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Publication numberUS3251216 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 17, 1966
Filing dateJun 21, 1963
Priority dateJun 21, 1963
Also published asDE1465092A1, DE1465092B2
Publication numberUS 3251216 A, US 3251216A, US-A-3251216, US3251216 A, US3251216A
InventorsBroske William F
Original AssigneeAmp Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for applying electrical connectors to conductors
US 3251216 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 17, 1966 w. F. BROSKE 3,

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS TO CONDUCTORS Filed June 21, 1963 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR.

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: May 17, 1966 w. F. BRO E 3,251,216

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LYING ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS T0 CONDUCTORS Filed June 21, 1963 I 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. wuu an F. BROSKE May 17, 1966 w. F. BROSKE 3,251,215

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'v.. m m k JNVENTOR. Lummn E BRoswe w. F. BROSKE 3,251,216 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING ELECTRICAL May 17, 1966 CONNECTORS TO CONDUCTORS 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed June 21, 1963 INVENTOR. LmLLu-m E Baosmz M4. W 114M May 17, 1966 w. F. BROSKE 3,

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS TO CONDUCTORS Filed June 21, 1963 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 51/ I U IILIiVENTOR.

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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS TO GONDUCTORS Filed June 21, 1965 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 IN VEN TOR.

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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS TO CONDUCTORS Filed June 21, 1963 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 1 INVENTOR.

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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS TO CONDUCTORS Filed June 21, 1963 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 INVENTOR. ZJ/LLIRM f fleas/ 5 BY M, 7% MM United States Patent 3,251,216 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR APPLYING ELEC- TRICAL CONNECTORS T0 CONDUCTORS William F. Broske, Camp Hill, Pa., assignorto AMP Incorporated, Harrisburg, Pa. Filed June 21, 1963, Ser. No. 289,679 16 Claims. (Cl. 72-416) This application constitutes a continuation-in-part of my prior application, Serial No. 825,698, filed July 8, 1959, and now abandoned. The technique of cold-forging an electrical connector onto a conductor by explosivelyoperated dies is described in application Serial No. 786,- 415, filed January 12, 1959, by William Br-oske and William Jaycox, and now Patent No. 3,163,200, issued December 29, 1964.

It is an object of this invention to provide a means for operating explosive-type tools whereby the energy is achieved by means of an electrical charge.

One embodiment includes an electrical powerunit (e.g., a power supply and a capacitor) secured to the tool with means for closing an electrical circuit, whereby the electrical charge generated by the unit is fed to a cartridge to detonate explosive material. the number of moving parts required to detonate the cartridge mechanically. It also provides a detonating device which eliminates the possibility of the cartridge misfiring.

Another embodiment of this invention provides a crimping device capable of producing a high energy rate of forming without the use of explosive material.

It is also .an object of this invention to provide an electrically-operated tool, whereby the electric charge may be introduced internally of the cartridge to provide a detontation means which is located centrally in the cartn'dge, as set forth in my prior application Serial No. 806,093, filed April 13, 1959.

It is also an object of this invention to provide such a tool that is compact, light-weight and easily operated.

It is also an object of this invention to provide a means for detonating a cartridge whereby the device will not be actuated unless an element to be crimped is placed within the dies.

It is a further object of this invention to provide a crimping tool wherein the thrust is provided by passing a very high current through a fine conductor for a very short pulse. This causes the wire to be vaporized with an extremely high generation of useful power. The power, in turn, is converted into useful work to coldforge the connector onto a conductor with extreme velocity. A further refinement includes filling the cartridge with water before passing the current through it.

Other objects and attainments'of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon a reading of the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the drawings in which there are shown and described illustrative embodiments of the invention; it is to be understood, however, that these embodiments are not intended to be exhaustive nor limiting of the invention but are given for purposes of illustration in order that others skilled in the art may fully understand the invention and the principles thereof and the manner of applying it in practical use so that they may modify it in various forms, each as may be best suited to the conditions of a particular use.

In the drawings:

FIGURE 1 illustrates a tool setting forth the principles involved in this invention as shown in perspective;

FIGURE 2 is a view similar to FIGURE 1 i1lustrating the detonating structure;

This reduces 3,251,216 Patented May 17, 1966 FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary view of the electrical plug of FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 4 is another embodiment of the invention as shown in plan view, partially cut away;

FIGURE 5 is a perspective view of the plug used in FIGURE 4;

FIGURE 6 is a fragmentary view of a detonating circuit designed to prevent actuation of the tool without a connector therein;

FIGURE 7 is a view similar to FIGURE 6 showing a connector in place;

FIGURES is a perspective view of a bench-type press employing the principles of this invention;

FIGURE 9 is a sectional view illustrating the device of FIGURE 8 as seen in cross-section;

FIGURE 10 is a fragmentary view illustrating the application of the invention to a portable device, also illustrating a different type of connector;

FIGURE 11 is a sectional view showing a portable tool adapted to be used with the embodiment shown in FIGURE 10;

FIGURE 12 is a sectional view similar to FIGURE 9, illustrating the tool at the completion of the stroke; and

FIGURE 13 is a partially cut-away view of a cartridge suitable for use with the devices of FIGURES 8-12.

As shown in FIGURE 1, the tool includes a C-shaped frame or body member 10 with a pistol grip-type handle 12. A fixed die 14 is secured in one bight of the C- shaped frame. A means for securing a connector to a conductor, comprising a slidable die 16, is secured in the opposing bight and relatively movable longitudinally into a position cooperable with the fixed die. The tool may also be adapted to make a connection of the type shown in FIGURE 10.

A sleeve 17 in one end of the frame 10 has an opening 18 (FIGURE 2) therein, which accommodates a ram 20 secured to the movable die. A cartridge 22 is also disposed within the opening 18. This cartridge includes a plastic plug 24, which retains an explosive charge 26 within the cartridge. A filament 28 in the cartridge extends into contact with the explosive charge 26 with one end accessible from the exterior. The filament is disposed between a pair of electrodes 29 and 29' situated in the plug and cartridge respectively.

A cap 30 has a central aperature 31 axially located therein, which is counterbored at one end. The bored section receives a resilient insulation member with a longitudinal socket 32 extending therethrough. An insulating member 33- is fitted into the bottom of the counterbored section. Adjacent the member 33 is a conductive plate 34. The socket 32 penetrates the insulation 33 and contacts plate 3 4. These elements are retained in the counterbored section by an insulating bushing 35. As shown in the drawing, the cap is threadedly secured to the firing chamber 17 which, in turn, is threaded with the frame 10. When the cap 30 is properly secured, the electrode 29 contacts the conductive plate 34. An electrical plug 37 is adapted to be inserted within the cap 30. An outer ferrule 38 and the plug 37 cooperate with the exposed inner surface of the aperture 31 and a pin 39 which contacts socket 32 to form an electrical circuit when the plug 30 is threaded onto the chamber 36.

The plug 37 is secured to a battery capacitor unit B by a two-wire conductor C. The unit B includes a switch 40 which serves to energize the circuit, thus causing a charge to be introduced into the filament 28 and thereby detonating the explosive charge 26.

When it is desired to make an electrical connection (FIGURE 7), a connector is positioned between the dies 14 and 16 with a conductor therein. The ram 20 is disposed in its rearward position so that the dies are fully open. The switch 40 is closed to cause current to flow from the unit B, through one wire in conductor C, pins 37 and 39, socket 32, plate 34, electrode 29, filament 28, electrode 29, ram 28, firing chamber 36, cap 38, ferrule 38 (via inner surface of aperture 31), and back through the other wire of the conductor C to complete the circuit. Because of the high resistance of the filament 28, the introduction of an electrical charge into the filament generates sufiicient heat to cause the explosive charge 26 to be detonated, thereby driving the plug 24, the ram 28 and the movable die 16 toward the fixed die 14 to crimp the connector to the conductor.

The second modification, as shown in FIGURE 4, also includes the C-shaped frame 110 and a pistol grip handle 112. Again, a fixed die 114 and a slidable die 116 are disposed within the opposed bights of the C-s-haped frame. The ram 117 on the slidable die 116 extends into one end of the frame. A bushing 118 (e.g., Fiberglas) is threaded into an opening in the frame with a cylindrical firing chamber 119 also threaded therein so that the bushing and the firing chamber are coaxially aligned to receive the ram 117. A cap 120 is secured on the other end of the firing chamber. The ram 117 has an electrical insulating sleeve 121 tightly interfitting its outside surface, and an outer metal sleeve 122 tightly surrounds the insulating sleeve 121. The end of the sleeve 121 disposed adjacent to the die 116 has an outside diameter substantially equal to the inside diameter of the bushing 118. The remainder of the sleeve 121 is slightly recessed to accommodate the sleeve 122. The ram, including the outer sleeves, Will be referred to as the ram assembly.

An explosive cartridge, including a cylindrical shell 123 (of dielectric material) and a head portion 124, is seated in the firing chamber so that the ram assembly is centrally disposed therein.

An explosive charge 125 is located in the shell 123 and retained therein by a plug 126. The plug (FIGURE may be a plastic member with a central aperture 127 therein. The illustrated preferment includes a metal button 128 press-fitted into the aperture 127 and a metallic ring 129 press-fitted on one end of the periphery of the plug. A filament 130 has one end secured to the button 128 and the other end secured to the ring 129. The filament extends through the aperture 127 and loops back around the outside of the plug. As noted in FIGURE 4, when the plug is in the cartridge, the button 128 contacts the ram 117 and the outside ring 129 contacts the metal sleeve 122 so that the filament 130 completes the circuit.

A detent member 132 (FIGURE 4) is secured to the inside surface of the frame 110. This member is resilient and cooperates with a notch 134 in the bottom surface of the slidable die 116 to hold the die in retracted position but permits it to be released during the crimping stroke.

The electrical power supply 136 is located in a chamber within the handle 112. A trigger 138, spring-loaded as at 140, is pivoted adjacent to the power supply 136. An electrical switch element 141 is operated by the trigger into and out of contact with the power supply 136. The switch element 141 completes the circuit between the power supply 136 and the extensible conductor element 142 located in a passageway in the frame 110. The other end of the conductor element 142 is secured to a springloaded pin 143 disposed in a radial aperture in the bushing 118. The pin 143 bears against the outer metallic sleeve 122 in electrically conductive relationship.

In operation, this modification contains a connector and conductor disposed between the dies. The tool is loaded and placed in firing condition as illustrated in FIGURE 4. Actuation of the trigger 138 moves the contact element 141 into engagement with the power supply 136. An electrical charge is transmitted through the conductor 142, pin 143, sleeve 122, ring 129 (on plug 126),

- except for the portion that contacts the conductor.

filament 130, contact 128, ram 117, movable die 116 and back through the frame to the other pole of the power supply.

The detent member 134 retains the die 116 in retracted position until contact is made. The high resistance of filament causes it to glow and ignite the charge 125. The detonation of the charge drives plug 126, ram 117 and die 116 toward the fixed die 114 to crimp the connector and conductor therebetween. It is observed that since the ram 117 forms part of the electrical circuit, the tool cannot be fired unless this ram is properly set in the firing position. Furthermore, since the primer is not located in the head of the shell, a point of weakness is eliminated.

FIGURE 6 illustrates a schematic view of an electrical system wherein the workpiece (i.e., the connector and conductor) forms part of the electrical circuit. In this arrangement, the tool can be operated only when there is a conductive element between the dies. The device includes a power unit 136 with an electrical lead 142' secured from one pole to a plug assembly 134'. The plug assembly is designed to contact one electrode 144' in a cartridge 146'. Current is thus conducted through a filament 148' to a second electrode 150 to detonate a charge 152'. Again, a slidable ram 154' in contact with the electrode 150' has a die 156' on the free end thereof which cooperates with a fixed die 158' on frame 160.

A pair of connector retaining members 162' are secured to pivoted carriers 164. The members 162' are shaped to fit onto the conductor and are capable of being retracted to bind the connector and conductor into crimping position (FIGURE 7). The members are insulated The other ends of the members are secured to an electrical lead 166' which returns to the other pole of the power unit to complete the circuit. The members carrying electricity are made of electrical conducting substances and, where necessary, insulated to prevent grounding. Also, the conductor-connector retaining mechanism can be designed to cooperate with the connector rather than the conductor as shown in FIGURE 6.

The embodiment shown in FIGURE 6 is loaded as in FIGURE 1. The retaining members 162' are hooked over the conductor C and then rotated to a position wherein the members are retracted to hold the conductor and connector T in crimping position. Closing the electrical circuit causes the flow of electricity through filament 148 to detonate the charge and crimp the connector. The circuit is completed by the flow of current through the ram 154, frame 160, die 158', connector T, conductor C, retaining member 162 and lead 166 back to the power unit. Thus, it is apparent that the tool cannot be fired unless there is a connector and conductor properly disposed between the dies. In a similar manner, this circuit can be built into an internally-fired tool, such as the one shown in FIGURE 6.

Alterative embodiments, which are operated without explosive material, are shown in FIGURES 8-13. As shown in FIGURE 8, the device includes a base member B having a press unit P mounted thereon, and a powergenerating device G mounted on the base and secured to the press in electrical-conducting relationship.

As shown in FIGURE 9, the base member B includes a C-shaped body member 210 which is bolted to the base B. A hook-shaped nesting die 212 is secured within the bight of the C-shaped body member. One arm of the body abutment 232 limits the travel of the piston rod 216 in one direction, while the shoulder borne by the second counterbore 224 limits travel in the opposite direction. The inner end of the piston rod 216 comprises a firing ram 234. A cartridge 236 fits into the firing chamber with the firing ram 234 disposed therein.

Directing attention to the cartridge 236, a preferred embodiment includes a cylindrical shell member 238 of linear polyethylene. The shell is open at one end to. accept the firing ram 234, and the other end is closed by head member 240 forming a shoulder 242. A plug member 244, also of linear polyethylene, is disposed in cylinder 238 in proximity, but slightly spaced, from the head member 240. Suitable gas checks 246 are designed into the plug 244. A pin-like member 248 is disposed in head member 240. This pin-like material is of electrically conductive material, and the electrical contact with the pinlike member may be made from the outside of the shell. A similar pin-like member 250 is disposed in the plug 244 with electrical contact being accessible from the inside of the shell. A conductor 252 extends from the inner end of the pin member 248 to the inner end of the pin member 250. It has been discovered that filling thespace between the plug 244 and the head 240 with a liquid, such as water, improves the performance.

Again directing attention to FIGURE 9, a cap 254 is secured to the outside of the firing chamber 228. The cap has an opening 256 in the rear end thereof to receive a metal collar 258. A plug 260 of nonconducting material fits into the collar 258 and has a central opening 262 therein. A nonconducting gasket 264 is seated inside the cap 254 adjacent the collar 258. This gasket retains a metal plate 266 therein for purposes of completing an electrical circuit.

An electrical conductor 268 extends from the powergenerating unit G to the firing chamber. This conductor may be a coaxial-type having a central conductor 270 surrounded by an outside conductor 272. Any suitable power-generating unit capable of delivering high electrical current for a short period of time may be employed. Such a circuit is shown in US. Patent No. 2,976,907, issued March 28, 1961, and includes a pulsing network G with a high capacity condenser 273, switching means 274, high voltage supply 275, a switch means 276, and a current limiting resistor 277.

When it is desired to crimp a connector C (FIGURES 9 and 12) to a wire W, the connector is into the bight of the stationary die 212 with the wire positioned therein. The device is assembled in the position illustrated in FIG- URE 9 with the cartridge 236 seated therein. The movable die 218 is in the retracted position. First, the switch 276 is closed and a charge permitted to build up in the condenser 273. Then the switch 276 is opened and the switch 724 is closed so that the charge is instantaneously dumped through the Wire 252. When the charge is bled through the wire 252, extremely high amperage is developed which causes the wire 252 to explode. The energy generated by the exploding wire acts, for the intended purpose, in the same manner as energy generated by the detonation of explosive material, as set forth in the other embodiments. This energy drives the ram 216 toward the connector C to crimp the wire therein.

FIGURES l0 and 11 are similar to the embodiments illustrated in FIGURES 9 and 12, except that the tool is portable rather than bench-mounted. The pulsing unit the art and various apparently dilferent modifications and embodiments may be made without departing from the scope of the invention. The matter set forth in the foregoing description and accompanying drawings is offered by way of illustration only. The actual scope of the invention is intended to be defined in the following claims when viewed in their proper perspective against the prior art.

I claim:

1. An explosively-operated crimping tool with a pair of relatively movable dies adapted to cold-forge a connector placed therein, including a frame member, a handleon said frame, a pair of relatively movable dies on said frame adapted to crimp a connector onto a conductor, explosive means for actuating said relatively movable dies, and means for detonating said explosive means, comprising a high resistance element disposed in said explosive means, an electrical circuit for passing electric current through said high resistance element, and one of said relatively movable dies forming part of the circuit for passing electric current through the high resistance element.

2. An explosively-operated crimping tool for crimping an electrical connector onto a conductor including a frame member, a pair of relatively movable dies disposed on said frame member, explosive means for actuating said dies, an electrical circuit for detonating said explosive means, at least one of said relatively movable dies comprising part of the electrical circuit, and means for closing the electrical circuit to cause the electrical current to detonate the charge.

3. The device of claim 2 wherein the electric power generating means is disposed Within the handle means, and the slidable ram forms part of the electric circuit.

4. The device of claim 2 wherein the fixed die provides part of the electrical circuit, and the terminal in the fixed die closes the circuit.

5. A tool for crimping electrical connectors including a C-shaped frame, a pair of relatively slidable dies located in the frame, handle means on said frame, one of said dies having a ram means extending therefrom, an opening in said frame accommodating a cartridge within an internal detonating means, one end of said ram means extending into said cartridge, means in said ram means for detonating said cartridge, including an electrical circuit disposed within the ram means, means in said handle for supplying current to the electric circuit in the ram means, and means for actuating said electrical circuit.

6. The device of claim 5 wherein the circuit is designed with the fixed die and the connector forming a part of the electrical circuit.

7. An explosive tool for crimping electrical connectors including .a frame member, a pair of relatively slidable dies on said frame member, a ram on one of said dies, explosive means actuatable to drive said ram and said die into cooperation with the opposite die to crimp a connector placed therebetween, and means for detonating said explosive means including an electric circuit comprising electric power generating means, at least one of said relatively slidable dies comprising part of the electrical circuit, and means for opening and closing said electric circuit whereby closing the circuit causes the detonationof the explosive means.

8. A device for crimping an electrical connector including a C-shaped frame, a first die fixedly positioned in one bight of said frame, a second movable die slidably positioned in the opposite bight of said frame, an opening in the frame aligned with the path of ,the relatively movable die, a ram on said movable die extending into said opening, a cartridge with an explosive charge therein disposed in said opening, said ram extending into said cartridge, means in said cartridge capable of detonating said charge upon actuation by an electric charge, means for providing an electric charge, and switch means for conducting said electric charge from the means for providing the electric charge to the detonating means in the explosive cartridge,

said ram forming part of the electrical circuit, whereby actuation of the switch causes current to flow through the explosive charge in the cartridge, thereby detonating it to generate gases which actuate the dies.

9. A device for crimping electrical connectors including a frame member, an explosive cartridge disposed on said frame, said cartridge having an internal plug with electrically conductive detonating means disposed in said plug, means on said frame adapted to retain said cartridge, a first die slidably disposed on said frame, a piston rod on said first die, said piston rod extending into said cartridge, a second cooperating die on said frame, and means for generating electricity through said frame and piston rod means to detonate the cartridge.

10. A high energy rate-forming device for securing an electrical connector to a conductor comprising a frame member, a pair of relatively movable connector-securing devices disposed on said frame member, means for generating a high energy-forming rate to cause relative motion between the connector-securing devices, said means comprising an electrical circuit and means for closing the electrical circuit to cause the electrical current to generate energy to actuate the connector-securing device.

11. A tool for terminating electrical conductors including a frame member, a pair of relatively slidable conductor-terminating mechanisms located in said frame, one

of said conductor-terminating mechanisms having a ram means extending therefrom, an opening in said frame accommodating a cartridge, said ram means extending into said cartridge, an electrical circuit, a metal filament in said cartridge conductively secured to said cartridge so that the filament forms part of the circuit, and means for energizing said circuit to explode the filament to actuate said conductor-terminating mechanisms.

12. A frame member, a firing chamber in said frame base member, a tubular shell, closed at one end, disposed in said firing chamber, a movable plug in said shell, a first electrode in said plug, a second electrode in said shell, energy-generating means between said electrodes, an electrical circuit secured to said electrodes, switch means in said circuit, electrical connector terminating means connected to said base member, means for translating the energy generated by said energy-generating means to said electrical connector terminating means.

14. The device of claim 13 wherein a wire filament constitutes the energy-generating means.

15. The device of claim 13 wherein a quantity of explosive material constitutes the energy-generating means.

16-. The device of claim 14 including a quantity of liquid between said plug and said closed end of said shell.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,133,364 10/1938 Temple. 2,530,805 11/ 1950 Bond. 2,926,566 3/1960 Atkins et al. 102-46 FOREIGN PATENTS 119,435 3/ 1958 Russia.

CHARLES W. LANHAM, Primary Examiner.

R. D. GREFE, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2133364 *Oct 7, 1936Oct 18, 1938Jr Robert TemplePress
US2530805 *Oct 2, 1946Nov 21, 1950Mccullough Tool CompanyCasing perforating gun
US2926566 *Nov 30, 1956Mar 1, 1960Atkins Walter WDevice for accelerating the ignition of the propellant for a projectile
RU119435A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3489329 *Feb 28, 1967Jan 13, 1970Hilti AgCartridge-actuated fastener driving tool
US3490332 *Jan 25, 1968Jan 20, 1970Us NavyBreech cap for applying signals to explosive cartridges
US3504592 *Apr 8, 1968Apr 7, 1970Us NavyElectrical connector
US3514025 *Oct 30, 1967May 26, 1970Omark Industries IncPowder actuated tool
US3561750 *Sep 25, 1968Feb 9, 1971Amerace Esna CorpHose straightening fixture
US3576122 *Mar 26, 1969Apr 27, 1971Thomas & Betts CorpCrimping tool
US3710719 *Jan 8, 1971Jan 16, 1973Amp IncDetonator for an explosively operated connector
US4192171 *Mar 23, 1978Mar 11, 1980Automatic Tool Company, Inc.Hand held crimping tool
US4945730 *May 11, 1989Aug 7, 1990Burndy CorporationPower activated tool with safety power cell
US5094141 *Aug 22, 1991Mar 10, 1992Diehl Gmbh & Co.Arrangement for accelerating a projectile through a plasma
US5168619 *Jun 10, 1991Dec 8, 1992United States Surgical CorporationMethod for attaching surgical suture components
US5233902 *May 11, 1992Aug 10, 1993The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavySliding breech block system for repetitive electronic ignition
US5337566 *Mar 18, 1993Aug 16, 1994Burndy CorporationPowder actuated compression tool
US5350373 *Oct 9, 1992Sep 27, 1994United States Surgical CorporationApparatus for attaching surgical suture components
US5394971 *Aug 2, 1993Mar 7, 1995United States Surgical CorporationApparatus for attaching surgical suture components
US5462543 *Jun 9, 1994Oct 31, 1995United States Surgical CorporationApparatus for attaching surgical suture components
US5528973 *Feb 7, 1994Jun 25, 1996Fmc Corp.High power coaxial connection
US5608962 *Feb 16, 1995Mar 11, 1997United States Surgical CorporationMethod and apparatus for attaching surgical suture components
US6584821Apr 16, 2002Jul 1, 2003General Motors CompanySelf-aligning non-pinching hydroforming dies
Classifications
U.S. Classification72/416, 102/202.9, 72/430, 72/470, 72/469, 227/10
International ClassificationH01R43/04, H01R4/08, B30B1/00, H01R4/00, H01R43/042
Cooperative ClassificationH01R43/0422, B30B1/005, H01R4/08, H01R43/04
European ClassificationH01R4/08, H01R43/04, B30B1/00E, H01R43/042B