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Publication numberUS3250931 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 10, 1966
Filing dateDec 31, 1962
Priority dateDec 31, 1962
Publication numberUS 3250931 A, US 3250931A, US-A-3250931, US3250931 A, US3250931A
InventorsHardman James A
Original AssigneeHardman James A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Piston-ported volume displacement means accommodating multiple, work effecting components
US 3250931 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1965 J A. HARDMAN 3,250,931








JAMES A. HARD AN May 0, 1966 J. A. HARDMAN 3,250,931



FIG. 36 HI ATTORNEY 3,250,931 ATING May 10, 1966 J. A. HARDMAN PISTON-PORTED VOLUME DISPLACEMENT MEANS ACCOMMOD MULTIPLE, WORK EFFECTING COMPONENTS 14 Sheets-Sheet 12 Filed Dec. 31, 1962 0 45 90 I35 I80 225 270 3l5 360 45 90 I35 I80 225 270 3l5 360 FIG. 48

FIG. 47


JAMES A HAR MAN IS ATTORNEY May 10, 1966 J. A. HARDMAN 3,250,931


FIG. 49

O 360 315 270 225 I I35 45 360 3I5 270 225 I80 I35 FIG. 52

FIG. 5|


JAMES A. HARDMAN BY IS ATTORNE United States Patent 3,250,931 PISTON-PORTED VOLUME DiSlLACEMEN-T MEANS ACCOMMODATING MULTIPLE, WORK EFFECTING COMPONENTS James A. Hardman, 225 West 4th North, Logan, Utah Filed Dec. 31, 1962, Ser. No. 249,554 35 Claims. (Cl. 31075) This is a continuation-in-part of the inventors application entitled Fluid Pump System, Serial No. 181,- 616, filed March 22, 1962, which is now to be abandoned.

The present invention relates to volume displacement apparatus, such as fluid pumps, compressors, fluid-pressure driven motors, motor-generators, engines of internal combustion, steam, and other types, wherein porting is affected through a sweeping-type registry of piston apertures and cylinder ports, and, more particularly, to apparatus of the type described wherein multiple, work affecting components such as plural generators, pumping cylinders, motors, and so forth, may be coupled to or rendered integral parts of the volume displacement apparatus in permissible balanced condition, and, further, wherein the design of the apparatus lends itself to a high degree of reliability in use and to standard manufacturing practices not requiring excessively close machining tolerances.

Principal objects of the present invention are to provide' single-acting or double-acting, single or opposed piston, sleeve value volume displacement means, including liquid pumps, gaseous fluid compressors, engines, motors, and motor generators, wherein multiple, work eflecting components such as plural generators, pumping cylinders and motors may be coupled thereto or rendered integral parts thereof in a permissible balanced condition, to provide for simple, vibration-free, high speed, quietly operating volume displacement means; to provide high speed pump and compressor means which can be driven by two, economically constructed motors, or high speed engine means to drive two generators; to provide low stage and high stage compression in each of two cylinders wherein the displacement of the piston rod common to the pistons of both cylinders establishes the volume difference for the two stages of each cylinder; to provide circulating lubricating coolant flow within the piston rod to cool the compression rings associated therewith, and to provide the same for the lubrication and temperature control to all structure, including pistons, requiring the same; to provide balanced power input to and take-off from a piston rod by novel pivot means at the juncture of the piston rod and shuttle structure, and, in connection with the latter, to eliminate imbalance of power input and output resulting from the backlash inequality of gearing tolerances in the drive and take-off means therefor, and to provide balanced input from only one side of a two-rotor (flywheel) input; to provide a two-cylinder, double acting piston, pump means wherein four independent stages of compression can be obtained with but two cylinders; to provide a pump, air compressor motor, motor-generator, and engine which, by reason of their sleeve valves, may be driven at very high speeds, speeds which are considerably above those generally considered appropriate and, in connection with compressors, which conventionally used reed and plate valves, for example, can accommodate; to provide alternate means for pivoting the shuttle to the piston rod in the subject volume displacement apparatus construction; to provide optimum heat transfer and dissipation in the present struc ture by supplying multiple cooling and lubricating channels in the spherical bearings, sockets, and shuttle arm of the shuttle associated therewith, wherein the fiow of lubricant flowing in said channels is intermittent, forming successive, pressured lubrication charges which are constantly being replaced at these areas by fresh cooling lubricant; to eliminate excessive, peak loads on piston rod (and other) carrier bearings resulting from the machining deviations from theoretical true values and from motor input differences where motors are employed; to provide self-aligning bearings and pivotal connection between the piston rod and shuttle of the structure so as to permit a resilient bushing, which is incorporated in the structure in one embodiment, to meliorate and distribute such excessive peak loads; to cushion the shock in shuttle and piston rod bearings caused by the backlash of gears when marked power change occurs; to assure equal load on spherical bearings in case of machining irregularities or uneven wear, thus avoiding peak loads beyond the lubricant film strength; to provide relevant embodiments a balanced output (or input) irrespective of the speed ratio of gearing of the two power lanes leading to the motion transforming mechanism of the structure; to provide an adequate, uniform, and continuous main flow of cooling lubricant through the journal and piston rod system of the. subject structure, and this notwithstanding the intermittent charges of pressured lubricant at the shuttles spherical bearings (or rotor journals) which it supplies; to provide volume displacement apparatus of the type described to drive a pair of generators respectively coupled to or included in opposite power lanes of said ap paratus and, optionally, to include saftey means for cutting off input power to said apparatus when said generators are in objectionable imbalance; to provide volume displacement apparatus of the type described to be driven by a pair of motors in opposite input power lanes leading to or included in said apparatus and, optionally, to include safety means for cutting off input power to said motors when the load of said input power lanes are in objectional imbalance; to provide a cooling spray to the underside of the crown of a piston and to the inside of its sleeve, to dissipate excessive temperature; to eliminate piston thrust and compression rings in the subject, volume displacement apparatus and, instead provide a high-speed, sleeve effect which utilizes a carbon or other low-friction cylinder liner so as to avoid the presence of lubricant or other foreign matter where the presence of such in the pumped medium is objectionable; to provide circumscribing rings of pressure circulating flow of oil about the piston means of a vacuum pump 50 as to insure full seal-out of back-pressure, and, optionally, to pressure feed said oil through said cylinder in a circuit having necessary oil-conditioning means if needed, and, further to provide a suitable filter to recover oil entrained in the exhaust; to provide motion transforming structure wherein a compressor cylinder supplies scavenging air to an internal combustion cylinder and this where the pistons of the respective cylinders are common to a single piston rod and, ad-

vantageously, are provided scavenging air communicapump unit and drive means therefor, showing partially .in section an assembly of one of two cylinders employed.

The cylinder stroke lay-out is shown reduced in scale to the stroke shown in the drive.

3 FIGURE 2 is a side elevation, partially in section and broken away, showing geared power takeoff from (or power input to) the two rotors of a representative fluid pump or compressor, and further showing an end view of the novel pivotal connections between the shuttle and piston rod.

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary plan view, partially in section at the piston rod, showing a preferred pivotal connection between a representative shuttle and piston rod, as well as coolant flow means extending through the piston rod.

'FIGURE 4 is a view, partially in section, and taken along the line 44 in FIGURE 3.

FIGURE 5 is a top, fragmentary view, partially in section, of the structure of FIGURE 4, showing principal additional details of the shuttle construction.

FIGURE 6 is a sectioned elevation taken along the line 6-6 in FIGURE 3, showing construction details of the universal cross member with its lubrication channels.

FIGURE 7 is a plan view, partially in section, of alternate universal means for mounting shuttle and push rod; lubricant passages are also shown together with a spherical bearing journaling one arm of the shuttle to its rotor; this figure is similar in orientation to FIGURE 3 but is rotated 90 in a counter-clockwise direction with respect thereto.

FIGURE 8 is a view of the cross member only, shown in FIGURE 7, which is transposed in elevation to the right of FIGURE 7.

FIGURE 9 is a section of the cross member, taken on line 99 in FIGURE 7, with the side tie member re moved and oil channels shown.

FIGURE 10 is a view, shown principally in section, and taken along the line 10-10 in FIGURE 7 when the piston rod is at mid-stroke position, of a representative rotor, spherical bearing and shuttle arm, showing the novel coolant and lubrication mechanism of the spherical bearing and shuttle arm.

FIGURE 11 is a view, taken along the line 11-11 in FIGURE 7 and rotated 90 in a clockwise direction, for convenience of illustration, of a respective one of the removable side clamp members shown in the assembly of FIGURE 7.

FIGURE 12 illustrates yet another alternate means,.

FIGURE 16 is a View taken along the line 16-16 in FIGURE 12.

FIGURE 17 is a fragmentary elevation, broken away and partially'sectioned for convenience of illustration, of a volume displacement apparatus (pump or compressor, here) having a single, single-acting piston, according to one embodiment of'the invention.

FIG. 18 is an enlarged, fragmentary section of the piston of FIGURE 17, showing the construction and attachment of the piston rod to the piston.

FIGURE 19 is a transverse, sectional view of.a contfigurated spacer used in connection with exhaust and intake conduit attachment flanges in FIGURE 17.

FIGURE 20 illustrates the structure of FIGURE 17 wherein the same is modified to include a pair of opposed pistons operating in respective cylinders, and is in reduced scale.

FIGURE 21 illustrates a plan view of an embodiment of the invention wherein the same takes the form of a twostage air compressor.

FIGURE 22 illustrates a partial cylinder in which the piston rod and oil wiping gland portray the use of a low friction lubricating sleeve, such as a carbon sleeve, interposed between the piston and cylinder wall.

FIGURE 23 represents a partial cylinder in section with oil seal rings provided to seal the piston for vacuum pumping.

FIGURE 24 is an elevation of a double acting air cooled cylinder useable in the present invention.

FIGURE 25 is a fragmentary bottom view of the structure of FIGURE 24 and illustrates a conduit mounted on one of the port groups.

FIGURE 26 is a plan view, broken away for convenience of illustration, of the cylinder in FIGURE 24, showing 'in dotted lines a representing ponting for a cylinder.

FIGURE 27 portrays in elevation a double-acting piston partially in section to show the piston rod mounting flanges and intake and exhaust apertures.

FIGURE 28 is an end view of the piston of FIGURE 27 with the medial partition plate in place to show the attachment orifices.

FIGURE 29 is a representation of the port groups on one side of a liquid cooled cylinder, showing also the O-ring seals, water jackets and special sleeve designed to meet requirements of contamination-free, pumped medium.

FIGURE 30 is a fragmentary bottom view of the cylinder of FIGURE 29, showing mounting holes and port manifold in place with attachments.

FIGURE 31 is a top view, broken away for convenience of illustration, of the cylinder in FIGURE 29, showing in dotted lines the structure and location of cylinder ports and O-ring seals for the water jacket sleeve employed.

FIGURE 32 is a plan view, partially in section, of a motor-generator unit, to show the assembly of two doubleacting cylinders and two generators as well as the piston rod seals and guides thereof.

FIGURE 33 is an enlarged fragmentary section of one of the pistons of FIGURE 32, showing in section the piston rod assembly therein and the oil cooling circuit em ployed.

FIGURE 34 is a section, taken at 3434 in FIGURE 32, showing the cylinder port conduit locations with respect to the cylinder.

FIGURE 35' is an enlarged elevation view of one of the double-acting pistons of FIGURE 32 and showing the fluid apertures for displacement control.

FIGURE 36 is a plan-view largely in section of an engine generator unit wherein one cylinder provides a scavenging pump for the internal combustion cylinder of the opposite side, to operate two balanced output generators.

FIGURE 37 is a section enlargement of the power piston of the engine of FIGURE 36, showing the piston and the piston rod assembly.-

FIGURE 38 is a diagrammatic roll-out of the air cylinder shown in FIGURE 36, with a roll-out of the piston superimposed thereon to portray porting functions throughout piston travel, and is fragmentary.

FIGURE 39 is an elevation view of a single-acting piston, showing multiple porting for large, high-speed pistons.

FIGURE 40 is a typical cylinder roll-out accommodating the piston of FIGURE 39, showing multiple porting facility for large volume flow.

FIGURES 4144 illustrate a roll-out of the piston in FIGURE 39 superimposed over a roll-out of the cylinder in FIGURE 40 to show four sequential positions, in that order, of the piston apertures and their relationship to the cylinder ports of a single-acting, air'compressor cylinder of large volume as in FIGURE 17.

FIGURES 4548 depict piston roll-outs superimposed over-cylinder roll-outs at four sequential positions (12 oclock, 9 ocloc-k, 6 oclock, and 3 oclock) of the doubleacting air compressor cylinder and piston of FIGURES 24-28, which is also suitable for use in FIGURE 1.

FIGURES 49-52 are overlays, at piston positions 12 oclock, 9 oclock, 6 oclock, and 3 oclock, respectively,

of a roll-out of a representative piston over a representative cylinder (as in FIGURES 32-35), wherein groups of intake and exhaust apertures sequentially register over respective, single cylinder ports, as desired, and will apply to liquid pumps and fluid-driven motors.

FIGURE 53 is an elevation of a piston according to yet another form of the invention, wherein reduced piston length is accomplished by having a single piston skirt, with the skirt accommodating both intake and exhaust apertures.

FIGURE 54 is a roll-out of a cylinder accommodating the piston of FIGURE 53.

FIGURES 55-58 are overlays, at piston positions 12 oclock, 9 oclock, 6 oclock, and 3 oclock, respectively, of a roll-out of the piston of FIGURE 53 over a roll-out of the cylinder of FIGURE 54, indicating the times and positions when piston apertures approach, enter, and leave registry of' respective cylinder ports.

In, FIGURE 1 central housing 10 is provided with carrier bearing plates 11 and 11, and a pair of power generating sources 12 and 12' such as electric motors are respectively mounted thereto and to thecentral housing 10 by bolts 13 and 13'- the ends only of which are shown. Each of the carrier bearing plates 11 and 11 is provided with respective seats 14 and 14' for seating the respective carrier bearings 15 and 15. Rotor members 16 and 16' are each integrally provided with hubs 17 and 17' (the latter of which is supplied with gear teeth) and also are axially afiixed in 90 transverse relationship to shafts 18 and 18', of power sources 12 and 12', which preferably extend therewithin in a pressed or other fixed relationship. The hubs 17 and 17., in a preferred embodiment of the invention, engage the inner races of carrier bearings 15 and 15' so as to secure the same within the respective bearing seats 14 and 14'. Each of the motor shafts 18 and 18' is provided with respective axial, stub apertures 19 and 19 and with respective, radial apertures (one or .more in number), designated as 20 and 20' communicating therewith. Apertures 19, 19', 20 and 20 comprise lubricant passageways which proceed through rotor members 16 and 16' to cetrain bearings and other structure as will be hereinafter described.

The shafts 18 and 18 with their respective rotors 16 and 16 have nominally common axes of rotation coincident with axis 21 and nominally transverse to the piston rod axis and intersecting therewith. The rotors 16 and 16' are rotated in opposite directions and journal a shuttle 22. As shall be hereinafter explained in detail, the shuttle 22 is universally journaled thereto by spherical bearings seated within respective rotors 16 and 16' at nominally equally eccentrically situated sockets of the rotors, such that upon the opposing rotation of the two rotor members 16 and 16, the shuttle 22 will be simultaneously translated back and forth in the direction A and A and also will be caused to be continuously rotationally displaced about the axis of piston rod 23 and at right angles thereto. We shall now turn our attention to a discussion of the cylinder and stuffing gland structure, and related structure associated with piston rod 23. Air cooled cylinders 27 and 27' are mounted via their base flanges 28 and 28 to respective flanges 29 and 29, of stuffing gland members 36' and 30, and to the central housing 10 by a plurality of stud and nut attachments 31 and 31'. While the cylinder pair is shown as a pair of air-cooled cylinders having fins 32 and 32, it will be obvious that other types of cylinder constructions are possible. Each cylinder will be supplied with wall orifices 33, 34, 35 and 36 which receive respective conduit-s 37, 38, 39 and 40. These orifices and conduits are all outlet or exhaust orifices and conduits; intake orifices and conduits are delineated as 42 and 43', 44' and 45, respectively. It

tions, are substantially identical. The cylinder construc-- tions at the upper half of the figure are given regular numbers where as that of the lower portion of the figure are given prime numbers.

Cooling chamber cover 46 is mounted by cap screws or other attachments 47 to the cylinder member 48, of cylinder 27, and includes internally threaded boses 49 and 50 for receiving conduits 51 and 52. Inverted cup member 53 is likewise secured to cylinder member 48 by attachments 47 and defines with cooling chamber cover 46 a cooling chamber 54 which, with the flow of coolant therewithin, serves to cool the respective cylinder head of each of the two-cylinders used. There is need for a favorably heat-exchange relationship at cooling chamber 54 to conduct from the cylinder area the heat which is generated by compression occuring within the cylinders in the course of the reciprocation of piston rod 23. Again, the cylinder constructions of both halves of the structure are functionally identical and so only onehalf will be described in detail. The above remains true, of course, even though functional requirements may dictate differences in displacement volumes of the two cylinders for various operating requirements.

It will be seen hereinafter that for certain design reasons and particularly in the area of multi-stage compressors, the piston rod diameter dimensions together with piston and cylinder dimensions may be altered and varied as desired for any one of a number of reasons. Notwithstanding these, however, it is conceived that the general structural design features, excluding possible alterations in dimensions, will obtain as that shown in the upper half of FIGURE 1.

Plate 55 is secured in place by machine screws 56 (one only being shown), and the latter are threaded into stuffing gland members 30. Plate 55 thus retains the spherical bearing socket halves 57 and 58 against washer-type spacers 59 and sleeve-type spacers 6t). Disposed, between the latter spacers, as shown, are conventional compression rings 61 and conventional oil wiper rings 62. Both sets of rings 61 and 62 are retained in place by conventional, self-contained annular springs, with the compression rings 61 serving to maintain compression and for pressure during the back-stroke of the respective piston, and the oil wiper rings 62 serve to preclude the passage of lubricant on the outer surface of the piston rod 23 into area 63. The purpose, of course, for keeping lubricant out of the area 63 is to preclude the necessity in certain applications of filtering lubricant from the compressed air or other compressed or pumped materials, for certain applications, and, in addition, to proclude general loss of lubricant from the lubricating system of the structure.

Bearing 64 is of a spherical, self-aligning type, and its function, together with the other characteristics of its mounting within the stufiing gland assembly are more fully described in the inventors co-pending United States patent application entitled, Two Piston Sleeve Port Engine, Serial No. 119,485, filed June 26, 1961, now abandoned, which is incorporated herein by way of reference and fully made a part hereof.

The central housing '10 comprises, in effect, a sump of lubricant reservoir in proximity with which is disposed a conventional oil pump 65 adapted to receive oil or other lubricant at intake 66. The pump 65 will include a shaft 67 to which gear 68 is pinned or otherwise axially secured. The pump gear 68 will be disposed in mesh with gear teeth provided on hub 17 of rotor member 16' so that the pump will be driven thereby by the power source used. The lubrication circuit is shown somewhat in schematic form, with phantom lines indicating general conduit routing. One orifice 69 of pump 65 will be coupled by conduit 70 to a respective stationary collar 71 circumscribing motor shafts 18'. Collars 71 will of course be by annular groove 72'. This construction is identical with respect to the motor shaft 18; hence, the latter will not be described in detail except for the fact that T 73 and conduit 74 provide this latter result upon the coupling of T 73 to another pump output 69 (69 corresponding to 69 for the remaining cylinder). Another conduit 77 is threaded into stuifing gland member 30 at passageway 78, the latter taking the form of a radial bore communicating with return passageway 79, the two passageways forming communication with each othervia annular groove 80. Annular groove 80 may be machined into the stufiing gland member 30 before stuffing gland plate 81" is welded or otherwise affixed thereto to cover the same.

Conduit 52 leads from threaded boss 50 directly to and is attached at the orifice 81 of central housing 10. The same holds true for conduit 52 and its interconnection with the return orifice 81' in FIGURE 1. Thus, it will be observed that the lubricant pump 65 supplies lubricant under pressure to the rotor members 16 and 16 via passageways 19' and 20', 19 and 20, and so forth and supplies lubricant as a coolant for the stuifing gland 30 via passageway 78, and so forth and additionally supplies a coolant via conduits 51 and 52 to the cooling chambers 54 of a representative cylinder. Further, in being in communication with the interior of central housing 10, the lubricant is also supplied to piston rod shaft 23 so that an appropriate lubricating film may be supplied this shaft as the same reverses and rotates with the shuttle, Within spherical bearing 64 (on both sides of shuttle 22).

As shall be seen with more particularity hereinafter, it shall be mentioned at this point that a journaling pin 82 is provided within the shuttle 22 to connect the shuttle 22 to piston rod 23. Again, this will be described with more particularity hereinafter.

At this juncture it is important to note the structure at the extremities of piston rod 23. The piston rod 23 is provided with a pair of tapered ends (one being shown) as at 83 to which is keyed as at 84 to a mounting flange member 85. The opposite ends of piston rod 23 are threaded as at 86 and receive a pair of securement nuts 87 and 88. Piston 89 proper includes conventional rings 90, with the head portion thereof at 91 being riveted at 92 to mounting flange member and also to an upper steel ring 93. Mounting flange member 85 and also to an upper steel ring 93. Mounting-flange member 85 will also preferably be made of steel so that when the piston is fabricated from aluminum, for example, distortion and other wear problems will be eliminated and a secure mounting assured.

It should be noticed in passing that for maintenance purposes it is possible that the cup member 53 may be removed, the nuts 87 and 88 removed so that the piston rod 23 can be released from its connection with piston 89 and the mounting flange member 85.

In FIGURE 2 is shown a pair of carrier bearing cover plates 94 and 94 which seat bearings 15 and 15 as before, which are similar to the carrier bearing plates 11 and 11' of FIGURE 1, but which this time are now provided with lubricant passageways 95.

Instead of being motor shafts, the shafts 96 and 96' will generally be stub shafts, preferably, and there will be mounted thereon in a splined or other keyed mounting a respective pinion gear 97 on each of the shafts 96 and 96'. Each of the gears 97 (only one being shown) will be disposed in mesh with a ring gear 98 which is secured by cap screws or other attachments 99, or other means, to a disc 100, the latter being integral with or otherwise secured to drive shaft 101.

End bells 102 and 103 are secured to the central housing in FIGURE 2, and outboard journaling bearings 104 and 105 journal the shafts 96 and 96' and have their covers bolted to end bells 102 and 103. Bolted or otherwise atfixed to the end bells 102 and 103 and also the central housing 10 is a side bell structure 106 which is provided with a journaling boss 107 suitably interiorly shouldered at 108 and 109 for receiving carrier bearings 110 and 111, the latter journaling drive shaft 101. As indicated in FIGURE 2 the drive shaft 101 is coupled to a source of power 112 adapted to rotate the same. If desired, a cover inspection plate 113 may be secured to the central housing 10 and be aflixed thereto by means of bolts or other attachments 114. A shoulder 249 abuts the inner race of bearing to hold the bearing securely in position. Correspondingly, at the opposite end of shaft 101 there is supplied a washer 115 and a pair of nuts 116 and 117 which thread onto shaft 101 and which retain the bearings 110 and 111 in place. Preferably,'a cap 118 will be threaded into the boss 107, as shown, to preclude oil leakage, the entrance of foreign matter, and so forth.

At this juncture there will be discussed the relative merits of the two respective approaches taken in FIG- URES 1 and 2 for driving motor members 16 and 16. It will be noted in FIGURE 1 that two prime movers such as electric motors of oppositely revolving character are directly connected by therespective motor shafts to the two rotor members 16 and 16. On the other hand, in FIGURE 2 is illustrated a single mover such as an electric motor 112, which is used to drive a single input shaft 101 and, consequently, and by reason of the inclusion of a ring gear 98 and a pair of pinions 97, the two rotors 16 and 16 which are caused to rotate in opposite directions. One obvious advantage of the FIGURE 2 structure over that shown in FIGURE 1 is that but a single power source is needed; further, various speed change ratios are obtainable in FIGURE 2. Concerning ourselves with general principles, it should be noted that the motors 12 and 12' in FIGURE 1 should be substantially identical in characteristics and synchronized; however, it will be understood and will be shown hereinafter that there are certain compensating features which are built into the shuttle 22, piston rod 23 combination which compensate for any unbalance which may exist due to unbalance or lack of synchronization between the two motors 12 and 12. In FIGURE 2, however, it will be noted that since gears are employed directly within the structure that an automatic speed reduction is obtainable so that the rotors 16 and 16' may be driven at a different speed from that of the input shaft 101. It will be shown hereinafter that the shuttle piston rod combination even in this context will compensate for backlash and mounting errors as well as other existing machining tolerances present in the system which are excessive.

Consideration will now be turned to FIGURES 3 through 6 wherein is shown the detailed structure of the shuttle 22 and piston rod 23 together with their interconnecting, mounting means.

Shuttle 22 includes a shuttle member 118 having a pair of shuttle arms 119 and 120. The construction of the shuttle arms 119 and 120 are identical and hence only one will be discussed. .It should be mentioned at this juncture that the shuttle member .11 8 is hollow but is provided with closed ends 121 (one being shown). Each of the shuttle arms 1'19 and 120 includes a band or annular perforate region 122 which is characterized by a plurality of oil passageways 123 arranged somewhat like a band around the peripheryof shuttle arm 119. These passageways .123 all communicate from the exterior surface of each of the shuttle arms 119 and .120 to the respective hollow interior -124 and 125 of the shuttle member 11 8. Disposed on each arm is a slight relief recess 1% over which the journal-ing spherical ball of the shuttle arm, hereinafter described, overrides so that a shoulder will not be developed on the respective arms.

Centrally disposed through shuttle 22 is piston rod 23 which, as shown in FIGURE 3, is disposed within and held in place by resilient bushing 127 the operation of which will be discussed fully hereinafter. This bushing 127 is seated within aperture 128 of the shuttle member 118 at the enlarged central portion 129 thereof. A

seat 130 may be supplied the resilient bushing 127 as re quired.

An oil return tube 131 is illustrated in section centrally in FIGURE 5. In actually a pair of oil return tubes 131 are employed, and each has a threaded end 132 which threads into a respective locating aperture 133 of piston rod 23. This construction is identical on both sides of shuttle 22. The ends of the oil return tubes 131 are held in central positions by perforate or other type, washerlike retainers 131' which are adapted to pass lubricant transversely therethrough. Communicating with the interior of each oil return tube .131 is a respective aperture 134 which is blinded 011 but which communicates with lateral aperture 135 leading outwardly of piston rod 23 and interior of the central housing 10. Again, the construction is the same on both sides of shuttle22 so that there will also be an aperture '135 as shown. It will be noted, however, that the resilient bushing 127 and seat therefor are located only on one side of the shuttle 22.

Further detail of the structure is illustrated in FIG- URE 6 wherein is seen a cross member 136 which is affixed to a piston rod 23 by means of journal-ing pin 137.

It will be noted that there is some clearance between piston rod 23 and the cross member 136. This clearance merely by way of example will be of the order of, say, %o %000 Of an inch, thereby permitting sufiicient movement of piston rod 23 about the axis of pin 137 for certain compensating purposes as will be explained later.

In FIGURES 3 and 6 are illustrated journaling bosses 138 which are designed to receive a journal cap 139 to be secured thereto by capscrews .140. It will be noted that the apertures 143 and 144 are blinded oh? by setscrews 145 and 146. These apertures are not in mutual intercommunication. Also will be noted the apertures 14-7 and 148 which-are disposed in communication between the apertures 141 and 142, respectively, of pin 137 and also with their respective apertures 149. Apertures 14 9 in FIGURE 6 registers with aperture 150 (see also FIG- URE 4) of the shuttle member 118 which in turn registers with the interior 124 of the shuttle member. Both sides of shuttle 22 will be designed similarly; hence, but one side is shown in detail and in section.

There are thus two circuits for oil flow as regards the shuttle, piston rod combination. One of these circuits will now be discussed and the remaining circuit will be understood as being identicaL'only associated with the opposite side of the shuttle and the opposite extremity of the piston rod. Oil will be received by rotor member 16 as hereinbefore described and is routed to the spherical bearing journal (hereinafter described in detail) which slideably receives in a universal connection the shuttle arm 119 of shuttle 22. Oil enters the plurality of apertures or passageways 123 in FIGURES to proceed down the interior passageway 125 (similar to 124 at the left side of shuttle member 1 13), and thence toward the center of the shuttle to its aperture or passageway 150 (the remaining passageway 150 associated with the re maining arm being shown in FIGURE 6). The oil lubricant, hence, proceeds, as shown in FIGURE 4, down the passageway 150 of shuttle member 118, and aperture 152 of cross member 1 36, to proceed outwardly therefrom via aperture 149 (see FIGURES 4 and 6) and upwardly therefrom via passageway-147 and passageways 141 and 144 to the passageway 153 into an associated half of the piston rod 23. Oil proceeds thence between the inner wall of piston rod 23 and the outer wall of oil return tube 131 to double back near the extremity of the piston rod, thence back through the associated oil return tube 131. On completing the return route through oil return tube 131 the oil is discharged from a metering aperture 135 into the oil bath of the central housing 10. An identical lubricating circuit will be understood in connection with the remaining half of the piston rod and the remaining shuttle arm-120.

there may be provided annular grooves 155, 156, and 157 as shown in FIGURE 6. An additional groove 155 (not shown) will likewise be supplied the identical, re-

maining left-hand arm of the cross member 136 in FIG- URE 6.

Structure which may be used which is alternate to that illustrated in FIGURES 3 through 6 is shown in FIG- URES 12 through 16. In the drawings and particularly in FIGURE 13 is illustrated a piston rod 158, identical in all respects as in the case of piston rod 23, excepting that in the present piston rod there will be supplied an enlarged ball portion 159 disposed centrally of the piston rod and including thereat threaded fittings 160 and 161 for receiving the threaded end portions 162 and 163 of the oil return lines 1 31. As before, the flow of oil will proceed outwardly to the piston rod extremities between oil return line 131 and piston rod 158 and, subsequently, will return back to the center of the structure through the two oil return lines 131. P-assageways 164, 165, and 166 and 167 are supplied as indicated so that theoil returning back to the center of the structure through. oil return lines .131 may spill out.into the oil bath at the central housing 10 of the structure (not shown). This alternate shuttle member 168 includes apertures 169 and 1711 for receiving rotation-coupling plugs 171 serving to couple the rotation of the shuttle to the piston rod about the piston rods axis but which will permit rotational displacements of the piston rod at the ball area about the two remaining axes thereof.

Plugs 171 are cylindrical in nature but have keying ends 172 which cooperate with and engage the slots 173 of ball portion 159. The slots 173 are both substantially identical in form and are diametrically opposite with respect to each other. Interior grooves 174 are supplied for receiving respective retainer rings 175 which retain the plugs 171 in position and serve as limit stops for plugs 171 so as to prevent their outward travel. It will be noted in connection with FIGURE 13 that the contour of the key ends at 172 of the plugs are convex, matching the concave configuration of slots 173. Other configurations are possible. However, it should be mentioned that whatever the configuration of these parts, the same should be such that some clearance may be had between the two at the inner extremities of the plugs 171, thereby permitting slight rotational displacement of the piston rod 158 about axis A which is in the line of sight of the viewer and perpendicular to the plane of the paper. correspondingly, the journal fitting of the two plugs 171 within their respective apertures enable rotational adjustments of piston rod 158 about axis B.

However, the slots will be designed so that there is a relatively close fit between the slots of ball portion 159 and the key ends 172 of plugs 171. Thus, the rotation of shuttle member 168 about axis C will produce, and without appreciable tolerance of movement, the simultaneous rotation of piston rod 158 so as to accomplish the porting of the piston cylinder combination.

To complete the structure there is illustrated a cap 176 which is secured to the remainder of the shuttle by means of capscrews 177. Bosses 178 receive plugs 171 as shown in FIGURES l3 and 16. Finally, the enlarged central portion 179 of shuttle 168 accommodates capscrews 177 and the cap plate or cover 176.

It will be noted in both embodiments of the shuttle, piston rod combination constructions thus-far explained that the universal connections thereof are respectively remote from the intersection of the axis of the piston rod and shuttle along the piston rod axis. Though rigid connection is possible, as shown in FIGURE 17, universal connection between the piston rod and the shuttle is preferred so as to compensate for machineor other tive rotor of the structure.

.supplied with pressure heads of lubricant.

errors whereby the axes of the piston rod and the shuttle do not, strictly speaking, intersect for all positions of the former with respect to the latter during the operation of the structure.

In FIGURE a typical structure is shown illustrating the spherical journaling of the shuttle to its representa- Rotor shaft 18 is provided and includes plural, intersecting oil passageways 179 and 180 which intersect each other. Rotor 16 is keyed to the shaft 10 by key 181. Securement is made fast by the means of washer182 and nut 183. Rotor member 16 is provided with an aperture 184 and an enlarged seat 185 for hearing 187. Bearing ball 188 is spherically journaled within the socket halves 186 and includes apertures 189, 198, 191 and 192 which are representative ones of two mutually askew sets of passageways preferably originating at the ball periphery in parallel respective ring patterns.

Additional, and likewise radially askew apertures may be provided if needed. Interior annular grooves 193 and 194 are also supplied and additional ones of these grooves may be employed as necessary. It is to be pointed out that in practice the'number of apertures 189 and 190 will be quite great and will be drilled into the ball 188 at different angles so that in fact the ball is perforated at many points. All of these apertures, however, are preferably directed to come in communication with those annular grooves 193 and 194 which are used. The outer extremities of apertures 189, 199, 191, and 192 must be relatively close together, however, so these will not sweep outside of the limits of the socket halves of the bearing.

Particular attention is to be called to this area of discussion. It will be noted that the socket halves 186 have adjacent chamfered edges which delineate a groove 195 traversing peripherally about the ball 188. It will be important to note that some of the passageways 89 and 90 will be in communication with groove 189; in such event, clearly there will always be oil pressure feeds exerted against the surface of the shuttle arm 196, of shuttle member 197, at annular grooves 193, v194; similarly, all other passageways 189 and 190 at their outer ends will supply pressure heads against the inside friction surfaces of socket hal'ves 186. The slideable interaction of the shuttle arms with their respective ball journals 188, when the system is put into operation, will create a simultaneous translation and rotation of the shuttle arms within their respective balls 188. This in turn requires a high degree of lubrication and, more importantly, a great amount of heat exchange so that the heat generated thereat resulting from friction on both the inside and outside of the bearing 188 may be carried away very rapidly. It is important to note that the plurality of shuttle arm member apertures 198 (similar as to location and function of those previously discussed) sweep along and over the pressure head grooves 193 and 194 so that the apertures 198 will progressively be (Of course, it will be understood that the positioning of all of the apertures 198 within arm 196 of our shuttle member 197 will be such that they will not sweep out of the journal area of the ball 180.) Hence, what is occurring is a continuous general flow of lubricating coolant through the spherical journal and the shuttle member 197, this by virtue of intermittent lubricant surges through the respective apertures 198 which are sweeped progressively so that at all times some of these apertures are conducting oil and that all remaining apertures are progressively employed, in supplying a multiplicity of pressurized segments of constantly renewing coolant, in successive relationship, to conduct the lubricant accordingly and to lubricate the journal.

To complete the lubricating and coolant structure of the spherical journal, annular groove 199 is supplied in the rotor 16 at seat which communicates with radial bores 200 communicating with groove 189.

At this juncture it is important to note that because of the motion transforming character of the structure there will persist a continuing, sliding friction contact between both inner and outer bearing surfaces of the ball 188 and the associated components, namely, shuttle 197 and, owing to the movement of the ball, in the ball socket halves 186, which friction contact produces a great amount of heat. cal bearing is conventionally employed, such double friction action on the inside and outside of the ball does not occur; hence, the housing of a conventional journal is sufiicient to carry away the heat that is generated by bore friction. In the present situation the presence of lubricating passageways through the socket halves 186 at the socket half, ball juncture, and-through the ball 188 itself and the shuttle 197 journaled therewithin affords continuous flow of oil therethrough which will keep the entire structure at the bearings 188 very cool, thereby precluding the malfunction attendant to excessive heat production at journals. If'other types of articulative journals for rotor, shuttle intercoupling are used, such as those illustrated in the inventors copending application entitled Two Piston Sleeve Port Engine be fore referenced, then lubricant may be passed through the journals employed in a manner similar to that above described with reference to the spherical bearing journals.

In FIGURE 11 is shown in elevation a detail of a side journaling member 29 1, the same being provided with apertures 292 and 293, a bronze sleeve 204 and a tightening bolt 205 which serves to clamp the structure at 202 to the shuttle 197. A pair of these journaling clamps 201 is shown in FIGURE 7 which illustrates the mounting thereof to shuttle 197 (similar to shuttle 22). Bronze bushing 294 of each of the journaling members 201 receives a respective arm 296, 287 of cross member 298. A detail of the cross member 298 is illustrated in section in FIGURE 9. The same includes the sectional view of two additional arms 299 and 218, at right angle to the former, and includes intersecting apertures 21?. and 212' for receiving piston rod 23 and pin' 213, respeotively. The latter is supplied with oil apertures 214, and 215, 216 and 2 17, and diameter apertures 218 and 219 communicate with their respective apertures 2 14 and 2 15, 2/16 and 217, respectively, thereby supplying continuous oil passageways through the pin 2.13. Additionally, askew apertures 228 and 22 1 are supplied in the cross and these respectively communicate with apertures 222. and 223 thereof. Thus, lubricating oil will proceed through the structure in FIGURE 7, beginning at the ball 188, and from thence will proceed through apertures 198 into the interior 2 24 of the associated shuttle arm and, therefrom, will proceed through radial apertures 2'25 and through journaling clamp apertures 226 and subsequently through bronze bushing aperture 227 and radial cross aperture 2628 to enter passageway 2 29 which is blinded off by set-screw 230. From passageway 229 the lubricant proceeds through apertures 22?. (see FIGURES 7 and 9), up passageway 228 and through aperture 214, through passageway 218 and out aperture 216 to be urged into the piston rod at a point between the inner piston rod wall and the return tubes 31. The position of these have been heretofore described in connection with the structure shown in FIGURE 3.

As shown in FIGURE 9 there will be provided an aperture 23d in the shuttle 197 for admitting piston rod 23. Some clearance, of the order of to of an inch, for example, will exist between the shuttle and piston rod 23. As before, metered passageways 2'32 and 233 will be present to conduct oil returning from the oil return tubes 131 to the oil bath within housing 10 proper. It is to be noted that there is a universal coupling in the provision of cross member 298 and associated equipment to the right of the shuttle member 197 In other contexts where a spheri-

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U.S. Classification310/75.00R, 74/50, 417/461, 417/500, 92/144, 310/113, 123/41.37, 417/415
International ClassificationF16H21/00, F01B9/00, F01B17/02, F16H21/50, F02B75/24, F01B17/00, F02B75/00, F01B9/02
Cooperative ClassificationF01B17/02, F01B9/026, F01B17/00, F02B75/246, F16H21/50
European ClassificationF01B17/02, F16H21/50, F01B17/00, F02B75/24P, F01B9/02R