olefins having an internal double bond corresponding to the general formula:

(wherein R and R may be alkyl containing up to 6 carbon atoms, aryl, or alkylaryl) with ethylene.

Among the olefins containing internal unsaturation which, according to the present invention, can be copolymerized together with ethylene, are included the following: butene-Z; pentene-2; trimethylethylene; hexene-2; heptene-Z; heptene-3; 2-methylheptene-3; 2,7-dimethyl-octene-4; propenylbenzene; l-phenylbutene-Z; 5- phenylpentene-Z; cisand trans-stylbene etc.

Also, mixtures of the two cis and trans isomers of a specified olefin containing a double internal bond, or the two isomers in the pure state, can be used according to the present invention.

The polymeric products of the present invention. are

ice

made up of macromolecules which is reality consist of a recurring regular sequence of units having the structure:

R1 n C H2C Ha-( HCI H- wherein R and R are as previously defined, or which contain such units alternating with sequences of an even number of methylene groups.

While one might speculate that in the macromolecules of the polymeric products of the present invention there would occur successive sequences of two or more monomeric units derived from the polymerization of the olefin containing internal unsaturation, in fact, such successive sequence never occurs.

'Indeed, such olefin containing internal unsaturation does not form a homopolymer in the presence of the catalysts used in the process of our invention. Furthermore, no matter how low the ratio is between the moles of ethylene to the moles of olefin of the formula R CH=CHR (this molar ratio occurring in the liquid phase, in which phase the copolymerization occurs), one can never obtain a copolymer containing more than 50% of monomeric units derived from the olefin having the internal double bond.

Examination by infrared spectrography of copolymers obtained by using very high molar ratios of olefin with internal unsaturation to ethylene and containing equimolar amounts of the two monomeric units, confirms that such copolymers consist of macromolecules having a regular chemical structure, in which the units with repeating sequences correspond to the general formula:

For instance, the infrared spectrum of an ethylene/butene-Z-cis copolymer containing about 50% by moles of butene-Z, shows absorption bands at 13.2,u. attributable to sequences of two methylene groups to be readily visible, while absorption due to longer sequences of methylene groups does not practically appear.

A further object of the present invention is a process for the copolymerization of ethylene with an olefin containing an internal double bond and of the formula:

R CH: CHR

(wherein R and R have the previously defined values) to linear, high molecular weight copolymers, this process being carried out in the presence of suitable catalysts, to be more fully defined hereinafter. The catalysts which may be used in the above mentioned copolymerization process can be prepared from a compound of a transition metal from Groups IV, V, and VI of the Periodic Table and an organometallic compound of a metal from Groups Ia, II and Illa of the Periodic Table.

Preferably catalytic systems are used which are colloidally dispersed or wholly dissolved in the liquid phase in which the copolymerization reaction takes place.

Suitable transition metal compounds which may be used in the preparation of the catalysts include TiCl TiI TiCl prepared by reduction of TiCl, with hydrogen, aluminum, or an alkyl aluminum; VCl VOCl vanadium triacetylacetonate, vanadyl diacetylacetonate, ethyl orthovanadate; chromyl chloride; chrome triacetylacetonate; vanadyl halogen alc'oholates, etc.

Suitable organometallic compounds include Al(C H 4 9)2 s 7)2 2 5)z 2 5)2; Li(C H [Al(C H )X Y wherein X is a halogen and Y is-an electron donor compound such as a tertiary or secondary amine, an onium salt or an alkali halide; etc.

Particularly satisfactory results are obtained when using as transition metal compounds certain vanadium compounds. The preferred catalytic systems are in fact prepared from vanadium tetrachloride or vanadium oxytrichloride and alkyl aluminum, or from vanadium triacetylacet-onate and diallryl aluminum monohalides.

Vauadyl diacetylacetonates, vanadium chloroacetylacetonates or the alkyl ortho-vanadates can be used instead of vanadium triacetylacetonate with satisfactory results.

According to the present invention, the copolymerization can be carried out in a rather wide temperature range of from about -80 to +100 C., but more preferably from about -50 to +50 C.

The copolymerization can be carried out in the presence of an inert solvent, such as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, or in the absence of such solvent.

In order to obtain copolymers having as homogeneous a composition as possible, it is advisable to maintain constant during the copolymerization reaction the ratio between the concentrations of the two olefins which are to be polymerized in the liquid phase.

For this purpose it may be advisable to carry out the copolymerization continuously by feeding and discharging continuously or circulating at sufiiciently high spatial velocities the mixture. of the two monomers which are to be copolymerized.

All the copolymerization products of the present invention are copolymers, and exhibit properties very different from those of polyethylene. Naturally, the properties of our new copolymers depend on the content in the copolyrnerization product of the olefin having internal unsaturation.

The copolymer composition can be varied by suitably varying the composition of the mixture of the starting monomers. Thus, for instance, in the copolymerization of ethylene with butene-2 (see Examples 1-12), when the molar content of butene-Z' in the copolymer is lower than 20%, products are obtained which still show a crystallinity of the polyethylene type when they are examined by X-ray analysis; however, such crystallinity is lower than that of the ethylene homopolymer-obtained under the same conditions. Such crystallinity decreases rapidly, until it practically completely disappears when the 'butene-Z precentage increases.

Also, the infrared absorption spectrum of such'ethylene-butene-Z copolymers is very difierent from that of the ethylene homopolyrner and shows the characteristic bands of the methyl groups.

The absence of the absorption bands attributable to ethyl groups demonstrates that butene-Z is really copolyrnerized, and gives monomeric units of the type:

CH3 CH3 OH(L)H and that before the copolyrnerization no isomerization of butene-Z to butene-l has occurred.

When the butene-2 percentage in the copolymer increases to over 30 mole percent, raw products are obtained from which it is possible to separate fractions containing 50% by moles of butene-Z, the composition of which corresponds to a copolyrner in which the two monomers are present in equimolar amounts.

Furthermore, crude copolymers prepared according to the present invention, which copolymers have a butene-2 content equal to or a little lower than 50%, exhibit a crystallinity under X-ray examination not attributable to polyethylene, and, after extraction with boiling solvents, give fractions in which the butene-2 content is practically equal to 50%, regardless of the type of the solvent used.

By fractionation by means of successive extractions with boiling solvents, it is possible to separate fractions which show a high crystallinity on X-ray examination. For instance, by extraction with ether and then with boiling hexane, of ethylene-Butene-Z-cis copolymers containing from 35 to 45% by moles of butene-Z-cis, the fractions extracted (corresponding to 6590% of the total polymer), show crystallinity on X-ray examination.

Particularly, the fraction which is not extractable with ether, but which can be extracted with hexane, is very crystalline and shows a characteristic diffraction pattern very different from that of the linear polyethylene, this pattern being shown in the attached figure.

Considering the nature of monomeric units derived from butene-2, the crystalline structure of the copolymer, and the examination under infrared spectrograph which showed only the presence of single CH CH groups, and bearing in mind that no crude copolymer or fraction which has been prepared by applicants contained more than by weight of butene-Z, one must conclude that the macromolecules which form this fraction (which is not extractable with ether butwhich can be extruded with hexane), consist, at least for a long portion, of monomeric units of ethylene and butene-Z-cis regularly alternating with one another and sterically ordered.

The new polymeric products of the present invention can be employed as plastic materials (fibers, films and other manufactured articles) when they consist of crystalline products, or as elastomers when they consist of completely amorphous products.

The following examples are given to further illustrate the invention.

EXAMPLES 1-12 (1) 10 g. (0.179 mole) pure cis-butene-2 or (2) 10 g. (0.179 mole) pure trans-butene-Z.

Then, according to the particular example (see Table 1), one of the following catalysts, prepared immediately before the beginning of the run at 30 C. under nitrogen, are introduced:

(1) A catalyst prepared by adding 9.0 millimoles tri-nhexyl aluminum to a solution containing 3.6 millimoles vanadium tetrachloride in 30 ml. anhydrous n-heptane;

(2) A catalyst prepared by adding 14 millimoles diethylaluminum-monochloride to a solution consisting of 2.8 millimoles vanadium triacetylacetonate in 30 ml. anhydrous toluene.

After butene-2 and the catalytic system is introduced into the polymerization vessel (at 30 C.), an absolute total pressure of 750 torr is established with nitrogen. After the apparatus is stirred, it is joined, by opening the cock, with a vessel containing radioactive ethylene having a known specified activity. The absolute total pressure in the reactor is maintained by means or a scrubber filled with butyl phthalate, according to the particular example (see Table 1), at a pressure of:

(1) 800 torr;'-or (2) 850 torr; or (3) 950 torr Therefore, in the polymerization vessel, in the three above mentioned cases, the following initial partial pressures are:

(1) Ethylene partial pressure=50 torr partial nitrogen pressure+solvent+butene-2=7S0 torr.

(2) Ethylene partial pressure= torr partial nitrogen pressure-l-solvent+-butene-2=750 torr.

(3) Ethylene partial pressure=200 torr partial nitrogen pressure-l-solvent-t-butene-2=750 torr.

Since the conversion of butene-2 is rather small, the variations with time of the ratio between the concentrations of ethylene and butene-2 are very slight.

The duration of the polymerization in Examples 1 to 12 is 8 hours and minutes. The equilibrium between ethylene in the gaseous phase and that in the liquid phase is always assured by the efficient stirring.

The copolymerization is stopped by pouring the reaction product into an excess of methanol (500 ml.) containing 5 ml. of concentrated hydrochloric acid (38%).

After some hours, the precipitated copolymer is filtered,

washed with hot methanol and dried under reduced pressure 11 mm. Hg, at 60 C.

The ethylene content is determined by radiochemical technique. The butene-2 content is directly determined or is confirmed by means of infrared analysis by determining the intensity of the absorption of the methyl groups at 7.25 v

The absence of absorption between 13;; and 132 enables one to exclude the presence of ethyl groups due to the presence in the copolymer of monomeric units of butene-l, deriving from a hypothetical isomerization under the polymerization conditions of butene-2 into butene-l.

The polymerization conditions of Examples 1-12 and the results obtained are reported in Table 1.

Fhe results of the fractionation of the copolymers of Examples 1-12 are reported in Table 2.

Table 2 FRACTIONATION OF BUIENE-Z/ETHYLENE COPOLYME RS Ether n-I-Iexane n-Heptane Residue after Example extract, extract, extract. extraction, N 0. percent by percent by percent by percent by weight weight weight weight All the residues after the extraction referred to in Table 2 have a butene-content by moles of 2-5%. They show a polyethylene type crystallinity which is slight as compared to thecrystallinity of .a linear pure polyethylene obtained in the presence of the catalyst described in th present invention.

Table 1 COPOLYMERIZATION OF BUTENE-Z WITH ETHYLENE t a Partial pressure G. of copolymer Intrinsic Percent molar Example No. isomer used Catalyst of CZH torr. obtained Viscosity butene-2 b [1 in tetralin V(aeac) /Al(C2H5)z 200 5. 16 2.00 10.5 VC14/Al(CeHn)a 200 4. 63 2. 44 10 V(acac) 3/A1(C2H5)2C1 200 4. 38 3. 14 4 Determined at 135 C.

b Average value calculated on the basis of infrared analysis and radioehemieal determination.

* V(acac)3=vanadium triaeetylacetonate.

tent, more or less shifted toward higher reticular distances in comparison with the diffraction maximum of amorphous polyethylene.

In some cases (as in Examples 1 and 5), in addition to a slight crystallinity of the polyethylene type and the above mentioned displacement of the diffraction maximum of the amorphous fraction, one or more peaks of crystallinity are observed which cannot be attributed to polyethylene.

The above mentioned copolymers can be fractioned, for instance, by means of successive extractions with boiling solvents having an increasing boiling point. For instance, it is possible to separate the following fractions:

Ether extract n-Hexane extract n-Heptane extract Residue after the extraction The n-heptane extracts referred to in Table 2 have a butene-Z content by moles of 5-l5%. They also exhibit only a slight crystallinity of the polyethylene type, which crystallinity is scarcely noticeable.

The n-hexane extracts referred to in Table 2 have a butene-2 content by moles of 14-50%. They are powderlike or wax-like. 'When their content of butene by moles is between 14 and 25% they consist of copolymers of butene-Z and ethylene which show, on X-ray examination, a very slight polyethylene type crystallinity. When, on the contrary, the content of b-utene-2 by moles reach 45- 50%, generally a very clear change of the properties is observed. In this case the polymer is powder-like and when it is in the form of film it also shows elastic properties.

The copolymers insoluble in either but which can be extracted with hexane, containing about 50% (moles) of butene-Z, have generally a very high crystallinity, of a type wholly different from that of polyethylene. The diffraction spectrum on X-ray (CuKa radiations) of such copolymer fraction (which cannot be extracted with ether but which can be extracted with boiling hexane) when dried at about C. under reduced pressure, (see the attached figure showing a Geiger-counter registration of the X-ray spectrum of ethy1ene-cisbutene-2 alternating copolymer: abscissa=29 (CuKa-radiations), ordinate =intensity) presents the main diifracti'ons for the 29 angles equal to 14.1; 17.2"; 200; 22.4;.29.0. The crystallinity of such copolymer traction disappears at about 130 C., and therefore the melting point, from the crystallographic point of view, is about 130 C. or a little higher. The chemical structure of the macromolecules of this fraction corresponds to the chemical structure of a copolymer of alternating ethylene and butene-Z units:

Such alternating copolymer also has a sterically regular structure which renders crystallizable the macromolecules of which it consists. This alternating copolymer can be also defined as a propylene polymer having a head-head/ tail-tail enchainment and sterically regular.

The facts which lead to the above-mentioned interpretations are the following:

(a) By reducing the ethylene partial pressure, the moles content of butene-Z of the crude copolymer does not exceed the value of 40-50%, but approaches only asymptotically the 50% value (the theoretical value which corresponds to the alternating copolymer is 50.0%);

(b) By a further fractionation of the hexane extract of a copolymer having a mole content of butene-Z of 48-50% with boiling pentane, there are no remarkable changes of the butene-Z content in the extracted traction and in the residue;

(c) The appearance of a high crystallinity characteristic of a new crystalline product;

(d) The presence of an infrared absorption band characteristic for the methylene sequences containing two CH groups, together with the practical absence of characteristic bands for methylene sequences having more than two CH groups:

'(e) The impossibility of preparing homopolymers of butene-Z in the presence of the catalytic systems used in the process of the present invention. This leads also to the conclusion that in the copolymers the existence of sequences of monomeric units of butene-Z is impossible.

The ether extracts obtained from the crude ethylenebutene-2 copolymers having a butene-2 content higher than 35%in moles, have, as do the hexane extracts, a butene-2 content in moles of 48-50%. Unlike the heptane extracts, the ether extracts have a wax-like appearance and on X-ray examination show only a slight crystallinity. This crystallinity is similar to that observed for the alternate copolymers having stereo-regular structure which are insoluble in ether and which can be extracted with n-hexane. Therefore, one may conclude that such ether extracts consist of a linear alternate copolymer which, however, has a steric regularity remarkably lower than that of the hexane extracts which consist of a stereoregular alternate copolymer.

EXAMPLE l3 Into a reactor maintained under agitation and at a constant temperature of C. under nitrogen, are introduced:

15 ml. toluene 0.0078 mole TiCl violet and mole (Al(C2H5)3 At this stage the nitrogen is removed from the reactor by means of an air pump and then 20 ml. cis-butene-Z are introduced into the reactor and condensed. The pressure in the reactor is raised to atmospheric pressure with nitrogen, and ethylene is then introduced until a pressure of 100 torr is reached.

EXAMPLE 14 By operating as described in Examples 1-12, the copolymerization of butene-Z with ethylene is carried out by using 10 g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis butene-Z and a catalyst prepared by adding 28 millimoles diethylaluminurn monochloride to a solution consisting of 5.6 millimoles vanadyl chloride diethylate, VOCl(OC H in 30 ml. anhydrous toluene (catalyst freshly prepared under nitrogen at 30 C.). The ethylene partial pressure is tor-r. r

The polymerization is carried out at 30 C. for 8 hours. The polymerization is stopped and the crude copolymer is isolated as described in Examples 1-12. There results 0.36 g. of a white powder-like copolymer, having a molar content of butene-Z of 1-2%.

EXAMPLE 1s By proceeding as described in Examples 1-12, the copolymerization of n-pentene-Z with ethylene is carried out by using:

10 g. (0.143 mole) of a mixture of cisand trans-npentene-Z purified by distillation over Al (C H A catalyst prepared by adding 9.0 millirnoles aluminumtri-n-hexyl to a solution of 3.6 millimoles vanadium tetrachloride in 30 ml. anhydrous n-heptane (catalyst freshly prepared under nitrogen at 30 C.);

An ethylene partial pressure of 100 torr.

The polymerization is carried out at -30 C. for 7 hours. The copolymerization is stopped and the crude copolymer is removed as described in Examples 1-12. There results 1.90 g. of a pentene-Z-ethylene copolymer which is white and powder-like, slightly elastic, and which has a pentene-2 molar content of 7%.

EXAMPLE 16 Using the apparatus and technique described in Examples 1 to 12, the copolymerization of cis-butene-Z with ethylene is carried out by using:

10 g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis-butene-2;

A catalyst freshly prepared by adding 9.0 millimoles of triethyl aluminum to a solution of 3.6 millimoles of vanadium tetrachloride in 37 cc. of anhydrous heptane kept under agitation at 30 C.;

A partial ethylene pressure of 100 torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

The copolymerization is carried out at 30 C. for 6 hours. tained is isolated and purified as described in Examples 1 to 12.

2.08 g. of a copolymer are obtained, which copolymer is a slightly rubbery and tacky White powder having an intrinsic viscosity, as determined in tetrahydronaphthalene at C., of 2.25.

Both radiochemical and infrared analysis (based on the content of methylene groups) show a content of units derived from ethylene to be 63% by weight and a content of units derived from cis-butene-Z to be 37% by weight.

X-ray examination shows the presence of crystallinity due to an ethylene sequence together with that of the regularly alternated ethylene-cis butene-Z copolymer in the macromolecules.

EXAMPLE 17 With the apparatus and technique described in Examples 1 to '12, the copolymerization of cisbutene-2 with ethylene is carried out by using:

10 g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis-butene-Z;

A catalyst freshly prepared by addition of 9 millimoles of aluminum trihexadecyl to a solution of 3.6 millimoles of vanadium tetrachloride in 37 cc. of anhydrous n-heptane, kept under agitation at 30 C.;

An ethylene partial pressure of 100 torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

The copolymer-ization is. carried out at -30 C. for 6 hours. The ethylene-sis butene-2 copolymer thus obtained is isolated and purified as described in Examples 1 to 12. I

- 1.92 g. of a copolymer are obtained, this copolymer be- The ethylene-cis butene-Z copolymer thus ob ing a white tacky plastic mass having an intrinsic viscosity, determined in tetrahydronaphthalene at 135 C., of 1.25.

Both radiochemical and infrared analysis (the latter based on the content of methyl groups) show a content of units derived from ethylene of 45% by weight and a content of units derived from cis-butene-2 of 55% by weight.

X-ray examination has shown that the copolymer obtained is substantially amorphous; only a small percentage of crystalline product can be observed.

EXAMPLE 18 With the apparatus and the'technique described in Examples 1 to 12 the copolymerization of cis-butene-2 with ethylene is carried out by using:

g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis-butene-Z;

A catalyst freshly prepared by adding 9.0 millimoles of n-octyl sodium to a solution of 3.6 millimoles of vanadium tetrachloride in 50 cc. of anhydrous heptane kept under agitation at 30 C.;

A partial ethylene pressure of 100 torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

- The copolymerization is carried out at -30 C. for 6 hours.

The ethylene-cis butene-2 copolymer thus obtained is isolated and purified as described in Examples 1 to 12.

0.76 g. of a copolymer are obtained, this copolymer being a slightly tacky white powder having an intrinsic viscosity, determined in tetrahydronaphthalene at 135 C., of 2.5.

Both radiochemical and infrared analysis (based on the content of methyl groups) show a content of units derived trom ethylene of 67% by weight and a content of units derived from cis-butene-Z of 33% by weight.

X-ray examination shows the presence of crystallinity due to ethylene sequences in the macromolecules.

EXAMPLE 19 With the apparatus and the technique described in Examples 1 to 12 the copolymerization of cis-butene-Z with ethylene is carried out by using:

10 g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis-butene-2;

A catalyst freshly prepared by adding 9.0 millimoles of diethyl beryllium to a solution of 3.6 millimoles of vanadium tetrachloride in 37 cc. of anhydrous n-heptane kept under agitation at 30 C.;

A partial ethylene pressure of 100 torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

The copolymerization is carried out at -30 C. for 6 hours. The ethylene-cis butene-2 copolymer thus obtained is isolated and purified as described in Examples 1 to 12.

1.24 g. of a copolymer are obtained, this copolymer being a white powder having an intrinsic viscosity, determined in tetrahydronaphthalene at 135 C., of 5.2.

Both radiochemical and infrared analysis (based on the content of methyl groups) show a content of units derived from ethylene of 92% by weight and a content of units derived from cis-butene-Z of 8% by weight.

The copolymer appears to be crystalline by X-ray examination.

EXAMPLE 20 With the apparatus and the technique described in Examples 1 to 12 the copolymerization of cis-butene-2 with ethylene is carried out by using:

10 g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis-butene-2;

A catalyst freshly prepared by adding 9.0 millimoles of n-butyl zinc to a solution of 3.6 millimoles of vanadium tetrachloride in 37 cc. of anhydrous n-heptane kept under agitation at 30 C.; V

A partial ethylene pressure of 100 torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

The copolymerization is carried out at 30 C. for 6 hours. The ethylene-cis butene-Z copolymer thus ob- 10 tained is isolated and purified as described in Examples 1 to 12.

1.75 g. of a copolymer are obtained, this polymer be ing a white powder having an intrinsic viscosity, determined in tetrahydronaphthalene at 135 C., of 3.1.

Both radiochemical and infrared analysis (based on the content of methyl groups) show a content of units derived from ethylene of by weight and a' content of units derived from cis-butene-Z of 10% by weight.

The copolymer appears to be crystalline by X-ray ex- 'aminatiou.

EXAMPLE 21 With the apparatus and the technique described in Examples 1 to 12 the copolymerization of cis-butene-2 with ethylene is carried out by using:

10 g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis-butene-Z;

A catalyst freshly prepared by adding 9.0 millimoles of trihexyl aluminum to a solution of 3.6 millimoles of vanadium tetrachloride in 37 cc. of anhydrous n-heptane kept under agitation at 30 C.;

A partial ethylene pressure of torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

The copolymerization is carried out at 30 C. for 6 hours. The ethylene-cis butene-2 copolymer thus obtained is isolated and purified as described in Examples 1 to 12.

1.25 g. of a copolymer are obtained, this copolymer being a White powder having an intrinsic viscosity, determined in tetrahydronaphthalene at C., of 2.5.

Both radiochemical and infrared analysis (based on the content on the methyl groups) show a content of units derived from ethylene of 90% by Weight and a content of units derived from cis-butene-Z of 10% by Weight. I

The copolymer appears to be crystalline by X-ray examination.

EXAMPLE 22 With the apparatus and the technique described in Examples 1 to 12 the copolymerization of cis-butene-2 with ethylene is carried out by using:

10 g. (0.179 mole) of pure cis-butene-Z;

A catalyst freshly prepared by adding 9.0 millimoles of tr-ihexyl aluminum to a solution of 3.6 millimoles of vanadyl trichloride (VOC1 in 37 cc. of anhydrous n-heptane kept under agitation at 30 C.;

A partial ethylene pressure of 100 torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

The copolymerization is carried out at -30 C. for 6 hours. The ethylene-cis butene-Z copolymer thus obtained is isolated and purified as described in Examples 1 to 12.

1.2 g. of a copolymer are obtained in the form of a compact white powder having an intrinsic viscosity, determined in tetrahydronaphthalene at 135 C., of 1.8.

Both radiochemical and infrared analysis (based on the content of methyl groups) show a content of units derived from ethylene of 77% "by Weight and a content of units derived from cis-butene-2 of 23% by Weight.

The copolymer appears to be crystalline by X-ray examination.

EXAMPLE 23 A partial ethylene pressure of 50' torr (ethylene marked with carbon 14).

in tetrahydronaphthalene at 135 C., of 1.8.

The copolymer thus obtained is not soluble in nhexane and ether but is partially soluble in n-heptane. Bot-h radiochemical and infrared analysis (based on the content of methyl groups) show a content of units derived from ethylene of 93% by weight and a content of units derived from l-phenyl butene-Z of 7% by weight.

The copolyiner appears to be crystalline by Xray examination.

Variations can of course be made without departing irom the spirit of our invention.

Having thus described our invention what we desire to secure and claim by Letters Patent is:

1. A polymeric product obtained from the oopolymerization of ethylene and butene-2, said product being made up oi linear high molecular weight macromolecules in which the main chain contains units of the formula CH3 CH3 -CHzCH2-CH H said product containing from about 30 to 50 mole percent of units derived from butene-Z and correspondingiy from about 70 to 50 mole percent of units derived from ethylene, at least one ethylene unit, CH -CH being between any two butene-Z units,

CH CH3 GH-GH- 2. The poly-(3,4-dimethylbutamer) of claim 1 consisting of linear high molecular weight macromolecules formed by the repetition of units of the formula CH3 CH3 CH2OHGHGH 3. The pcly-(3,4-dimethylbutamer) of claim 2. having ,a sterically regular structure.

4. The poly(3,4-dimethylbutamer) of claim 3, which is crystalline at room temperature, said crystallinity being characterized by the X-ray diffraction pattern shown in FIG. 1.

5. The poly-(3,4-dirnethylbutamer) of claim 4, having a melting temperature of about 130 C.

6. A poly-(3,4-dimethyl-butamer-co-ethamer) according to claim 1, consisting of linear, high molecular weight macromolecules consisting of units CH3 CH3 o H2-G H2-CI H-O H- and of an even number of methylene group sequences.

7. A poly-(3,4-dimethylbutarner-co-ethamer) according to claim 6, having a crystallinityof the type of that of poly-(3,4-dimethyl-butamer).

8. The'copolymer of claim 6, consisting of linear high molecular weight macromolecules, amorphous on X-ray,

and having elastomeric properties.

9. A copolymer of butane-2 and ethylene according to claim 7, which copolymer can be extracted with boiling ether.

19. A copolymer of butene-Z with ethylene according to claim 7, which cannot be extracted with boiling ether but which can be extracted with boiling n hexane.

11. A process for the preparation of a polymeric product of linear high molecular weight macromolecules in which the main chain contains units of the formula -CH2CH2 H-CH- comprising copolymerizing in the liquid phase ethylene with butene-Z, in the presence of a catalyst prepared from a transition metal compound wherein the metal is selected from Groups IV, V and VI of the Periodic Table and from an organometallic compound of .a metal selected from Groups Ia, II and Illa of the Periodic Table, the proportions of said ethylene and butene-2 being at least about 49 moles of butene-Z per mole of ethylene, whereby there is provided a polymeric product containing from about 30 to 50 mole percent of units deriving cfrom butene2 and correspondingly from about to 50 mole percent of units derived from ethylene,

at least one ethylene unit, --CH -CH being between any two butene-2 units,

OH; OH;

GH-GH 12. The process of claim 11 wherein the catalytic system is dispersed in the liquid phase in which the copolymerization takes place.

13. The process of claim 11 wherein the catalytic system is wholly dissolved in the liquid phase in which the copolymerization occurs.

14. The process of'claim 11 wherein said process is carried out at a temperature of from about to C.

15. The process of claim 11 wherein said process is carried out at a temperature of from about 50 to 16. The process of claim 11 wherein the liquid phase consists of butene-Z.

17. The process of claim 11 wherein said process is carried out in the presence of an inert solvent selected from the group consisting of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

18. Thermoplastic materials containing the polymeric product of claim 1.

19. Crystalline thermoplastic materials according to claim 18.

20. Amorphous thermoplastic materials according to claim 18.

21. Fibers, films and other manufactured articles according to claim 19.

22. Elastomers according to claim 20.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,921 ,872 1 19 60 McGlamery 26094.9 2,940,963 6/1960 Denkowski 260-882. 3,008,940 11/ 1961 Wagner et al. 260-88.2

JOSEPH L. SCHOFER, Primary Examiner.

E. M. OLSTEIN, M. B. KURTZMAN,

Assistant Examiners.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2921872 *Aug 31, 1956Jan 19, 1960Phillips Petroleum CoMethod of insulating an electrical conductor with a copolymer comprising ethylene and propylene or 1-butene or 2-butene
US2940963 *Jun 25, 1956Jun 14, 1960Monsanto ChemicalsQuenching of catalyst with alcoholic mixture
US3008940 *Nov 17, 1958Nov 14, 1961 Water removal from polymers
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3920621 *Feb 12, 1973Nov 18, 1975Huels Chemische Werke AgProcess for the production of high-molecular low-pressure co- and terpolymers of ethylene of low density
US7037989May 27, 2003May 2, 2006Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.Using coordination polymerization catalyst
Classifications
U.S. Classification526/159, 526/169, 526/347, 526/348.6, 526/169.2
International ClassificationC08F10/00, C08F210/00
Cooperative ClassificationC08F10/00, C08F210/00
European ClassificationC08F210/00, C08F10/00