US 3252523 A
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May 24, 1966 J. E. KACHNIK ETAL APPARATUS ,252,523 FOR OPTIONALLY SUPPORTING A PLURALITY OF EARTH WORKING TOOLS Original Filed May 23.
2 Sheets-Sheet l KACHNIK INVENTOR. JOSEPH E. VCTOR N. BY
Arron/Er May 24, 1966 J. E. KACHNIK ETAL 3,252,523
APPARATUS FOR OPTIONALLY SUPPORTING A PLURALITY OF EARTH WORKING TOOLS Original Filed May 23, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. JOSEPH E. KACHNIK BY VICTOR N.FARHI ATTORNEY United States Patent of Indiana Continuation of application Ser. No. 282,655, May 23, 1963. This application Apr. 26, 1965, Ser. No. 456,879 4 Claims. (Cl. 172-447) This invention relates to an improved apparatus for transporting tools such as augers, scrapers, lifting mechanisms and the like, and more particularly is adapted for transporting such 'tools on vehicles having a three-point hitch linkage.
This application is a continuation of applicants copending application, Serial No. 282,655, filed May 23, 1963, and entitled, Apparatus for Transporting Tools, which application is now abandoned.
The present invention proposes an inexpensive, lightweight but high strength unitized frame which is readily coupled with a conventional three-point hitch linkage and is adaptable for mounting a number of tools covering a substantial range of applications. Such applications include, but are not limited to, farming usages, construction usages, landscaping, fence building and the like.
There is a considerable demand for frame constructions which can readily transport a tool and can orient the tool in any of several preferred manners. For example, when the frame is used as a carrier for an auger, it is intended that the frame will support the auger and locate it so that it will drill a number of holes to a preferred depth and at a desired location with minimum adjustments providing a high degree of drilling depth accuracy and at a maximum speed.
It is further proposed that the same basic frame will be suited for lifting loads such as demounting a motor from a vehicle for maintenance purposes. It is intended that the same basic frame construction will be adapted for a grader which can be used for snow removal, earth moving, spreading operations and the like.
Accordingly, it is one of the principal objects of the present invention to devise a lightweight but durable unitized frame which can be readily coupled through a three-point hitch linkage to a standard vehicle such as a farm tractor, truck or the like and which is capable of mounting a variety of tools thereon.
A further object of the invention is to provide a unitized frame construction which is capable of refined adjustment for positioning and suitably operating an attached tool and which will maintain such adjustment during use so that repeated operations of the tool will produce uniform results.
A still further object of thepresent invention is to provide a novel mounting for a unitized frame wherein, with a power actuator having a limited stroke, it will be possible to vary the effective are of movement for the frame and its attached tool whereby a lifting effort, drilling, or scraping action, depending upon the tool mounted on the frame, can be varied as desired.
A still further object of tthe present invention is to provide a combination of gross and refined adjustments which together will. precisely locate a working tool and vary both its range of working movement and its attitude during such working movement.
Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from a consideration of the following description which proceeds with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a transport vehicle, frame and auger as it is shown just prior to drilling operation;
FIGURE 2 is a perspective view of the frame, essen tially as shown in FIGURE 1 but adapted for use with a grader; and
FIGURES 3, 4 and 5 illustrate the unitized frame and hitch linkage when the frame is used as a lifting apparatus, FIGURE 3 being the lowermost position, FIGURE 4 being half raised position, and FIGURE 5 being the fully raised or transport position for the frame.
Referring now to the drawings, the transport vehicle designated generally by reference numeral 10 is in the form of a lightweight truck, but any transport vehicle can be adapted for the present invention providing it has sufiicient weight to overbalance the tool and has adequate horsepower to transport the tool. The vehicle 10 is equipped with a three-point tow linkage having pivotal support points 14, 16'and 18 which so support the frame 20 and its depending tool 22 that the frame 20 and tool 22 will move up and down in what is essentially a fixed relationship to the ground depending on the geometric relationship of the parallelognam linkage. This is, of course, characteristic of three-point hitch devices and such advantages are fully utilized by the present invention. The tool 22 will remain perpendicular to the ground regardless of the fore and aft inclination of the vehicle 10 because it is free to pivot about point 23.
The frame 20 is pivotally supported on hitch linkages 24, 26 and 28 which have articulated connections with hitch points 14, 16 and 18 through suitable pins 30, 32 and 34. The frame 20 is comprised of a reversely bent tubular member having flattened ends 36 (FIGURE 2) with pins 38, 40 which are pivotally connected with the ends of linkages 24 and 26 and a U-shaped tubular frame member 44 which connects the ends 36.
At the upper part of the frame member 44 is a pair of lugs-48 which are welded to the frame member 44 and are bolted together as indicated by reference numeral 50 with a spacing 52 therebetween sufiicient to receive the ends of a pair of braces or struts 54 which are pivotally connected by pin 56 to the lugs 48. Linkage 28 fastened to lugs 48 through pin 57 and linkage 28 is controllably extendible by threadedly elongating or foreshortening the link 28 thereby pivoting the entire frame 20 about its pin connections 38 and 40 with linkages 24 and 26.
The frame is further adjustably positioned by fitting the pins 66 Within a selected one of companion openings '70 spaced along the length of the frame 20, these spaced openings being provided by two flanges 71, 72 which are welded or otherwise suitably secured to the frame 20.
The pins 66 are readily withdrawn from the openings and selectively inserted into one or the other of the openings 70. Thus, referring to FIGURE 1, the frame is raised to a steeper angle by pivoting the frame on its pins 38, 40 when the pins 66 are inserted into openings 70 closer to the end 74 of the frame; and conversely, the frame is lowered to a more horizontal angle by inserting the pins 66 into companion openings 70 closer to the end of the frame adjacent the vehicle. In this way, the working angle of the frame is defined. Regardless of the angular attitude of the frame 20, the auger 22 which is depending from end 74- is maintained in a perpendicular relation with the ground, and this perpendicularity is maintained regardless of the fore and aft inclination of the vehicle, this latter effect being obtained by virtue of pivot point 23. It is characteristics of the three-point linkage 14, 16 and 18 that the attached tool will maintain the same angularity regardless of the inclination of the vehicle; the perpendicularity of the tool 22 is unaffected by the angularity of the vehicle.
The frame 20 is moved arcuately by swinging the threepoint linkage about its pivotal connection with the vehicle, and by-this means the auger 22 or other tool is raised and lowered. Lowering of the auger will produce a drilled hole in the ground to a constant depth for fence building, telephone pole installation, monument mounting for surveying, etc.
To raise and lower the tool 22 and frame 20 through the three-point linkages 24, 26 and 28, there is a power cylinder 80 having a piston rod 82 having an articulated linkage connection 84 with a lever arm 88 which is connected to a cross shaft 90 journaled in a sleeve 92 and having two spaced levers 94 and 96 having lift rods 97, 99 with clevice connections 98 and 100 to linkages 24 and 26, respectively. It is thereby possible for the power cylinder 80 to communicate lifting force on the linkages 24 and 26, causing them to swing upwardly or downwardly about ends 30, 32 and producing substantially vertical movement of the frame 20 or boom and a consequent substantially vertical movement of anger 22.
The auger 22 is powered from 'a power take-off (not shown) developed by the vehicle and acting through a gear box 106 which is connected through a U joint 198 with a telescoping drive shaft 110 connecting with a second U joint 112 and gear box 114 by which the drill 22 is rotated.
In operation, it sometimes happens that the truck is moved along a hillside so that the right or left side of the vehicle is higher than the other, in which case it is necessary to compensate for this irregularity by adjusting either links 24 or links 26, causing one or the other to be moved relatively to the other of pivotally one of the links about its mounting 30, 32. One of the rods 97, 99 includes an adjustable turn buckle 101 which, by threaded movement, causes relative movement of the links and thereby varies the angular disposition of the frame 20 and the perpendicularity of the auger 22 in a vertical plane perpendicular to the line of movement of the vehicle.
In operation, the auger 22 is intended to effect a plurality of drilling operations which are all essentially of the same depth, the truck or other transport vehicle being driven to the site of the drilling, and the drilling then is carried out in about 40 seconds or so under normal soil conditions and with a hole dimension of about 9 inches in diameter and 2 /2 to 4 feet in depth as an example.
A precise depth of opening is obtainable by closely adjusting the initial angular position of the boom by determining which of the openings 70 receives pin 66; a close adjustment or final adjustment is then determined by adjusting the length of linkage 28 which provides a vernier adjustment. The angular position of the boom 20 about linkages 24, 26 is thus precisely determine by a combination of their adjustments.
In operation, the auger 22 is first actuated by a power mechanism available to the operator in the cab of the.
vehicle, which operation is initiated at the site where a hole is intended to be drilled in the ground. The lift cylinder 80 is energized to cause the piston rod 82 to first lower and then raise the lever arms 94 and 96 and linkages 24, 26. The boom 20 or frame is thereby caused to move angularly through a prescribed vertical distance of travel. During this movement, the auger 22 is constrained to a perpendicular prescribed length of travel, and the maximum depth of the hole effected by the drill is determined by the initial position of the auger 22 above the surface of the earth, which is a function of the angular attitude of frame 20 on linkages 24, 26, 28, this in turn being obtained by the described adjustments. For maximum drilling depth, the lowermost end 116 of the auger is barely above the surface of the earth at the start of the drilling operation so that through the entire vertical movement of the auger .a drilling operation takes place; and correspondingly, for shallower drillings the end 116 has an initial position higher above ground level so that only a portion of the cycle of vertical movement is effective for drilling the raised position of the drill, a function of the angularity of the frame. The starting point location for the drill 116 determines the depth of the drilled hole, and the hole is always substantially perpendicular by virtue of the three-point linkage which maintains vertical movement of the drill or anger regardless of the disposition of the vehicle, i.e., whether the front end of the truck is higher or lower than the rear end, and the perpendicularity of the hole is also ensured by adjusting the link 26 relatively to link 24 by foreshortening or elongating the rod 99 to thereby tilt the frame 20 and vary the vertical attitude of the auger 22 to a true perpendicularity to the horizon. In this way, a fence or other monument can be mounted perpendicular to the horizon even along a hillside.
A single operator can drive to a succession of sites .and perform the drilling operations quickly and economically, each drilling operation taking only a matter of less than a minute or so. It is possible to construct a fence course of substantial length within a short time, and the fence posts are all planted to the same depth in the ground for uniform fence-building operation. The invention is not, of course, limited to drilling for fence building but includes other operations, including planting of trees, road building, pole barns, sign mounting, telephone pole installation, cement piling construction, to mention a few additional applications. In each of these operations, it is possible to regulate precisely the depth of the hole drilled. Each time the drilling operation is repeated, owing to the mounting and adjustment, the same depth characteristic of the hole will be made having the same cross section and perpendicularity to the horizon, regardless of terrain.
When the anger is transported from one drilling site to the next, it is lifted into transport position by swinging the frame 20 toward the vehicle on its pivotal connections 38 with linkages 24, 26 so that the auger 22 is approximately perpendicularly centered over the end of the vehicle and anchored by a pin through 18 and 50 now in line with each other, this being a more compact and transportable position for the auger. Upon reaching the drilling site, the frame 20 or boom is swung away from the truck on its pivot connections 38, 40 to the working position shown in FIGURE 1.
Referring next to FIGURE 2, it will be seen that the frame can be readily adapted for mounting a grader blade 120 which is curved along a slight arc and has a knife blade 122 along its bottom margin secured to the grader blade 120. At the end of the frame 20, the gear box 114 is removed, and a casterable wheel 132 may be mounted for ground engagement to assist in maintaining a certain relationship to the ground of blade 120. The grader blade is supported or journaled on a trunnion 134 to permit the blade to be moved arcuately in the direction of the arrows indicated by reference numeral 136 so that the angle of attack of the blade against the material being moved is varied. The angle of attack is regulated by the effective length of adjuster member 138 which is threaded for elongating or foreshortening and is connected to the lugs 56 at one end and to lugs 140 on cylinder 142 at the other end which is formed integrally with sleeve 144 which is fitted over the shaft for mounting the blade 120. Thus, by varying the length of 138, the sleeve 144 and its attached blade 120 will be caused to change in angle of attack to be steeper or shallower in accordance with the type of material being spread.
The attitude of the blade 120 can be varied by turning the handle sections 140 to unscrew the lock bolt 143, permitting the vertical mounting shaft (not shown) within cylinder 142 to rotate in the direction of the arrows 145, and in this way the attitude of the blade 120 can be varied. That is, the blade can be turned on an axis vertical to the ground and passing through the center of the cylinder 142. Once again this adjustment is made to accommodate for the kind of material being graded and the desired result.
. Changing the angle of the grader blade 12!) and then pitching it forwardly or backwardly by means of varying the length of 138 will have the effect of crowning the blade, i.e., one end or the other of the blade 120 will be lower than the other, making the blade suitable for grading and ditching.
The vertical level of the blade 120 is determined by fitting a selected one of the pins 66 into a selected companion opening 76, and the refined adjustment is obtained by Vernier strut 28 in the same manner as described in FIGURE 1. A ground engaging casterable wheel 132 is then raised or lowered by adjusting pin 147 to assist in supporting the grader.
In operation, the frame is readily adapted to grading operations and also for varying the grading operation by means of the described simple adjustments which are readily made and are readily changed to permit the operation to conform with numerous different grading conditions. It can be seen by comparing FIGURES 1 and 2 that essentially the same frame construction is usable for both drilling and grading operations. All that is required to change the operation is to remove the gear box and associated actuating mechanism for the auger 22 and replace such mechanism with the casterable Wheel 132 and grader blade 120.
Referring next to FIGURES 3, 4 and 5, a unitized frame structure is shown in its function as a lifting mechanism or boom. FIGURE 3 illustrates the frame 20 fully extended; FIGURE 4 is the half raised position which is the maximum height for raising, the load within the limit of stroke of the power cylinder; the boom is initially positioned as shown in FIGURE 3; and FIGURE 5 illustrates the raised or transport position.
Instead of a gear box 114 at the end of the frame or boom 20, there is pivoted a cross piece (not shown) from which is suspended a hook 160 which is used for lifting and carrying a load by using a sling or other grappling surface. It is possible to position the boom at the initial stage of lifting so that within an available stroke of the power, the load can be raised through different vertical levels. For example, if the starting point for the lifting action is with the boom in position 4 and the lift cylinder 80 is actuated, the load will be raised through a higher vertical level than where the boom is initially in the position of FIGURE 3 and the power cylinder is actuated. The position of the boom is also adjusted so that the heavier the load the steeper is the initial boom position because the lever ratio of the lift cylinder 80 is better when the boom is in a more upright' position.
The initial angular position for the boom on its threepoint hitch linkages 24, 26 is determined by adjustably fitting the pins 66, brace into one or the other of the openings 70. When the boom is at a steeper angle, i.e., inclined more perpendicularly, it is possible to lift greater weights because the moment arm of the weight on the boom is reduced and the weight also-has a smaller moment arm at the rear of the vehicle tending. The adjustment described is effected by connecting the strut through pins 66 to a suitable one of the openings 70, and the lift cylider is then actuated to control the lifting action.
During transport, the adjustable linkage 28 (FIGURE 4) is disconnected and the boom is swung in the direction of the arrow 164 so that the opening 50 of lugs 48 are connected with the three-point hitch connection 18. The boom is now tipped back by an amount so that it approximately overlies the end of the vehicle. The boom is therefor protected and prevents the least interference during transport. At the time of use, the lugs are disconnected from the three-point hitch connection 18, and adjustable strut 28 is re-inserted as indicated in FIGURES 3 and 4.
The approximate lifting capacity of .the boom is about SOD-pounds or so, but this is not critical, and the construction can be readily varied to increase the lifting capacity of the frame by merely enlarging the structural members. The lifting capacity is also affected by the stability of the vehicle to which it is attached.
When it is desired to convert the frame from an essentially lifting function to, for example, a post hole drilling function, the pull-out pin 170 is withdrawn and hook removed and replaced with gear box 114.
It will, therefore, be seen that the invention is readily adaptable to a plurality of different functions as, for example, post hole digging, scraping and lifting, etc. Therefore, with essentially the same structure, a wide assortment of purposes can be served by the invention.
Either or both of the links 28, 138 can be controlled in length by hydraulic means, wherein the link is comprised of a suitable hydraulic cylinder and piston rod. In this way, the various adjustments are obtainable by remote actuation, and in this manner the control of the blade can be more readily changed without stopping vehicle and making manual adjustments of the blade. The particular form of the hydraulic equipment does not form an essential part of the present invention, and such changes can be made in accordance with individual design requirements.
Although the present invention has been illustrated and described in connection with a single example embodiment, it will be understood that this is illustrative of the invention and is by no means restrictive thereof. It is reasonably to be expected that those skilled in the art can make numerous revisions and adaptations of this invention, and it is intended that such revisions and adaptations of this invention will be included within the scope of the following claims as equivalents of the invention.
1. A frame which is adapted to be connected to a tractor having a three-point linkage and which is adapted to support any one of a plurality of earth working tools comprising, a first generally U-shaped tubular continuous link member having a rearward closed end with two forwardly extending parallel portions, means for pivotally connecting the free ends of said portions to the two bottom links of said three-point linkage with the closed end of saidmember extending rearwardly from said tractor, a second generally U-shaped tubular frame member pivotally connected to the two bottom links of said threepoint linkage with the closed end extending upwardly, means connecting the upper closed end of said second member to the top link of said three-point linkage, an upstanding flange mounted on each of said portions of said first member in fore-and-aft parallel relationship, a plu rality of longitudinally spaced and transversely aligned openings provided in each of said flanges, strut means pivotally connected at one end to the closed upper end of said said second frame member and connected at the other end to selected ones of said openings, a plurality of earth working tools, means optionally mounting any one of said tools in selected ones of said openings, a caster wheel assembly, and means for optionally mounting said wheel assembly at the closed end of said first link member.
2. The unitized frame in accordance with claim 1, including a readily mountable and demountable ground engaging wheel at the end of said frame, and a scraper blade demountably secured intermediate the ground engaging wheel and three-point hitch linkage in said aligned openi-ngs.
3. The structure in accordance with claim 1, including a gear box and drilling element mounted on the end of said frame and angularly received thereon to provide a pendulum support whereby said drilling element is disposed perpendicularly to the ground, said frame being swung back on its three-point hitch linkage to dispose the drilling element substantially over the rear end of the vehicle.
4. The frame construction in accordance with claim 1 in which said frame is a continuous length tubular con struction of circular cross section to resist twisting and References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,333,837 11/1943 Wibbels V 37 156 2,346,757 4/1944 Horner 37-156 2,767,491 10/1956 Arps v 37 159 3,123,923 3/1964 Calabrese 37 180 ABRAHAM G. STONE, Primary Examiner JOE O. BOLT, Examiner.