US 3253357 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 31, 1966 P. JEAN-MARIE THEODORE ALLARD ,3
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United States Patent Office Patented May 31, 1966 3,253,357 UNDERWATER EXCAVATING DEVICE Pierre lean-Marie Theodore Allard, 3 rue de Constantine, Paris, France Filed May 27, 1963, Ser. No. 283,204- Claims. (Cl. 3765) My invention relates to hydraulic apparatus for digging, breaking up and removing waste material, applicable in particular for the removal of alluvial material and clay, during boring, trench-digging and dredging work.
My invention has more particularly for its object a pump and control means therefor, of a simple execution and of a great adaptability in operation, said pump including a turbine of a novel design driven directly by a electric or hydraulic motor or energy receiving unit, which turbine is carried by an arrangement which allows giving it an angular setting controlled, generally speaking, by a hydraulic jack, said angular setting or slope providing an optimum. angle of engagement. Said optimum angle leading to an optimum yield is controlled at a control station, either through a pressure gauge in the case of a hydraulic operation or else through an a-mmeter and a wattmeter in the case of an electric operation.
According to a main feature of my invention, my improved centrifugal pump or turbine is housed inside a casing. Said turbine includes an inner row of helical blades housed between two flanges, the lower flange being provided with smaller blades adapted to urge the material into a central suction cone. Said central cone is equipped along its lower edge with helical ridges forming a cutter acting as disagregating means. Said turbine of a stepped outline, is driven directly, either by an electric motor or by a hydraulic motor fitted on a bearing rigid with a bracket to the lower end of which the casing enclosing said turbine is secured.
According to a further feature of my invention, said bracket secured to a pivot extending between the tines of a fork-shaped support, is subjected to the action of a control jack. Said jack carried by said support and acting on an arm rigid with the bracket carrying the driving means and the turbine rocks the latter with reference to the forked support so as to adjust it at its optimum angle of engagement with the ground in conformity with the information supplied by a measuring instrument.
According to a preferred manner of executing the apparatus for removing material contained in a bore hole or well, said apparatus may be carried at the end of an arm guided inside a boring tube.
According to a second application of the apparatus with a view to digging trenches in clay or alluvial grounds, said apparatus may be fitted on a support such as a turret a rigid with a carriage, the jib of a crane, or any like apparatus.
According to a still further application of my improved apparatus intended for the dredging of rivers or ponds, said apparatus may be fitted on a boat.
Various other advantageous features of my invention will appear from the reading of the following detailed description.
A preferred embodiment of my said invention and its different applications are illustrated by way of examples and in a non limiting sense in the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a first embodiment of said apparatus,
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic view of a hydraulic circuit controlling the receiver driving the turbine,
FIG. 3 illustrates a first application of the apparatusdesigned for the boring of bore holes,
FIGS. 4 and 5 illustrates in elevational and plan views a second application of the apparatus designed for the digging of trenches,
FIG. 6 illustrates a modification of said second application adapted for the digging of trenches,
FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate in elevational and plan views, a third application of the apparatus intended for the dredging of rivers, streams, ponds and the like.
Referring to FIG. 1, the apparatus comprises a casing 1 inside which is housed a centrifugal pump driven directly by an electric or hydraulic motor 2 or similar device.
The pump comprises an inner row of helical blades 3, extending between two vertically spaced flanges 4 and 5, and associated with a further row of depending smaller blades 6, fixed to the lower surface of the flange 5. The smaller blades 6 are adapted to draw in material from the outside of the central suction cone 7. For this purpose, a circular opening 8 of a diameter larger than cone 7, is provided in the casing 1 of the pump.
The central cone 7 is equipped along its lower edge with helical blades 9 forming a cutter acting as a digging tool. The cutter blades 9 are interconnected along their lower edges through a grid or spider 10 preventing the entrance into the cone of any material too large to pass through the cone 7 and pump blades 3. I
The pump rotor is secured to a shaft 11 guided by a roller bearing 12 and is connected with the motor 2 through a coupling sleeve 13.
The motor 2 is mounted on a support 14, rigid with a bracket 15, to which the bearing 12 is secured while the casing 1 is secured to the lower end 16 of the bracket.
.Said bracket carries a lateral projection 17 to which is pivotally secured the free end 18 of the piston rod of a hydraulic ram or jack 19.
The other end of the jack 20 is secured by a pivot pin 21 extending between two plates 22 rigid with two arms forming a bifurcated supporting unit 23. The ends of the arms of lower free unit 23 carry a pivot pin 24 supporting the bracket 15 to which the turbine and its driving means are secured.
The pivotally movable supporting structure thus formed is angularly adjustable and allows angular adjustment of the pump in the desired operative position. The angular attitude or position is controlled by the jack 19.
The amount of power delivered to the pump rotor blades 3, 6 by the motor 2 corresponds to a hydraulic pressure, to an electrical input in kilowatts and is recorded by the pressure gauge or wattmeter 25 located in convenient proximity to the operator at the control station and the operator may, according to the information provided as to the power and/ or pressure to be supplied, adjust the valves controlling the hydraulic jack 19 so as to give the rotational axis of the cutter blades 9 an optimum inclination with respect to the vertical.
A discharge tube 26 of a suitable diameter and length connected to a port 27 of the pump housing, provides means discharging material collected by the pump blade 3, 6 and cutter 9.
As illustrated in FIG. 2, the hydraulic circuit control ling the receiver driving the turbine is adjusted by the operator who may, as required regulate the valves 28-29 so as to connect, as desired, the outputs of the two pumps 30 and 31, which outputs have different constant values, to obtain thus three ranges of speeds for the receiver 2, to wit: through the use of the pump 31, a high speed, through the use of the pump 30, an intermediate speed and through the differential connection of the pumps 30' and 31, a low speed.
The three-position master control valve 32, which is manually controlled, provides for forward rotation, stopping and reverse rotation of the pump and cutter, the
reversed rotation being used for unblocking jamming, if required.
In a first application (FIG. 3), intended for the boring of bore holes, the apparatus may be sunk inside the bore hole 33 and maintained centrally positioned therein by three or four guide members constituted by bars 34 fitted on a central tubular support 35 terminating at its lower end in a bifurcated supporting unit 36.
The supporting unit 36, carries the pivot pin 24 to which is pivotally secured a pivotally movable supporting structure which is identical above with that described with reference to FIG. 1 and which is controlled by the jack 19. The removal of the excavated material is through a flexible hose 37 communicating through a flanged connection 38 and a branch pipe 39 of a V-connection into the central tubular support 35, which thus also serves to convey the excavated material out of the bore hole.
The central tubular support on which the pump is-fitted, may be rotated through one complete revolution, so as to allow the cutter 9 of tool 40 to engage all portions of the bottom surface of the bore hole.
The diameter of the cutter 9 tool is larger than that of the casing 1 of the turbine, and it projects outwardly beyond the casing 1 so that cutter 9 is the only portion of the pump in contact with the bore hole wall.
An upwardly and outwardly directed inclination of the cutter 9 (as illustrated in dot and dash lines) provides for increasing the diameter for the bore hole. An upwardly and inwardly directed inclination of the cutter 9 permits the apparatus to cut downwardly inside the bore hole, without cutting the wall of the bore hole, since only the guiding members 34 are in contact with the wall as they slide downwardly inside the bore hole.
The tubular support 35 carrying the cutter 9 may be vertically reciprocated within the bore hole by suitable means (not shown).
FIGS. 4 and illustrate in elevational and plan views, a second application of the apparatus arranged for the digging of trenches.
According to said second application, the pivotally movable supporting structure is the same as that described above with reference to FIG. 1. It is carried by two parallel arms 41-41 forming a bifurcated unit adapted to be lowered within the trench. The arms 4141' are pivotally secured to a turret 42 and their vertical adjustment is controlled by a hydraulic jack 43 pivotally connected on the one hand with the upper end 44 of the turret 42 and on the other hand, with a pin 45 connecting the arms 41-41 with each other.
The entire apparatus is mounted on a vehicle or carriage 46 which may be driven either along the center of the trench or along its side.
The diameter of the cutting tool 40 is slightly smaller than the breadth of the trench, but the supporting arms 40 and 41 provide for lateral movement, since the turret 42 can rotate about a vertical axis on pivot 47, rigid with the carriage, under the action of the transversely extending hydraulic jacks 48 and 48.
At the point where the turbine operates, two removable panels 49, rigid with the swing-frame define the breadth of the trench and prevent the tool 40 from undermining the trench Walls.
The flexible tube 50 through which the excavated material is exhausted may extend over the distance required so as to reach the point at which said materials are to be discharged.
Turning to FIG. 6 illustrating a modification of the preceding trench digging application of the apparatus, the apparatus is mounted on a crane-carrying carriage for digging trenches in clay or alluvial grounds in a waterladen soil.
. The angularly pivotally movably supporting structure is the same as that described above with reference to FIG. 1, and it pivots on a pin 24 extending between the arms or tines of a bifurcated member 51 carried in its turn by an upright 52 which is vertically adjustable. Said upright slides within a guide 53 being supported by a cable 54 controlled by a winch 55, said cable passing over a pulley 56 carried by the jib 57 on the vertical frame 58.
Furthermore, frame 58 carries the guide 53 for the upright 52 and guide 53 is angularly adjustable about a horizontal axis provided by a pivot 59 so as to allow imparting a swinging movement to the tool 40. It is thus possible to dig a certain length of trench without moving the carriage. During said swinging movement, the cable which is urged laterally is guided between two pulleys 60 located below the pulley 56.
Two lateral panels 61-61 secured to the bifurcated member 51 and located at each side of the tool 40, prevent the latter from increasing its suction area beyond the desired width to be given to the trench. The width is controlled by giving a series of different inclinations to the tool 40 the inclinations being controlled by the jack 19.
Obviously, the upright 52 may be given any suitable cross-section, whether square, triangular or hexagonal so as to hold the lateral panels in position in the longitudinal direction of the trench and it may, on the other hand, be of a telescopic type so as to allow an increase in the depth of operation. I
The flexible removal tube 62 extends to the location at which the excavated material is deposited.
In accordance with a third application illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8, the apparatus may be arranged to dredge rivers, streams, ponds and the like.
As shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, the pivotally movable supporting structure is the same as that described above with reference to FIG. 1 and it pivots on a pin 24 extending between the tines of a bifurcated member 63. The bifurcated member 63 is rigid with a rod 64, sliding vertically under the control of a double acting hydraulic jack 65 inside a sheath 66, carried in its turn by a boom comprising four arms 67 pivotally connected to form a parallelogram linkage.
The body of the jack 65 is secured to and pivots on the lower portion of the sheath 66 while the piston rod of jack 65 is connected to the rod 64 by a connecting member 68.
The arms 67 of the boom are carried by a turret 69. The two upper arms are rigidly connected by a common shaft 71 to a lever 76 pivotally connected to the piston rod of a double acting hydraulic jack 72 the body of which is pivotally connected to the turret 69. The jack 72 controls the boom arms 67 and permits raising and lowering the tool 40 as desired.
The parallelogram linkage arrangement of the boom arms 67 causes the tool 40 to maintain its inclination unchanged during the rising or lowering of the boom.
The vertically movable rod 64 allows the tool 40 to reach a considerable depth.
The turret 69 is rotatably supported on a floating frame or boat 73 and is adapted to pivot above a vertical axis under the control of two hydraulic jacks 74-74. This arrangement permits the tool 40 to move horizontally along an arcuate path, as illustrated in FIG. 8.
The boat includes a wheelhouse 75 inside which is located a control station. The wheelhouse 75 also contains the hydraulic system 76 which supplies pressure fiuid to the motor 2 of the tool 40 and controls the movements of various jacks.
The flexible tube 77 extends to the location where excavated material is to be discharged.
The stability of the whole system may be enhanced by poles 78 of an adjustable height, engaging the bottom of the water and secured to the boat after adjustment.
When the apparatus is used in marshy land and in soil into which water has entered to some considerable extent, it is possibleto fill the ground with bentonite or other similar filling material.
Obviously, various modifications may be made in the embodiments disclosed, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. An underwater earth excavating device comprising: a pump casing; a pump rotor within said casing, said casing having an outlet formed therein; a hollow frustoconical inlet member coaxial with said rotor, the smaller base portion of said inlet member being connected to the inlet portion of said rotor for rotation therewith; means defining an annular aperture in said casing coaxially surrounding said inlet member intermediate its ends; separate blades included in said rotor and surrounding said aperture Within said casing for delivering material exteriorly of said inlet member from said annular aperture to said outlet; an annular series of cutter blades carried by the larger base portion of said inlet member exteriorly of said housing, said cutter blades extending generally radially outwardly beyond said inlet member for cutting engagement with the earth to be excavated; and motor means for driving said rotor.
2. A device according to claim 1, further comprising selectively operable control means connected to said motor means for driving said rotor in either direction.
3. A device according to claim 1, further comprising pivotally movable supporting means common to said casing, said rotor and said motor means, said supporting means being movable about a pivotal axi perpendicular to the rotational axis of said rotor; and power operated means connected to move said supporting means for varying the inclination of said cutter blades with respect to the earth to be excavated.
4. A device according to claim 3, further comprising a bifurcated member between the legs of which said supp orting means is pivotally mounted; and a vertically extending member supporting said bifurcated member at the lower end thereof with the rotational axis ofsaid rotor normally parallel to and spaced from the longitudinal axis of said vertically extending member, said cutting blades extending outwardly beyond said casing for cutting engagement with a vertical surface, said vertically extend ing member being rotatable about its longitudinal axis through substantially one complete revolution to bring said cutter blades into engagement with the entire bottom area of a bore hole progressively formed by operation of said cutter blades accompanied by downward and rotational movement of said vertically extending member, said power operated means selectively producing an oblique inclination between the longitudinal axis of said vertically extending member and the rotational axis of said rotor.
5. A device according to claim 4, further comprising: a discharge conduit having one end connected to said outlet in said casing, said vertically extending member having an upwardly extending passage formed therein, said passage being closed at its lower end, the other end of said conduit communicating with said passage above said closed end.
6. A device according to claim 3, further comprising: a vehicle; turret means carried by said vehicle for rotation abouta vertical axis; second power operated means for rotating said turret means; boom means having one end portion pivotally connected to said turret means for rotation therewith, said pivotally movable supporting means being carried by the other end portion of said boom means; and third power operated means carried by said turret means and connected to said boom means for selectively raising and lowering said cutter blades.
7. A device according to claim 6, wherein said vehicle is a land vehicle, said device further comprising spaced parallel plate members disposed at opposite sides of said cutter blades, said plates being engageable with the walls of a trench formed by operation of said cutter blades accompanied by movement of said vehicle in the longitudinal direction of the trench and vertical displacement of said cutter blades.
8. A device according to claim 6, wherein said vehicle is a boat and in which said boom means includes a parallelogram linkage, said device further comprising a guide member at said other end portion of said boom member; a rod member vertically slidable in said guide member, said rod member being maintained vertical by said linkage, said pivotally movable supporting means being carried by the lower end portion of said rod member; and fourth power operated means for vertically displacing said rod.
9. A device according to claim 3, additionally com prising further supporting means which is movable over the surface of the ground adjacent to a trench to be excavated by said device; winch means carried by said further supporting means; a pulley located above said ground and carried by said further supporting means; a cable passing over said pulley, s'aid cable being wound in and paid out by said winch means; guide means carried by said further supporting means, said guide means being mounted for angular displacement about a horizontal axis which is perpendicular to the rotational axis of said pulley; a rod member having its upper end portion connected to the free end of said cable, said rod member being longitudinally slidable through said guide means; means connecting said pivotally movable supporting means to the lower end portion of said rod member; and a pair of pulleys disposed on opposite sides of said cable beyond said first-named pulley from said winch means for guiding said cable during angular displacement of said supporting means.
10. A device according to claim 3, further comprising sensing means responsible to the power input to said motor means whereby said power operated means may be adjusted to provide an optimum inclination for said cutter blades in accordance with the magnitude of said power input.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS ABRAHAM G. STONE, Primary Examiner.
BENJAMIN I-IERSH, Examiner.
G. T. MOLLER, W. A. SMITH III, Assistant Examiners.