US 3256567 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 21, 1966 s. R. F. Y. BJORCK 3,256,567
AUTOMATIC DEVICE FOR DIPPING OF CANDLES Filed Feb. 8, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 I" Iv lnl June 21, 1966 s. R. F. Y. BJORCK 3,
AUTOMATIC DEVICE FOR DIPPING OF CANDLES Filed Feb. 8, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fly 2 I I I6 loo @yv I $30 13 June 21, 1966 s. R. F. Y. BJORCK 3,256,557
AUTOMATIC DEVICE FOR DIPPING OF CANDLES Filed Feb. 8, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 United States Patent 3,256,567 AUroMArrc DEVICE FoR DrPPINo on CANDLE Sverker Rudolf Fredrik Yngvarsson Bjiirck, Enslrede,
The present invention relates to apparatus for forming candles. In a more specific aspect, the present invention relates to an apparatus for forming candles by dipping. In a still more specific aspect, the present invention relates to apparatus for forming candles with a gradually tapered upper end by dipping.
For many centuries, candle making has been performed by hand dipping in the home. This operation generally involves dipping a length of wick, having a weight attached to its lower end, a plurality of times into a molten body of wax or candle forming compound. When the candle is 'to be formed with a gradually tapered or rounded upper or burning end, it will, of course, require a great deal of skill to attain this result. Normally, such a rounded upper end or burning end is obtained by gradually increasing or decreasing the depth to which the wick length is dipped in each successive dipping step. This same procedure is also followed in industrial plants, except that a plurality of wick lengths are generally fastened to a frame and all of the wicks are simultaneously dipped into molten stearin or another candle making.
In recent years it has also become common practice, in the candle making art, to mold individual candles or a plurality of candles in water-cooled metal molds. However, the use of such molds has not become too widespread and, in fact, dipping procedures have been gaining increasing acceptance in industrial plants.
From the above, it is obvious that a simple, reliable and accurate mechanism for controlling the clipping operation is needed and that theprovision of such a device will greatly reduce or even eliminate the necessity of subsequent hand treatment to form or reform tapered or step-shaped candles.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved apparatus for dipping candles.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved apparatus for dipping candles wherein positive control over the depth to which the wick is dipped in each dipping step is obtained.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved apparatus for dipping candles wherein a cam-type wheel positively controls the depth to which the wick is dipped in each successive step of the dipping operation.
Another and further object of the present invention is to provide an improved apparatus for dipping candles which is suitable for use in dipping a plurality of frames of wicks in successivedipping cycles w-hile positively controlling the depth to which the wicks are clipped in each successive cycle.
These and other objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following detailed description, when read in conjunction with the drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is an overall elevational view of the dipping apparatus of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an elevational view, partially in section, of the control mechanism of the dipping apparatus; and
FIGURE 3 is an elevational view, partially in section, of the control mechanism of the present invention taken perpendicular to the view of FIGURE 2.
Referring specifically to the drawings, a container 1 3,256,567 Patented June 21, 1966 is adapted to hold molten stearin or other molten candle forming compound. Container 1 will generally be provided with a heating jacket (not shown) for maintaining a substantially constant temperature in the body of molten stearin. Container 1 is also provided with overflow outlet means 2 which is adapted to maintain a constant level of stearin in container 1. A plurality of wick elements 3, having weights attached to their lower ends, are suspended from a horizontally-disposed dipping frame 4. Frame 4 has attached thereto a rack or holder 5. Holder 5 has mounted thereon four rollers or pulleys 6. A dipping arm 7 adapted to lower and raise frame 4 is suspended above container 1. Attached to the lower end of dipping arm 7 is track or conveyor section 8, adapted to support dipping frame 4 through pulleys. 6. Conveyor section 8 is adapted to form a part of a horizontally-disposed circular conveyor track (not shown) suspended adjacent the upper end and surrounding the dipping apparatus. When dipping arm 7 is raised to its uppermost position, conveyor 8 will fit into a void space in the circular conveyor track and frames 4 can be moved off the main conveyor track onto conveyor section 8 for dipping operations and, after the dipping operations are completed, moved off conveyor section 8 onto the main conveyor track. Dipping arm 7 is slideably mounted on vertically disposed main support means or stand 9 by slide means 10. Dipping arm 7 is moved up and down stand 9 by means of hydraulic or compression mechanism 11 or equivalent operating means. Obviously, hydraulic mechanism 11 can be double acting and both lower and raise arm 7, or it can be single acting and simply raise arm 7 and then permit arm 7 to descend or lower in response to its own weight. Such free lowering of arm 7 can also be cushioned by controlled release of fluid from the chamber of mechanism 11. The depth to which wicks 3 are lowered into the molt-en stearin in container 1 is controlled by control means or positioner unit 12, which forms a part of dipping arm 7.
The details of positioner unit 12 are shown most clearly in FIGURES 2 and 3 of the drawings. The primary element of positioner unit. 12 is depth control means or adjustment wheel 13, which determines the depth to which the wicks 3 are dipped into the molten stearin in any single dipping step. Adjustment wheel 13 is a cam-type wheel having a plurality of peripherally-disposed segments, each of said segments being arcuate in form and having different radial dimensions than the segments on either side of it. It is obvious that adjustment wheel 13 can be continuous, rather than segmented, as shown, and therefore having a gradually changing radius. Likewise, to produce a different shaped end than a gradual taper, such as a stepped form, wheel 13 can have several segments of the same radius. Various other forms are possible without departing from the present invention. Adjustment wheel 13 acts through a plunger 14 which, in turn, contacts a positive stop 15 mounted on support 9. Stop 15 can be adjustable, as shown, so that the apparatus may be utilized in making candles of different lengths. Stop 15 can also be slideably mounted on support 9 to accommodate containers 1 of different height. It is quite obvious that adjustment wheel 13 could operate directly on stop 15. Likewise, it is also possible to interpose a pivoted lever means 16 having a pawl-type distance hook 17 on its free end between plunger 14 and adjustment wheel 13. Other variations will, of course, be obvious to one skilled in the art. For example, plunger 14 can be spring loaded so that it is normally urged upwardly, etc. Also forming a part of positioner unit 12 is ratchet wheel 18. Ratchet wheel 18 has fixedly attached thereto a spindle carrying worm gear 19. Worm gear 19, acting through spur gears 20 and 21, will turn adjustment wheel 3 FIGURE 3. Ratchet wheel 18 is positively turned by feeding lever 22 which is fixedly attached to the ratchet wheel mechanism. Ratchet wheel 18 will, of course, be generally spring loaded and urged in a direction opposite to the direction in which it is to be turned and is held in a given position by means of pawl 23 acting on the ratchet teeth. Ratchet wheel 18 can be turned by hand through hand wheel 24 to thereby skip one or more steps or cycles if desired. Unless turned by hand, as by means of hand wheel 24, ratchet wheel 18 will be turned when feeding lever 22 strikes stop 26 (FIGURE 1) mounted adjacent the upper end of support 9. Accordingly, each time dipping arm 7 is raised to its uppermost position, arm 22 will strike stop 26 and advance ratchet wheel 18 one segment or stop. The stops or segments on ratchet wheel 18 are coordinated with the length of the segments on adjustment wheel 13 and with the number of frames of wicks to be dipped. Preferably, one complete revolution of ratchet wheel 18 will turn adjustment wheel 13 an equal number of incremental steps and move a single segment a small distance less than the length of the segment with respect to a fixed point. In other words, each time ratchet wheel 18 moves one segment, one of the segments of wheel 13 moves a short distance with respect to hook 17, and, when ratchet 18 has made one complete revolution, wheel 13 has moved a number of short steps equal to the number of segments on ratchet wheel 18 and hook 17 has traversed the entire length on one segment on wheel 13 and is ready to pass to the next segment. Thus, for each revolution of ratchet wheel 18 a number of dipping frames equal in number to the number of segments on ratchet wheel 18 will be dipped to the same depth in container 1. Thereafter, the second dipping cycle will be carried out in which the same frames are lowered a lesser distance and the wicks are dipped to a shallower depth during the next revolution of ratchet wheel 18.
The ratchet wheel mechanism may also have attached thereto a pointer and scale means 25 which will indicate the position of adjustment wheel 13 at any given time, thereby permitting one to observe the position of the adjustment wheel and utilize hand wheel 24 to skip one or more cycles.
In operation, a frame such as frame 4, having suspended therefrom wicks 3, is pushed from the main track onto conveyor section 8. Dipping arm 7 is then lowered to dip wicks 3 in the molten stearin in container 1. Dipping arm 7 is then raised, frame 4 is shoved otf conveyor section 8 onto the main conveyor track and the next successive dipping frame is shoved onto conveyor section 8. In the meantime, feeding lever 22 has been pivoted by striking stop 26 and has turned ratchet 18 one segment. When ratchet 18 turns one segment, adjustment wheel 13 moves an incremental distance along its segment having the shortest radius. Dipping arm 7 is then lowered to dip the second set of Wicks on the second dipping frame the same depth as the first. This operation is repeated for all dipping frames on the main track and, in the mean time, ratchet wheel 18 has made one complete revolution and adjustment wheel 13 has travelled the distance of one of its segments. Subsequently, the same type operation is repeated for the first dipping frame, the ratchet wheel 18 begins its second cycle of rotation and hook 17 is operating against the second segment or the segment having the next larger radius. Obviously, after each succeding dipping frame has been dipped during the second cycle of operation, the wicks will have been dipped to a slightly shallower depth than on the first cycle, the ratchet wheel will have made its second complete revolution and adjustment wheel 13 will have moved'a peripheral distance equal to the length of its second segment. This operation is then repeated for a number of cycles equal to the number of frames being dipped and equal to the number of segments on adjustment wheel 13. After completing the last cycle on the last segment or the segment having the largest radius, the candle dipping for all frames will have been completed and the tops or wick ends of the candles will be gradually tapered, thus requiring no further shaping or hand treatment.
Obviously, the above-described procedure could be reversed to start with the segment of wheel 13 which dips the wicks to the greatest depth. It is also obvious from the above that the cyclic operation previously described can be varied. For example, movement of ratchet 18 one segment can be made to move adjustment wheel 13 one segment. In this instance, a single frame can be dipped to successively shallower or greater depths before placing another frame on dipping arm 7. Then, the next frame can be placed on arm 7 and its complete dipping operation performed without removing the frame from arm 7. Such a variation is, of course, simply a matter of choice.
It is likewise obvious that adjustment wheel 13 can be made in various other shapes, either in steps, as shown, or as a Wheel of continuously diminishing radius or of undulating radius. For example, wheel 13 may have two or more segments of the same radius and thus produce a candle with a stepped upper end, rather than one of gradually diminishing diameter. Accordingly, wheel 13 is preferably removable so that wheels of dilferent size and configuration can be substituted.
Adjustment wheel 13 can also be provided with one or more perpendicularly projecting pins or the like 30, which may be used in different Ways. For example, such pins can be adapted to operate a gear member to adjust the downward speed of the arm. They may also be used for adjustment of the traveling speed of the frames in the conveyor track during the course of the operation. When the speed is reduced enabling a longer period for cooling of the dipped candles between the subsequent dipping operations, the surface structure of the candles will be influenced. The pins may be of different lengths, the longer pins, for example, can regulate the traveling speed of the frames, while the shorter pins may be applied to stop automatically the operation of the apparatus when a desired number of dipping operations has been concluded, e.g., when changing to another dimension of candles.
1. Apparatus for adjusting the depth of immersion of Wick elements in the manufacture of candles by dipping said wick elements a plurality of times into a container of molten candle-making compound, comprising:
(a) vertically-disposed support means;
(b) dipping arm means mounted on said support for vertical movement between an upper position and a lower position and adapted to carry said'wick elements;
(c) a depth control wheel rotatably mounted on said arm means to rotate on a horizontally-disposed axis and having radial dimensions which differ at different points about the periphery of said wheel, and
(d) stop means mounted on said support means and adapted to contact the periphery of said wheel when said arm is in its lowermost position and support said wheel and said arm means.
2. Apparatus in accordance with claim ,1 wherein the arm includes a frame having means to support a plurality of wick elements.
3. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein the arm includes a section of conveyor track and a frame adapted to carry a plurality of wick elements supported by said track.
4. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein the wheel includes adjusting means adapted to stop the downward movement of the arm at successively different heights each time the arm is moved in a preselected direction.
5. Apparatus in accordance with claim 4 wherein the adjusting means is a lever means operatively coupled to said wheel and adapted to strike an upper stop means when said arm is in its uppermost position.
6. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein the,
wheel has continuously varying radial dimensions about the periphery of said Wheel.
7. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein a ratchet means is operatively coupled to the wheel and rotation of said ratchet means turns said Wheel in successive steps equal in number to the number of teeth on said ratchet.
8. Apparatus in accordance with claim 7 wherein the ratchet means is advanced the peripheral distance of one tooth section each time the arm reaches its uppermost position.
9. Apparatus in accordance with claim 7 wherein the periphery of the wheel comprises a plurality of sectors, each of which has a constant radial dimension throughout its length and the radial dimension of each of said sectors difiers from that of each other sector, and one complete revolution of the ratchet advances the wheel the peripheral distance of one of said sectors.
10. Apparatus in accordance with claim 1 wherein the periphery of the wheel comprises a plurality of sectors, each of which has a constant radial dimension throughout its length and the radial dimension of each of said sectors diflers from that of each other sector.
11. Apparatus in accordance with claim 10 wherein the number of sectors is equal to the number of times a wick element is to be dipped into the candle-making compound.
-12. Apparatus for adjusting the depth of immersion of wick elements in the manufacture of candles by dipping said wick elements in a container of molten candle making compound, comprising:
(a) a vertically-disposed support means;
('b) an upper stop means mounted on said support means adjacent the upper end of said support means;
(c) a lower stop means mounted on said support means adjacent the center of said support means;
((1) dipping arm means mounted on said support means and adapted to slide vertically between said upper and lower stop means;
(e) a conveyor track section supported on the free end of said arm means and adapted to carry a frame having a plurality of weighted wick elements suspended therefrom;
(f) motive means for moving said arm vertically;
(g) lever means on said arm adapted to turn a limited amount by contact with said upper stop when said arm is in its uppermost position (h) ratchet means attached to said lever means and adapted to be turned through an are equal in length to one toothed segment of said ratchet each time said lever is turned;
(i) the number of toothed segments on said ratchet being equal to the number of frames of wick elements to be processed; and
(j) a rotatable wheel having a plurality of arcuate peripheral segments of sequentially differing radial dimensions geared to said ratchet means and rotatable therewith;
(k) said wheel being geared to said ratchet in a manner such that one complete revolution of said ratchet will rotate the periphery of said wheel a distance equal to the length of one of said segments of said wheel relative to a fixed point;
(1) said wheel being mounted on said arm in a position such that the periphery of said wheel supports said arm on said lower stop means when said arm is in its lower position; and
(m) the number of said segments on said wheel being equal to the number of times a wick element is to be dipped.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,160,923 11/1915 Mahoney 18--24 2,007,773 7/1935 Schroder 1827 2,839,319 11/1945 McMordre et a1. 18-24 2,437,109 3/ 1948 Maquat 1824 2,478,202 8/1949 Moore 1827 2,827,663 3/1958 Flomp 18--24 WILLIAM J. STEPHENSON, Primary Examiner.