|Publication number||US3255326 A|
|Publication date||Jun 7, 1966|
|Filing date||Sep 23, 1963|
|Priority date||Sep 23, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3255326 A, US 3255326A, US-A-3255326, US3255326 A, US3255326A|
|Inventors||Pfitzer Robert L, Schwartz Harold O|
|Original Assignee||Wurlitzer Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Non-Patent Citations (1), Referenced by (3), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT PEDAL STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 23, 196:5
June 7, 1966 H. o. SCHWARTZ ETAL 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR-S 2 0/49 0. a/zzuarfz:
June 1966 H. o. SCHWARTZ ETAL 3,255,326
ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT PEDAL STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 25, 1963 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 J 4 I J4fi .134 115 1 73 55 O A 02 0| t H V 0 94 I M m iafia zz 54 United States Patent 3,255,326 ELECTRONIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENT PEDAL STRUCTURE Harold O. Schwartz, North Tonawanda, and Robert L.
Pfitzer, Buffalo, N.Y., assignors to The Wurlitzer Cornpany, Chicago, 11]., a corporation of Ohio Filed Sept. 23, 1963, Ser. No. 310,592
18 Claims. (Cl. 20086.5)
This invention relates to the electronic production of music, and particularly with improved pedal switching means for an electronic organ.
As is well known, it is common for electronic organs to have one or two manuals or keyboards, plus a pedal board or clavier. It is common practice to connect these pedals to borrow notes from the generators controlled by the manuals, the frequency of such notes generally being divided to produce the desired pedal tones. Generally speaking, only one pedal tone is played at a time. In fact, it is extremely undesirable to play more than one adjacent pedal tone at a time, since the notes are sufiiciently low in frequency that a very bad beat is produced between adjacent, or even nearby notes controlled by the pedal board. Various switching arrangements have heretofore been developed in an efiort to insure such onenote-at-a-time playing. However, such systems have often proved troublesome due to the necessity of maintaining critical tolerances or sequences of switch operation.
One satisfactory approach to the problem with a plurality of solutions thereto is shown in the co-pending application of Howard M. Thomas, Harald E. W. Bode, and John R. Brand in their application, Ser. No. 205,377, filed June 26, 1962, now Patent .No. 3,155,769, for Electronic Musical Instrument Switch Means, and assigned to the same assignee as the present application. The present invention relates to the same. general subject matter as the aforesaid Thomas et al. application, and presents improvements thereover.
It is an object of this invention to provide an improved pedal switching arrangement for playing one pedal note at a time in an electronic organ.
Furthermore, it. is an object of this invention to provide an improved pedal construction including the mounting and pivot therefor in an electronic organ.
Yet another object of this inventon is to provide an improved pedal construction for an electronic organ wherein a single spring is used in conjunction wit-h each pedal for holding the pedal in place under spring tension, and for biasing the pedal for spring return to a rest position.
Still another object of this invention is to provide an improved pedal switching arrangement for an electronic organ having an improved friction mechanism for-holding any operated switch in its operated position until the operation of a subsequent switch by a pedal corresponding thereto.
Other and further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
*FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an electronic organ incorporating a pedal structure constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the pedal clavier on an enlarged scale;
FIG. 3 is a vertical cross sectional view on a further enlarged scale through the pedal clavier as taken substan tially along the line 33 in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a top view of a fragment of a pedal as in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view similar to FIG. 4 showing the parts in a different position of operation; and
7 up to a maximum height at 62, at which point it bears FIG. 6 is an exploded perspective view of certain of the switch parts.
Referring now in greater particularity to the drawings, and first to FIG. 1, there will be seen an electronic organ generally designated by the numeral 20, and constructed in accordance with the principles of this invention. The organ 20 includes a cabinet 22. The organ is provided with a pair of manuals or keyboards 24, and with a pedal clavier 26. Suitable stop tablets 28 are provided to control the banks of tones that are to play, and also to control relative intensities of the notes of the different manuals,
and to control vibrato effects. The electronic organ is further provided with a swell pedal 30 for controlling the instantaneous overall volume of the organ. A loud-. speaker or set of loudspeakers is provided within the cabinet behind a grille 32.
The pedal clavier 26 is shown in detached relation in FIG. 2. As is the usual case, the clavier includes a plurality of relatively long, light colored pedals 34 for playing the whole tones, and a plurality of shorter and higher, usually black pedals 36 for playing the half tones. The
pedals are mounted on a wood base 38 (see also FIGS.
3-5) generally in the manner of piano keys. Specifically, near the front end of the board 38 there is provided an upstanding balance pin 40 for each pedal, the pedal having a vetrical opening 42 therein from top to bottom. A felt washer 44 lies between the pedal and the board 38 about the pin 40. As will be apparent, the opening 42 is elongated longitudinally of the pedal (pedal 34 being used for exemplary purposes) from the top to about from the bottom and is simply a bore slightly larger than the pin in the bottom Thus, the pedal pivots about the pin 40 in the same manner as with a conventional piano key. A guide pin 46 also is provided in the board 38 upstanding through an opening 44 similar to the opening 42 in the pedal relatively toward the inner end thereof. A felt washer 50 also encircles this pin and underlies the pedal.
A transverse bar 52, conveniently of wood, is supported on blocks 54, and 56 in a position overlying the pedals immediately to the rear of the pin 40. The bar and blocks preferably are held in place by screws (not shown).
Each pedal is held in the flat position shown in FIGS. 1-3 by an arched leaf spring 58. Each spring is provided with a fiat base at its forward positon, held to the corresponding pedal by means of a pair of suitable fasteners, such as screws or nails. Each leaf spring 53 then arches against the underside of the bar 52. Toward the inner end of the pedal, the spring drops back down smoothly to engage the pedal at 64. As will be apparent, the pedals are placed in position over the pins 40 and 48 above the board 38 before the bar 52 is installed. This is done by simply setting the pedals in place. The bar 52 then is placed down across the blocks 54, 55 and 56 to which it is bolted or screwed, thereby simultaneously holding the pedals permanently in position, and providing for biasing thereof. As will be apparent from FIGS. 3 and 4, when the outer end of a pedal is depressed by a foo-t of a player,
the pedal pivots about the pin 40, with the spring 58 being deflected beneath the bar 52 relatively toward the pedal, whereby to provide a resilient restoring force for the pedal.
The spring 58 is made of flat spring steel having a layer of felt adhered to the upper surface thereof beneath the bar 52 to insure smoothness and quietness of operation.
At the rear or inner corners of the base board 38, there is provided a pair of brackets 66 having upstanding flanges 67, having horizontal flanges 68 disposed at right angles thereto and secured in contact with the base board 38 by means such as screws 70. A transverse horizontal bar 72 extends between the flanges 67, being held thereto by means such as screws 74 extending through suitable 8 apertures in the flanges 67 and tapped into the ends of the bar. The bar 72 is spaced above the rear or inner ends of the pedals for engagement with switch operating members hereinafter to be set fort-h.
In addition, a bail 76 is pivotally mounted between the flanges 67 of the brackets 66. The bail includes a tubular portion 78 having a shaft extendingtherethrough, the shaft being seen at the left end in FIG. 2 and identified by the numeral 80. The shaft is pivotally received in rubber grommets 82 in suitable apertures in the flanges 67. The bail 76 further includes a fin or plate-like portion 84 extending from end to end of the bail, and extending radially from th tubular portion 78. The fin or plate-like portion is provided with an upstanding reinforcing rib 86, and the outer edge of the fin or platelike portion overlies the inner end of each of the pedals in contact therewith, but underlying the switch operator hereinafter to be set forth. A flat leaf or blade type spring 88 is suitably afiixed to the top of the board 38 adjacent the intermediate block 55 and has a free end extending over the tin or plate-like portion 84 of the bail to hold this portion of the bail down on top of the inner ends of the pedals.
Each pedal is provided at its rear or inner end with a switch mechanism identified generally by the numeral 90, shown in particularity in FIGS. 3-6. Each switch mechanism comprises a bracket 92 including an upstanding, vertical flange 94 with a horizontally extending foot or flange 96 integral therewith and secured to the top of the corresponding pedal by means such as screws 98 passed through suitable apertures in the flange 96 and screwed into the wood pedal.
Each flange 94 is provided with a forwardly extending projecting portion 100 having a suitable insulating member 102 provided in an aperture therein. Preferably, thisinsulating member comprises a plastic member molded in place. It carries a pair of transverse contact members 104 and 106 in vertically spaced relation. The contact members are in the form of relatively rigid or stiff wires or rods and are made of a suitable electrical contact metal, for example, one of the contact bronzes. The contact members 104 and 106 extend-completely through the insulating buttons 102 and have projecting ends thereon adapted for the connection of lead wires thereto by conventional soldering means.
A stud 108 having a head 110, a cylindrical shank 112, and a reduced end shank portion 114 is secured in an aperture 116 in a flange 94, the end of the reduced portion 114 being staked or swaged to hold the stud 108 in position. A movable switch plate or butterfly 118 is pivotally mounted on the stud 108.
A small plastic button 120 having a circumferential fin or flange 122 is mounted about the enlarged shank 112 in contact with the butterfly 118, and with the flange or fin portion 122 thereof disposed on the side opposite Y the butterfly. A non-flat friction spring washer 124 is disposed between the plastic button 120 and the flange 94 of the bracket 92. The fit of the parts is such that the washer 124 has an axial force on it tending to flatten it somewhat from its normal deformed condition, whereby the butterfly 118 is held under compressional force between the plastic button 120 and the stud head 110. Accordingly, the butterfly is pivotal, but tends to remain in whatever position of pivotal adjustment it has been placed.
The butterfly 118 carries at its upper, outer corner a block of insulating plastic material 126 held to the butterfly by a rivet 128 passing through the plastic block and through a suitable aperture 130 in the butterfly. In order to insure proper positioning of plastic block without pivoting about the mounting rivet thereof, there is also provided an aperture 132 in the butterfly, and a locating protuberance on the back of the block extends through this aperture. A flexible contact Wire 134 is molded into the block, and has a tail 136extending upwardly therefrom for soldering a connection to a lead wire 138. The switch contact 134 comprises a major portion 140 of a suitable flexible metal, such as beryllium copper, and an outer projection 142 of the same diameter butt welded to the flexible portion 140. The end projecting portion 142 is made of a superior contact metal such as silver or an alloy thereof. Upon pivotal movement of the butterfly 118, the outer end contact portion 142 of the flexible switch contact 134 is alternately engageable with the relatively fixed contacts 104 and 106.
At the end of the butterfly opposite to the switch member 134, there is provided a horizontal flange or foot 144 integral with the remainder of the butterfly. An
operating lever which could be integral with the butterfly, but which is shown as a flat leaf spring 146, conveniently of steel, is secured to the foot 144 by means such as rivets 148, and extends out alongside and above the in nor end of the corresponding pedal. The outer end of the spring is provided with an upper felt layer and a lower felt layer 152.
The normal position of operation of the switch mechanism is shown in FIG. 3. The blade spring 146 extends out beneath the rod 72, but spaced therebelow, and also above the fin or plate-like portion 84 of the bail 76. When a pedal is depressed as shown in FIG. 5, the inner end thereof rises up, thereby bringing the upper felt 15 3 on the spring 146 into engagement with the transverse rod 72. This effects a limited clockwise direction of rotation of the butterfly 118, as viewed in FIGS. 3 and 5, thereby raising the contact portion 142 of the switch member 134 into engagement with the upper fixed switch contact 104. When the pedal is released, the friction pressure on the butterfly 118 holds it in the position of FIG. 5, even though the pedal returns to its initial position. The position of a spring 146 and its felts 150 and 152 is shown in dashed lines in FIG. 3. When any other pedal is then depressed, its spring and felts are raised in the same manner into contact with the rod 72. However, as will be apparent with regard to FIGS. 3 and 5, the fin 84 of the bail 76 is lifted up by the underlying inner end of the pedal.
The bail thereby lifts the operating spring 146 and felt 152 of any previously operated switch, and thereby pivots the corresponding butterfly 118 in a counterclockwise direction, to return the switch contact element 142 into engagement with the lower switch 106.
In the mechanism just described, any pedal which has been depressed to change its switch condition, thereby to effect playing of the corresponding note will remain in that switch condition even though the pedal is released by the foot of the player. This allows the pedal to continue to sound until cut off by the playing of a subsequent pedal note, or until the played tone has been decayed through a suitable sustain or decay mechanism, not shown herein. On the other hand, playing of any note positively insures that any previously played note will be cut off, even though the pedal notes be played in rather rapid succession. To this end, the configuration and dimensioning of the parts is such that th last preceding note played is switched off just before the next played note becomes effective.
The thirteen pedal switches are connected in a series arrangement so that flexible contact wire tail 136 of one switch unit is connected, by means of a flexible lead wire 137, to contact 106 of the next switch unit, etc. Contact 104 of each switch unit is connected by means of a flexible lead wire to the electronic circuitry (not shown). Therefore, the circuit will not be completed until the preceding pedal switch has made contact with contact 106. Furthermore, no sound will be audible until a bail actuated switch (not shown) has closed gating the electronic circuitry. This gate switch is adjusted to close only after all pedal switching has taken place.
Should anything conceivably go wrong with some given switch mechanism, it is only necessary to unsolder the wires connected thereto, whereupon the entire switch mechanism can be removed by unscrewing of the corresponding screws 98. Furthermore, the entire pedal affected can be removed by the simple expedient of temporarily removing the bar 52, along with either unsoldering of the connections to the corresponding switch mechanism, or unscrewing of the corresponding switch mechanism from the pedal. Accordingly, initial assembly is efilcient and simple, and requires no adjustment after assembly. By the same token, repair or replacement is quick and easy.
The specific example of the invention as herein shown and described is for illustrative purposes only. Various changes in structure will no doubt occur to those skilled in the art, and such changes will be understood as forming a part of the invention insofar as they fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
1. In an electronic musical instrument, the combination comprising a manually operable note playing member, a switch mechanism operatively interconnected to said device, said switch mechanism comprising a relatively fixed base carrying a relatively fixed switch contact, a relatively movable member movably mounted on said base and having a relatively movable switch contact thereon alternately engageable and disengageable with the relatively fixed contact upon movement of said relatively movable member, means operable on said relatively movable member upon movement of said note playing member to change the condition of engagement and disengagement of said relatively movable and said relatively fixed switch contacts, and restoring means operable independently of said note playing member and operatively connected to said relatively movable member to move said relatively movable member to restore said switch contacts to their initial condition of engagement and disengagement, and friction means acting between said relatively fixed switch base and said relatively movable switch member tending to hold said relatively movable member frictionally in fixed position relative to said fixed base.
2. The combination as set forth in claim 1 wherein the means mounting the relatively movable switch member on the relatively fixed switch base comprises pivotal mounting means, and wherein the friction means acts about said pivotal mounting means.
3. The combination as set forth in claim 1 wherein the relatively fixed switch base is mounted on said note playing member for movement therewith, and wherein the means moving said relatively movable switch member upon movement of said note playing member comprises a fixed stop.
4. In an electronic musical instrument, the combination comprising a manually operable note playing member, and a switch mechanism mounted thereon, said switch mechanism comprising a relatively fixed switch base having at least one relatively fixed switch contact thereon, a relatively movable switch member pivotally mounted on said relatively fixed switch base and having a relatively movable contact thereon movable into and out of engagement with said relaitvely fixed contact, friction means acting between said relatively movable switch member and said relatively fixed switch base and frictionally tending to hold said relatively movable switch member in fixed position relative to said fixed switch base, means operative upon movement of said note playing member to move said relatively movable switch member and the relatively movable contact thereon from one position to another as to the condition of engagement and disengagement with said fixed contact member, and means operable independently of said note playing member to restore said relatively movable switch member and said relatively movable switch contact to initial position.
'5. In an electronic musical instrument, the combination comprising a manually operable note playing member, a switch mechanism mounted on said note playing member and comprising a relatively fixed switch base having at least one relatively fixed contact thereon, a relatively movable switch member having a relatively movable contact extending therefrom into position for engagement with said relatively fixed switch contact, means mounting said relatively movable switch member on said relatively fixed switch base for movement relative thereto, means acting between said relatively fixed base and said relatively movable switch member tending to hold said relatively movable switch member in a position to which it has been moved, said relatively movable switch member having an element thereon for moving said relatively movable switch member, a first member engageable with said element for effecting such movement in one direction, and a second member engageable with said element for effecting movement of said relatively movable switch member in the opposite direction.
6. The combination as set forth in claim 5 wherein one of the first and second members engageable with the moving element comprises a fixed stop.
7. The combination as set forth in claim 6 wherein the other of said first and second members comprises a resetting member movable independently of said manually operable note playing member.
8. In an electronic musical instrument, the combination comprising a plurality of manually operable note playing members, a plurality of switch mechanisms respectively mounted on said note playing members, each of said switch mechanisms comprising a fixed switch base having a relatively fixed switch contact thereon, a movable switch member, means mounting said movable switch member on said fixed switch base for movement relative thereto, means impositively acting between said movable switch member and said fixed switch base and tending to hold said movable switch member against movement relative to said fixed base, means operatively connected to each of said movable switch members for ,moving a movable switch member upon movement of the respective note playing member to alter the condition of engagement and disengagement of the movable switch contact and the fixed switch contact,'and common resetting means operatively connected to all of said note playing members and operatively connected to said movable switch members and operative upon movement of any of said note playing members to return any movable switch member and its movable contact to initial position.
9. The combination set forth in claim 8 wherein the means mounting the movable switch member on the fixed switch base comprises pivotal mounting means, and wherein the impositive means tending to hold the movable switch member fixed relative to said fixed switch base comprises friction means acting about said pivotal mounting means.
10. The combination as set forth in claim 8 wherein the means operatively connected to the movable switch members comprises a fixed stop extending transversely across all of the manually operable note playing members and wherein the means operatively connected to all of the movable switch members to return switch members to initial position comprises a bail extending across all of said note playing members and pivotally mounted for engagement by any note playing member which. is moved for returning any switch member to initial position.
11. In an electronic musical instrument, the combination comprising a manually operable note playing member, a fixed switch base mounted on said member, a relatively movable switch member, means mounting said relatively movable switch member on said base for movement relative thereto, means acting between said fixed base and said movable member and impositively tending to hold said movable member fixed relative to said base, cooperating switch means on said fixed base and on said movable member, and a resilient arm extending from said movable member and engageable with stop means for resiliently moving said movable switch member from one position to another relative to said fixed switch base upon movement of said manually operable note playing member.
12. The combination set forth in claim 11 including a plurality of each means recited and further including a common stop engageable by any said resilient arm to effect movement of any movable switch member relative to the corresponding switch base, and a common bail engageable by any manually operable note playing member and movable thereby -to engage the resilient aunt of a previously moved movable switch member to return such previously moved movable switch member to initial position.
13. The combination as set forth in claim 12 wherein the means mounting each movable switch member on its respective fixed switch base comprises a pivotal mounting means, and wherein the means acting between each fixed switch base and the corresponding movable switch member comprises friction means.
14. In an electronic musical instrument, the combination comprising a pedal pivoted intermediate its ends and having an outer end engageable by a players foot and further having an inner end, a switch mechanism mounted on top of said pedal adjacent the inner end and comprising an upstanding flange having an insulating member thereon carrying a pair of vertically spaced transverse electric contacts, a movable switch plate, means pivotally mounting said movable switch plate on said upstanding flange and including friction means frictionally resisting movement of said switch plate relative to said flange, an insulating member on said switch plate, an extending contact carried by said switch plate substantially longitudinally of said pedal and between said transverse contacts carried by said flange and alternately engageable therewith, and a resilient actuating member extending from said plate longitudinally of said pedal in the opposite direction from the contact on said plate and engageable with two different members for pivoting said plate in relatively opposite directions to bring the switch contact thereon into engagement with one or the other of the transverse switch contacts on said plate.
15. The combination set forth in claim 14 wherein the pedal is pivotally mounted intermediate its ends by means comprising a vertical pivot pin, said pedal having an elongated slot therein received over said pivot pin, an arched spring secured to the top of said pedal and extending beyondthe pivot pin toward the inner end of said pedal, and a fixed member extending across said pedal and bearing down on said arched spring toward the inner end of said pedal relative to said pivot pin.
16. In an electronic musical instrument, the combination comprising a common pedal mounting board, a plurality of vertical pivot pins upstanding therefrom toward the front edge of said board, ,a plurality of pedals each having a vertical aperture therein elongated longitudinally of the respective pedal and received over one of said pins, a leaf spring on each of said pedals having a portion spaced above the respective pedal toward the inner end of said pedal relative to the respective pivot pin, and a common member extending across said pedals and bearing down on said leaf spring spaced portions and thereby holding said pedals resiliently in playing position about the respective pivot pins.
17. The combination set forth in claim 16 wherein each leaf spring is arched and spans the respective pivot pin.
18. In an electronic musical. instrument, the combination comprising a manually operable note playing member, a fixed switch base mounted on said member, a relatively movable switch member, means mounting said relatively movable switch member on said base for movement relative thereto, means acting between said fixed base and said movable member and impositively tending to hold said movable member fixed relative to said base, cooperating switch means on said fixed base and on said movable member, and an arm extending from said movable member and engageable with stop means for moving said movable switch member from one position to another relative to said fixed switch base upon movement of said manually operable note playing member.
No references cited.
KATHLEEN H. CLAFFY, Primary Examiner.
H. O. JONES, Assistant Examiner.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3408448 *||May 24, 1965||Oct 29, 1968||Wurlitzer Co||Magnetic keying for electronic organs|
|US3600543 *||Nov 19, 1969||Aug 17, 1971||Nippon Musical Instruments Mfg||Keying switch assembly|
|US4965417 *||Mar 27, 1989||Oct 23, 1990||Massie Philip E||Foot-operated control|
|U.S. Classification||200/86.5, 984/345|