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Publication numberUS3253426 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 31, 1966
Filing dateMar 9, 1964
Priority dateMar 28, 1957
Publication numberUS 3253426 A, US 3253426A, US-A-3253426, US3253426 A, US3253426A
InventorsHeinrich Mauersberger
Original AssigneeNahwirkmaschb Malimo Veb
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for producing plush fabrics
US 3253426 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




INVENTOR. HEINRICH MAUERSBERGER side of the foundation to the back or reverse side.

3,253,426 APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING PLUSH FABRICS Heinrich Mauersherger, Limbach-Oberfrohna, Germany,

assignor to VEB Naliwirkmaschinenhau Malimo, Karl- Marx-Stadt Original application Mar. 28, 1957, Ser. No. 649,121. Divided and this application Mar. 9, 1964, Ser. No.

11 Claims. (Cl. 6684) This invention relates to apparatus for producing plush or pile fabrics.

This application is a divisional application of the coowned and co-pending application, Serial No. 649,121, filed March 28, 1957, for pile fabric.

An object of the invention is to provide 'a device for the production of pile fabrics, wherein pile threads or loops are incorporated into the fabric without materially increasing the thickness of the fabric.

To achieve its various objectives, the invention contemplates, by means of a novel apparatus the incorporation of pile threads and loops into the foundation by interlacing the pile elements in the manner of chain stitching. In known fabrics of this type, two loops are normally utilized at each pile position with one of the loops constituting the pile loop itself and being interlaced through the other loop. Both of these loops are at least in part on the pile side of the fabric and not only influence the design of the fabric but further substantially increase its thickness. Moreover, the consumption of pile material in forming the pile is inordinately high.

In accordance with the invention, a pile fabric is made by the novel apparatus in which the pile thread is drawn in loops through the foundation from the pile or front Each loop is extended from its position in the foundation along the reverse side thereof to a position whereat it engages another pile loop and, thus, the pile loops themselves are mutually engaged on the reverse side of the fabric so as not to be able to influence the design of the fabric. Moreover, in using the pile loops themselves as anchoring loops, the need is avoided of using separate anchoring loops and a more efficient use can be made of the pile material. Additionally, by avoiding the requirement for two separate loops at each position, the thickness of the fabric is not substantially altered.

A further object of the invention is to provide for the fabrication of a pile fabric foundation simultaneously with the formation of the pile itself. This avoids the need for preparing pile fabrics in two separate operations. Moreover, it avoids the possible deformation of foundation materials which are prepared in advance and then subjected to pile forming operations.

In forming the foundation simultaneously with the pile, the foundation is formed by separate rows of founda tion yarn or thread which are integrated into the fabric while the pile loops are being mutually engaged as has been briefly described above. The resultant product is much more economically produced than heretofore achieved.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and accompanying drawing in which:

FIGURE 1 illustrates, in side view, an apparatus which in accordance with the invention inserts pile loops into a fabric foundation and causes the loops to be mutually engaged along the reverse side of the foundation;

FIGURE 2 is a top view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1;

.FIGURE 3 is a view of an element of the apparatus of United States Patent 3,253,426 Patented May 31, 1966 ice FIGS. 1 and 2 with which the extension of the pile loops along the front side of the fabric is enabled;

FIGURE 4-is a top or front view of a portion of the completed fabric in which view the hidden mutually engaged loops on the back side are shown in dotted lines;

FIGURE 5 is a view similar to that of FIG. 1 in which, however, provision is made for the simultaneous formation of the foundation while the pile is being formed;

FIGURE 6 illustrates the apparatus of FIG. 5 at a subsequent phase of the process;

FIGURE 7 is a top view of the apparatus shown in. FIG. 5; and

FIGURES 8 and 9 are, respectively, top or front and cross-sectional views of an alternative embodiment of the inventive pile fabric, produced by the mechanism illustrated in FIGS. 5-7.

As shown in the drawing, an apparatus for producing a pile fabric or similar article in accordance withthe invention includes a row of sliders or longitudinally oscil-- latin-g needles 1 with which are associated eye guides 2 which are ordinary arms having openings to guide pile threads 3. Between the slider needles 1 and'perpendicularly thereto are lifters 4. Needle actuators, not shown, provide simultaneous oscillatory motion to all the needles. Such actuators are well known and are described in my Patent No. 2,890,579 of June 16, 1959, entitled Textile Material and Manufacture.

Needles 1 pass through a foundation '5 and the eye guides 2 are positioned substantially opposite the needles 1 to engage the pile threads 3 thereupon on the pile or front side of the foundation. With the pile threads engaged in the hooked portions of needles 1, the latter are withdrawn through the foundation 5 so that the pile threads are drawn in loops to the back side of the foundation 5.

It will be clear from the top view of FIG. 2 that the substantially planar back surfaces of the lifters 4 provide a support for the foundation or base fabric 5 on the front side thereof, against the thrusting action of the needles 1 piercing the fabric from the rear, so that no web holders are required for preventing the fabric from evading the action of the needles.

Loops or stitches 6 of the preceding stitch are suspended on needles 1, pile threads 3 are drawn therethrough and thus interlaced therewith. The eye guides 2 are moved laterally up and down in FIG. 2, that is, they reciprocally move the threads so they can be alternately hooked and drawn by different adjacent needles 1. They perform, for example, a simple knitting or tricot-type operation with the result that the pile threads 3 span the lifters 4. This operation extends the threads so that they form pile loops.

Guide actuators or controls 2 are connected to guides 2 for movement thereof. The operation of such guide actuators for purposes of performing a simple knitting or tricot-type operation is well known and more particularly described in my 'Patent No. 2,890,579, mentioned hereinabove.

Whereas, heretofore, the individual threads 3 were stitched into the foundation 5 independently of each other, the invention contemplates that different adjacent pile threads 3 be alternately and mutually interlaced. The resulting back stitches or loops 6 are, therefore, portions of the pile loops.

The guide actuators 2' are also effective to alternate the guides between alternate adjacent rows of needles be tween each knitting cycle. Such alternate or reciprocating motion is accomplished in a known manner by a suitable cam which superposes the alternating motion upon the knitting motion.

The base fabric 5 is advanced between stitches in the usual manner which is more particularly described in my Patent No. 2,890,579. The combination of the alternating guide motion and the advancing motion of the base fabric providesthe required diagonal motion for interlacing the alternate adjacent pile loop. The advancing motion of the base fabric further serves to extend the pile loops behind the base fabric.

Lifters 4 are designed to include several steps and are adjustable longitudinally, individually or in groups, so that pile loops having different lengths can be produced. This arrangement may be controlled by known devices.

The thus produced fabric has closed pile loops which, however, may be cut open. For this purpose, knives 8 (see FIG. 3) are provided at the fabric take-off end of lifters 4. For this purpose, the lifters 4 are provided on the side facing the eye needes 1 with a projection defining a groove or channel 9 (FIGS. 2 and 3). The meshes or floats 7 are thus kept open for the operation of knives 8. If, on the other hand, a rug or similar article is to be produced with uncut pile loops, lifters 4 may have solid cross sections.

As more particularly seen with reference to FIG. 1, each lifter 4 is provided with a swin-gably mounted blade 10 supported at a pivot or bearing support 11. These blades 10 extend into channels 9 of lifters 4 and are moved in the manner of a pendulum in the direction of arrow x (up and down in FIG. 1) by means of a reciprocating arm moved by an eccentric or crankshaft drive 12 which in turn moves blades 10 by means of member 14 which slides in slot 15. For a change from cut to uncut pile loops, the blades 10 can be withdrawn to an inoperative position. For this purpose, bearing supports 11 are mounted on a pivoted lever 13 through the manipulation of which blades 10 are brought out of range of their respective lifters 4 by movement to the right of supports 11 in FIG. 1. The engagement member 14 of the crankshaft or eccentric drive 12 is accommodated in this case by the slot 15 on blade 10. The blades 10 may be withdrawn to their inoperative positions individually or in groups.

In FIG. 4 is shown a portion of the first embodiment of a pile fabric produced in accordance with the invention. The loops or stitches 6 of individual warp chains extend along the reverse or back side of the foundation in parallel wales or rows aligned with the needles 1. On the pile or front side of the foundation, however, the pilethread floats 7 extend diagonally between subsequent courses at pile positions 16 and 17, these threads being severed if out loop piles are desired. The floats 7 (whole or cut) constitute on the pile side of the foundation the pile of the fabric whereas, on the reverse side of the foundation, the loops 6 are mutually engaged in chain stitch fashion to lock in the pile threads.

The apparatus embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 5-7 is also provided with slider needles 1 and associated eye needles 2 and, further, with eye guides 2a identical with guides 2 for seam threads 3a. Eye guides 2 and 2a perform the previously described movements. Hence, each eye guides 2 and 2a alternately sets the thread on two adjoining slider needles 1 so that alternately a pile thread mesh or stitch 6 and, thereafter, a seam thread mesh or stitch 6a is formed in each row from the adjacent threads 3 and 3a. The machine also includes lifters 4. The seam threads are intended to lie flat on the surface of the foundation on its pile side and not be cut.

In accordance with the disclosure of the aforementioned Patent 2,890,579, and applicants other Patent 3,030,786, based on a divisional application of the former case (and on which a reissue patent is about to issue), the respective pile and seam threads may be made from different materials. As shown in FIGS. 5-9 of the present application, the seam thread, forming stitches 6a, is thinner than the pile thread, forming stitches 6, resulting in further economy in production.

As described above, the function of the lifters 4 is to form pile floats 7 by providing spacing between the foundation 5 and the apex of loops 7. Consequently, no lifters are disposed between the slider needles 1 on which the seam threads 3a are set as the seam threads are intended to lie flat on the pile side of the foundation. Therefore, lifter meshes or floats 7a of the seam thread lie flat. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that lifters 4, though provided between consecutive, spacedapart needle pairs only, will sufiiciently support the base 5 so that the needles 1 are capable of piercing the same, as has been described before with regard to the first apparatus embodiment.

In review, lifters 4 are provided with the channel 9 (FIG. 7). The latter serves to accommodate the cutting edge of the blade 10 pivoted at pivot '11 and driven by means of the eccentric or crankshaft drive 12. Pivot 11 of blade 10 is again mounted on a knee lever 13 which is pivotally secured to the frame.

As distinguished from the structure of FIGS. 1-3, in this case, the foundation of the second fabric embodiment is not a finished foundation into which pile threads are drawn. The foundation, rather, consists of more or less randomly crossing, loose, independent threads or fibers 18 and 19 respectively running transversely and longitudinally with respect to the worked piece. The warp-wise oriented threads 19 are floatingly adjacent, in front, to the weft-wise oriented threads 18 and both are fed to the operating stations by means of any known device such as shown, for example, in applicants aforementioned Patents 2,890,579 and 3,030,786. Threads 19, running parallel to the longitudinal direction of the article, are fed between every two slider needles 1 with which seam threads 3a are engaged -(see FIG. 7).

With the described means the foundation of the worked piece is formed at the same time as pile threads 8 are drawn into it. Seam threads 3a, which lie fiat on and across the foundation threads 18 and 19, have the function of integrating the foundation (consisting of threads 18 and 19) into a uniform product. The threads 3a and the loops on the back serve to hold threads 18 and 19. In the finished article, each pile thread 3 extends (see FIGS. 8 and 9) over thread positions 16 and 17. This, of course, also applies to the seam threads 311. As a consequence, both in the transverse (weft-wise) and longitudinal (warp-wise) directions of the worked piece, on the back side of the foundation thereof is alternately located a pile-thread loop or stitch 6 and a seam-thread loop or stitch 6a. On the other hand, on the pile side of the article, lifters meshes or floats 7a of seam threads 3a alternate with the lifter meshes of pile threads 3 forming the pile loops 7 (see FIG. 8). Further, lifter meshes 7a of seam threads 3a couple threads 19 with threads 18.

By way of variation, threads 19, running parallel to the longitudinal direction of the article, may be omitted. It is furthermore possible to feed to the stitch-forming positions a plurality of groups of threads 18.

In fact, there will now be obvious to those skilled in the art many modifications and variations of 'the inventive apparatus for producing plush fabrics set forth which do not depart essentially from the spirit of the invention as defined by the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In the apparatus for fabricating a single-pile fabric, including a plurality of reciprocable needles arranged in a row for lengthwise movement so as to pierce the back side of a base fabric, a plurality of movable thread guides positioned on the front side of said base fabric for providing a pile thread in the path of each needle, means for moving said thread guides relative to said needles so as to engage a pile thread with each needle, the latter having hooks for drawing loops from said front side to said back side of the base fabric, for engagement with previously drawn and extended loops, means for moving said thread guides in the paths of alternate adjacent needles, and lifter means positioned on said front side of the base fabric for providing pile loops from at least some of said pile threads in spaced relationship from said base fabric, the improvement wherein said lifter means is constituted by a plurality of elongated members positioned in a direction perpendicular to that of said needles and in closely adjacent relationship with said base fabric, there being at least one elongated member between consecutive, adjacent pairs of needles, the portions of said elongated members contacting said base fabric having a substantially planar surface, whereby said base fabric is prevented by said lifter means from evading the piercing action of said needles.

2. In a single-pile fabricating apparatus, the improvement as defined in claim 1, wherein said elongated members have channel-shaped portions facing away from said base fabric, and further comprising cutting means at least partly lodged in each channel-shaped portion, for severing said pile loops on said front side of the base fabric.

3. In a single-pile fabricating apparatus, theimprovement as defined in claim 2, further comprising means for swiveling said cutting means out of said channelshaped portions of the elongated members, and means for selectively setting said cutting means into an operative position within said channel-shaped portions.

4. In an apparatus for producing single plush from a planar base and a plurality of threads, said apparatus having thread guides on the front side of said base, needles on the back side of said base, means for reciprocating each thread guide between at least on pair of needles, means for drawing interlocking chain-type thread loops to said back side of the base, whereby a zig-zag pattern of thread loops is formed on said front side, and lifter means on said front side, intermediate at least some needles and substantially aligned with respective thread guides, for forming said thread loops into pile loops extending from said base, said lifter means performing the double task of supporting said base during the piercing action of said needles and of forming said pile loops which constitute the single plush.

5. In a plush producing apparatus, the improvement as defined in claim 4, wherein said lifter means is formed by unitary members have lengthwise stepped portions of different widths.

6. In a plush producing apparatus, the improvement as defined in claim 5, further comprising severing means associated with said unitary members, for performing the third task thereof in producing a cut plush from said pile loops.

7. In an apparatus for producing single-plush products from a base and a plurality of threads, having a plurality off adjacent needles forming a straight row and positioned on the back side of said base for reciprocation therethrough, a plurality of adjacent thread guides forming a straight row and positioned on said front side for guiding threads to positions where they are interlocked with said base and with each other, means for drawing a thread loop from the thread guide closest to one of said needles through said base and through a previously drawn loop, so that a plurality of interlocking knitting stitches are formed on said back side during said advancing motion, reciprocating means for alternately moving said thread guides to positions alternately opposite one of two adjacent needles, a thread loop from one thread guide being drawn through a previously drawn thread loop from the adjacent thread guide, and a subsequent thread loop from said one thread guide being drawn through said previously drawn thread loop from the thread guide on the other side of said one thread guide, so as to form an interlocking pattern of loops on said back side and a zig-zag formation of loops on said front side, and lifter means on said front said for spacing at least a portion of said thread loops away from said base, so as to form pile loops, the improvement comprising channel-shaped members constituting said lifter means and having planar and recessed portions, said planar portions facing said base and being closely adjacent thereto for performing the function of holding said base at said front side during its advancing motion through the apparatus and reciprocation of the needles, saidrecessed portions facing awayfrom said base for performing said spacing function, and blade means secured in the region of said members for swinging into and out of said recessed portions for performing the function of severing said pile loops, whereby a cut single-plush product results.

8. In a plush producing apparatus, the improvement as defined in claim 7, wherein said base consists of a plurality of closely spaced loose weft-wise threads and a plurality of closely spaced loose warp-wise threads positioned between alternate pairs of needles, said members being positioned intermediate said warp-wise threads, whereby zig-zag patterned thread loops adjacent said base and intermediate said pile loops serve to secure said warpwise threads to said weft-wise threads of the base.

9. In an apparatus for preparing a single plush fabric, having means for disposing a plurality of warp threads on the front side of a foundation layer, means for drawing a plurality of warp threads to the back side of said foundation layer through stitching points aligned in wales, for forming by said warp threads a plurality of backing stitches on said back side between consecutive stitching points of each wale, for interlocking consecutive backing stitches in each wale so as to form a plurality of chaintype backing loops in each wale, for forming a tricot layer about said foundation layer wherein each wale is formed by at least two longitudinally alternating warp threads, and each warp thread reciprocates between two adjacent wales, and for drawing a plurality of longitudinal rows of front loops formed by said warp threads on said front side between offset stitching points of two adjacent wales, diagonally thereto and in two substantially perpendicular directions, each front-loop row being continuously formed by the same warp thread, the improvement comprising lifter means having planar portions adjacent said foundation layer for supporting the same during the operation of said means for forming backing stitches and said means for forming a tricot layer, said lifter means also having portions extending away from said foundation layer for spacing away at least some front loops from said foundation layer, and constituting thereby pile loops for an uncut single plush fabric.

10. In an apparatus for preparing a plush fabric, the improvement as defined in claim 9, wherein said portions of the lifter means which extend away from said foundation layer define recesses therein, further comprising cutting means swivable in said recesses between a hidden inoperative position and an at least partly protruding operative position, for severing said pile loops for a cut single plush fabric.

11. In an apparatus for preparing a plush fabric, the improvement as defined in claim 10, wherein said lifter means includes elongated channel-shaped members between at least every other pair of adjacent needles, said planar portions forming the bottoms of said members while two lateral portions of said members define therebetween said recesses, said lateral portions having consecutive lengthwise sections of different widths, and further comprising means for shifting said members into predetermined positions wherein said pile loops face a selected one of said lengthwise sections for determining the length of the cut pile in the fabric.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 423,780 3/ 1890 Landenberger 6684 X 2,005,951 6/ 1935 Morton 6685 2,243,850 6/ 1941 Amidon 6684 (Other references on following page) UNITED STATES PATENTS Amidon 6684 X Amidon 6684 Amidon 6685 Rius 112198 X Shaw 6684 X Clark et a1. 66-84 Richards I12--79.5

. FOREIGN PATENTS 12/1939 France. 2/ 1952 France. 12/ 1954 France. 12/ 1890 Germany.

ROBERT R. MACKEY, Primary Examiner.


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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3327501 *Jan 27, 1965Jun 27, 1967Crompton & Knowles Malimo IncMulti-ply fabrics and method for making same
US3367333 *Jul 12, 1965Feb 6, 1968Kendall & CoPile diaper
US3368563 *Jun 6, 1966Feb 13, 1968Kendall & CoPanty with pile center panel
US3376835 *Dec 27, 1965Apr 9, 1968Singer CoTufting machines and methods for producing terry-like fabrics and fabrics produced thereby
US3421929 *Jun 14, 1966Jan 14, 1969Singer CoTufting mechanism,method,stitches and article
US3530687 *Aug 10, 1967Sep 29, 1970Int Knitlock CorpMethod and apparatus for manufacturing knitted cloth having pile configuration
US3601071 *Apr 3, 1969Aug 24, 1971Singer CoMultiple-pile-tufting machines, method and product
US3603114 *May 22, 1969Sep 7, 1971Nahwirkmaschinenbau Malimo KarWarp-knitting machine
US3677206 *Jan 29, 1971Jul 18, 1972Fieldcrest Mills IncApparatus for making tufted fabrics
US3722442 *Jan 29, 1971Mar 27, 1973Fieldcrest Mills IncTufted pile fabrics and method of making same
US4630558 *Mar 22, 1984Dec 23, 1986Card Roy TTufting machine and method of tufting for producing multiple rows of tufts with single lengths of yarn
US5692949 *Nov 17, 1995Dec 2, 1997Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyBack-up pad for use with abrasive articles
US5962102 *Nov 26, 1997Oct 5, 19993M Innovative Properties CompanyLoop material for engagement with hooking stems
US6726976Nov 30, 2000Apr 27, 2004E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyTufted pile structure having binder concentrated beneath the backstitches
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US6967052Oct 15, 2002Nov 22, 2005Invista North America S.A.R.L.Stitched-bonded yarn surface structure
US6973807 *Jul 23, 2004Dec 13, 2005Groz-Beckert KgTip-headed needle
US20020062905 *Nov 30, 2000May 30, 2002Zafiroglu Dimitri P.Process for bonding of stitched carpets
US20030070739 *Dec 9, 2002Apr 17, 2003Zafiroglu Dimitri PeterStitched pile surface structure and process and system for producing the same
US20030082334 *Dec 9, 2002May 1, 2003Zafiroglu Dimitri PeterStitched pile surface structure and process and system for producing the same
US20040065400 *Oct 6, 2003Apr 8, 2004Zafiroglu Dimitri PeterStitched yarn surface structure and method of forming the same
US20040071926 *Oct 15, 2002Apr 15, 2004Dimitri ZafirogluStitched-bonded yarn surface structure
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CN101603243BJun 13, 2008Apr 13, 2011林理应Terry-shearing method in towel-weaving process and terry-shearing device thereof
WO2002092896A2 *May 14, 2002Nov 21, 2002E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyStitching apparatus for forming a cut pile surface structure
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U.S. Classification66/84.00R, 112/410, 66/85.00A, 112/80.7, 112/80.17
International ClassificationD04B23/08, D04B23/00
Cooperative ClassificationD04B23/08
European ClassificationD04B23/08