US 3256913 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 21, 1966 E. NEUMANN CROSSING FORMATION ON FABRICS 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 25, 1963 III l ng
INVENTOR Ema/l NEUMANN BY @M UY ATTORNEYS June 21, 1966 E. NEUMANN 3,
CROSSING FORMATION ON FABRICS Filed Sept. 25, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR: 5 Newman/7 (fis i w Q ATTOKNESS June 21, 1966 E. NEUMANN 3,256,913
CROSSING FORMATION ON FABRICS Filed Sept. 23, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 F g/7 F ela F 79 INVENTOR: E. Newman/7 ATTORNEBS 3,256,913 CROSSING FORMATION ON FABRICS Erich Neumann, Velbert, Rhineland, Germany, assignor to Raymond Dewas, Amiens, Somme, France Filed Sept. 23, 1963, Ser. No. 310,558 4 Claims. (Cl. 139--54) This invention relates to devices incorporated in looms for producing crossing formations in fabrics, either along lateral edges thereof, and, if desired, also along contain predetermined intermediate wanp threads; these devices can be used in connection with fabrics manufactured on shuttleless looms, i.e. looms having weft inserting members adapted to insert weft threads cut to the proper length, or along certain predetermined intermediate warp threads only, and on narrow fabrics manufactured in side by side sections on shuttle looms. These crossing formations provide that the marginal warp threads or said predetermined intermediate warp threads are firmly secured to the weft threads so as to form so-called outer selvages or inner selvages, respectively, adapted to prevent said warp threads from moving laterally away from the neighboring warp threads on the edges of the fabrics made on shutterless looms, or from the edges of narrower fabric sections produced on either type of loom after lengthwise severance of the fabric along said predetermined warp threads between two adjacent inner selvages. Such crossing formations also facilitate the cutting ofi of undesirable end pontions of the weft threads which protrude latenally on fabrics made on shuttleless looms.
In prior art the fixing of the outer selvage warp threads is accomplished by weaving them in crossing interlacings, i.e. by making use of the known half-twist or even complete twist weave by using so called non-crossing marginal warp threads and crossing marginal warp threads. By twisting to the extent of half a turn the crossing thread successively on the right and on the left of the noncrossing thread, or by twisting it a complete turn round said non-crossing thread, the weft thread ends are merely clamped between the marginal warp threads. In order to facilitate the severing of the protruding ends of the weft threads, it is also known to hold the latter fast in their rectilinear configuraion by means of special crossing threads. In such known methods, one and the same type of crossingweave was applied both to the extreme outer warp threads used for fixing the end portions of the weft threads and to the next few neighboring warp threads, i.e. either the half-twist weave type or the complete twist type. The necessity of making use of this single type of twist weave was due to the intricate character of the known devices available for this purpose.
In order to secure the marginal warp threads firmly to the weft threads, it is desirable to effect a tight binding or crossing weave. However, such tight binding weave has the drawback of bending the edges of the fabric above the plane thereof, and therefore, of making severance of the free ends of the weft threads more difficult This is particularly true in the case of double fabrics where a plurality of weft threads (usually two) lie one above the other, since in the case of a tight binding of each individual weft thread, the ends of the weft threads-diverge outwardly like brush hairs.
It is desirable, therefore, to provide a looser binding weave along the extreme outer warp threads and a tight binding weave along the next few adjacent warp threads. However, such a composite type weave is difficult to obtain on available appliances and, for that reason, .the tight binding weave was not resorted to, with the result that the marginal warp threads were not secured as firmly as desirable.
United States Patent An object of the present invention is to provide an improved crossing formation which is intended predominantly for fabrics produced on weaving machines having weft thread inserting members or gripping shuttles. The invention is characterized in that the interlacing is effected in a. varying rhythm in a manner wherein, in a plurality of crossing threads arranged side by side, the non-crossing warp threads are secured to the weft threads by the binding or crossing warp threads in mutually independent styles, each having its own characteristic features as far as its type and degree of tightness are concerned, according to theparticular requirements to be fulfilled. The
- crossing weave for the selvage is adapted in its interlacing rhythm to the particular requirements of the selvage, which is important especially for the fabrics produced with continuous weft thread insertion, because in the case of these fabrics the aspect of the edges is influenced to a great extent by the nature of the raw materials of which the warp and weft threads are made, by the yarn numbers and type of interlacing and by the number of warp and weft threads per measurement unit, and also because these factors are variable within wide limits. All these conditions are now taken into consideration. to prevent the fabric edges from curling, and for this purpose, according to the invention, each appropriate binding thread interlacing style is adopted. The crossing interlacings for the fixing of the weft thread end portions to be cut off are adapted to the purpose of'ensuring a reliable holding fast of said weft thread end portions by means of the sharpest and most regular bindings, i.e. a suitable individual binding interlacing which is as tight as possible, because in this case the divergence of the weft thread end portions is not detrimental, since these portions are cut off from the fabric and thrown away, along with the corresponding binding threads. Each binding thread group, namely the group for the fabric edge and the group for the fixing of the Weft thread end portions to be cut away, is moved independently of the other in the manner most appropriate for the particular purpose. Furthermore, within the individual crossing thread groups, for example within the crossing thread group of the fabric edge, the crossing threads are possibly moved individually or by groups independently in a differing rhythm appropriate to the purpose particularly in order to bind tightly the inner warp threads of the edge of the fabric, and to bind softly the marginal warp threads of the' edge of the fabric for the above-stated reasons, so that a firm fabric edge is obtained without the divergence of the end portions of the weft threads. 4
' It is fundamentally conceivable, for the production of the crossing formation according to the invention, to provide on the weaving machine a plurality of blades for the corresponding crossing threads; such blades must be driven separately, however. I The present invention endeavors to provide for such device the simplest possible construction by which two or more crossing formations can be produced independently of one another in a comparatively narrow 'soace.
According to the invention the arrangement, which is intended especially for weaving machines having, as known per se, a plurality of so-called stationary or noncrossing warp thread needles and a lifting arrangement for raising the crossing warp threads, for example a raisable crossing warp thread plate, is characterized in that one or more non-crossing warp thread needles are mounted for an axial sliding movement and a needle-control arrangement is provided by which the movable non-crossing warp thread needles can be raised so far that their points extend higher than the crossing threads in the higher position of said crossing threads so as to prevent 3,256,913 Patented June 21, 1966 I In order a looping movement of the pertinent crossing warp threads about the corresponding non-crossing warp thread. Here the non-crossing warp thread needles can each be arranged so as to be individually movable vertically; however, it is also possible for individual ones to be arranged stationarily, for example the needles for the warp threads serving for fixing extreme end portions of of the weft threads.
The space-saving and very simple design of the arrangement according to the invention for the production of the crossing formations according to the invention renders possible the arrangement of a plurality of such devices at will at any given locations over the width of the loom, so that one warp sheet may be divided in order that, during weaving, several separated fabric sections may be formed across its width with the edges of the sections being secured with crossing selvage formations of suitable design.
Further details of the invention will appear from the following description of the examples of embodiment of the invention represented diagrammatically in the drawmgs:
FIGURE 1 is a simplified perspective view of the central portion of a loom weaving side by side two sections of fabric and provided with the devices of the present invention.
FIGURE 2 shows the selvage forming apparatus in vertical longitudinal section of FIG. 3.
FIGURE 3 is a front view of the selvage forming apparatus.
FIGURE 4 is a vertical longitudinal section of the selvage forming apparatus of FIG. 5.
FIGURE 5 is a vertical transverse section of FIG. 4.
FIGURE 6 is a front view of --a conventional selvage forming apparatus. I
FIGURE 7 is a front view similar to FIGURE 6 showing the apparatus in another position.
FIGURES 8 and 9 show on a larger scale and in two different positions, respectively, the main part of the device as shown in FIGURE 5.
FIGURES 10 and 11 are sections along line X-X and XIXI of FIGURES 8 and 9, respectively.
FIGURES 12 to 15 show diagrammatically some examples of crossing selvage formations according to the invention, which can be produced with the arrangement according to the invention. I
FIGURE 16 shows a piece of a fabric divided across the width thereof into two sections separated by crossing selvage formations, while the edges of the fabric also have crossing selvage formations.
FIGURES 17 to 19 show on a larger scale the different crossing patterns used on the two outer crossing selvage formations and the two inner crossing selvage formations of the fabric according to FIGURE 16.
As shown in FIG. 1, the fabric 23 extends over the breast beam 24 carrying temples 25.. The lay 26 carries the reed 27. Frame elements 28 determine at 29 the height of the warp threads 30 between the selvages. Guards 10 are mounted upon a bar 31 the ends of which are fixed to the loom frame (not shown). Guards 10 may slide upon the bar 31 and are fixed thereon by clips 32 in positions corresponding to the positions of the selvages. To simplify the illustration, needles described hereinbelow are represented diagrammatically in FIG. 1 as needles 7 and 11.
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, a gear 2 is secured to an auxiliary shaft 1 rotating in unison with the main shaft adapted to drive the slay of the machine. Obviously the gear 2 may be secured directly to the main shaft. The gear 2 is in driving engagement with a gear 3 secured to a shaft 3a. A carn disc 4 secured to shaft 3a actuates a cam follower or roller 5 carried by a lever 6 which is mounted for vertical swinging movement on a horizontal stationary pin 6b carried by the machine frame. Lever 6 is urged toward cam 4 by a spring 6a.
In place of the gears 2 and 3, use may be madeof the friction of chain drive systems.
The upper end of a vertical push rod 7 carries a plate 7' having inclined slots 13, 13, 13", 13", adapted to guide crossing warp threads 8, 8, 8", 8", while its lower end carries a lug 7a engaged in a fork formed at the outer end of lever 6; the oscillations of the lever 6, under the action of cam 4 and spring 6a, impart a reciprocating rectilinear movement to the rod 7.
It is also possible, however, to impart a positive movement to the push rod 7 by means of a grooved cam disc, for example.
The push rod 7 is guided in a base plate 9 seated in the housing 10. The housing 10 is secured to a machine part firmly connected with the machine frame. In the base plate 9 there are also mounted needles 11, 11', 11", 11", which serve as guides for so-called non-crossing warp threads 12, 12', 12", 12", intended to participate in a crossing selvage formation. In the embodiment shown, these needles are slidably mounted in base plate 9.
If the axial mobility of the needles is left out of consideration, known crossing selvages can be formed as follows: the crossing warp threads 8, 8', 8", 8" are drawn from the read of the loom through slots 13, 13, 13", 13' of plate 7 (see also FIGS. 6 and 7) and then to the fabric, in order to twist around the non-crossing warp threads 12, 12', 12", 12" and in order to be crossed with the weft threads. The non-crossing threads 12, 12, 12", 12" are similarly drawn from the rear of the loop through the thread guides 14, 14', 14", 14 and through the eyes of the needle, 11, 11', 11", 11" to the fabric. The slots 13, 13, 13", 13" in plate 7' are arranged in known manner obliquely at a specific angle to the upper edge of the plate and have hook-like upper ends, as shown. Due to the rising and falling movement of the plate 7, the crossing warp threads 8, 8, 8", 8" are accordingly moved upwards and downwards and in the course of every other cycle they descend alternately on the left and on the right of the non-crossing warp threads 12, 12, 12", 12" according to the following procedure:
According to FIGURES 6, 7 and 10 the crossing Warp threads 8, 8,8", 8 on upward movement of the lever 6 (FIGURE 2) are lifted over the upper ends of the noncrossing warp needles 11, 11', 11", 11 while on downward movement of the lever 6 they are brought down to a level lower than the level of the non-crossing warp threads 12, 12', 12", 12". In FIGURE 6 the crossing warp threads 8-8' have been lifted by the plate. 7 over the points of the needles 11-11, The particular configuration of the slots in the plate 7 and the own tension in the cross warp threads 8-8 have the effect that in the subsequent downward movement of the plate, the crossing warp threads come to lie to the right of the needles 11-11' and therefore, also to the right of the non-crossing warp threads 12-12. The latter urge the crossing warp threads upwardly in the slots of the plate 7' and cause them to get hooked in the upper end of said slots. After the weft thread insertion, the crossing warp threads 88' are brought upwards again by the plate 7 according to FIGURE 7. The configuration of the slots in the plate 7 and the own tension of the crossing warp threads 8-8' have the effect that in the subsequent return of the plate downwards the cross warp threads now engage the laterally slanting top portions of needle, such as 11, and are pushed aside to the left clear of the hooked top portions of the slots while sliding down on the left side of the needles 11-11f and therefore, also on the left of the non-crossing threads 12-12'. After the weft thread insertion, the crossing warp' threads 8-8' are again brought upwards by the plate 7', but this time, the needles urge them to the left and thus prevent them from getting caught in the hook-like portions of the slots, so that these threads are again located in the bottom ends of the slots. Thus the initial position (FIGURE 6) is again reached and the above described working sequence may b repeated.
Thus the known crossing selvages areproduced, such as are represented on the lateral portions in FIGS. 12, 13 and 14, for example, by the crossing warp threads 8", 8" and by the noncrossing warp threads 12", 12". In this known manner all crossing warp threads are twisted in the same manner with the non-crossing warp threads, and therefore, uniform crossings are produced in combination with the weft thread across the width of the selvage which, by using the above described device, may comprise up to four crossing warp threads and four noncrossing Warp threads.
In accordance with the present invention, one or more needles 11-11 may be shifted vertically, in order to allow the formation of different crossing patterns according to the requirements of the fabric, in the same apparatus with relatively small requirements. The axial displacement upwardly of the movable needles 11 to 11" may be provided, for instance, as indicated in FIGURES 4 and 5, similarly to the upward and downward movement of the push rod 7 for the crossing warp threads 8-8'. On the shaft 1 of the loom there are secured gears 16. which are, respectively, in driving engagement with gears 17 secured to cam discs 18 adapted to actuate cam followers or rollers 19 carried by levers which are mounted for vertical swinging movement on the horizontal stationary pin 6b. Levers 20 are urged toward cams 18 by springs 20a.
In place of the gears use may be made of friction or chain drive systems.
The free ends of levers 20, are, respectively, operatively connected to the lower ends of needles 11, 11, 11", 11". Advantageously, the axes of gears 3 and 17 may be aligned.
Alternately, it is also possible to supply a positive movement to the needles by the use of grooved cam discs. Due to the form of the cam discs 18 the needles can assume individually two different positions in height, namely, for example, the lower position of the needles 11', 11", 11" and the higher position of needle 11in FIGURE 8.
According to FIGURES 8, 9 and 11, the non-crossing warp thread needle 11 is moved upwards by the lever 20, controlled by the cam disc 18 (FIG. 4) so far that the corresponding crossing warp thread 8 remains when in its highest position lower than the point of the needle 11. Thus, the crossing warp thread 8 is prevented from being lifted over the point of the needle 11 and is compelled to remain on one and the same side of the needle until the latter is moved again down to the lower position. In the meantime, however, if the other needles are left in the lower position as shown in FIGURES 8 and 9, the corresponding crossing warp threads cross the noncrossing warp threads atlernately on one side and on the other side thereof. It is thus possible to obtain any desired crossing pattern, by providing suitable cam devices for controlling the individual needles.
According to.a particular feature and a further development of the present invention, the thread guides 14, 14, 14", 14' instead of being conventionally secured to the base plate 9, are now secured to the non-crossing warp thread needles 11, 11', 11", 11", respectively, whereby an elongation of the corresponding warp threads 12, 12', 12", 12 is prevented, which otherwise would occur due to the fact that the needles are now vertically movable.
According to the transmission ratio between the gears 16 and 17 and according to the form of the cam disc 18 the displacement of the needle 11 into its high position can take place from its low position after one or more picks. Also, instead of moving only one needle, it is possible to move a plurality of needles, for example, the needles 11' and 11". Thus it is possible to design an apparatus capable of producing simultaneously crossings of different characteristics and lying realtively close side by side.
In the case of the crossing formation according to FIGURE '12, the needle 11 controlling the non-crossing warp thread 1?. assumes its higher position every other turn, while the warp threads 12', 12", 12" remain in their lower position. In the case of the crossing formation according to FIGURE 13 the non-crossing warp thread 12' is lifted once every other turn by the needle 11', while the non-crossing warp threads 12, 12", 12" remain low.
In the case of the crossing formation according to FIG- URE 14, the needle-11 of thread 12 is raised twice in the course of three turns.
In the case of the crossing formation according to FIG- URE 15, the non-crossing warp thread 12 and the crossing thread 8 serve as selvage warp threads, while the other non-crossing warp threads 12', 12", 12" serve together with the crossing warp threads 8', 8", 8" for the fixing of the weft thread end portions to make their cutting off easier.
In the case of the fabric which may be seen in FIGURE 16, the crossing edges reproduced on an enlarged scale in FIGURES 17 and 19 are formed according to FIG- URE 13. The fabric 23 which is formed of two sections side by side in this embodiment, possesses so -called inner selvages 22, which after severance form edge selvages.
for the corresponding sections, the crossing formation of which, according to this invention, has the nature of the outer fabric edges 12. By way of example, in order to produce such inner selvages 22, the present invention can be also applied to looms of conventional construction.
After severance of the fabric of FIG. 16 between the inner selvages 22 (see also FIG. 18) and also along the edges thereof as diagrammatically indicated by the three pairs of scissors, both edges of the two sections 23 of fabric will have a selvage of the same structure, namely, with an outer crossing thread 8' providing a moderately tight binding not likely to make the edge of the fabric curl, a next crossing thread 8 providing a tight binding of the corresponding warp thread 12 together with the end portions of the weft threads 21 so as to prevent the warp thread 12 (selvage thread) from sliding sideways out of the end portions of the weft threads. Obviously, the strips of fabric severed along the selvages 22, (FIG. 16) are to be thrown away.
1. In a loom, a selvage forming device for forming edge portions along the fabric being formed, said device comprising, in combination with a plurality of parallel needles, adapted to receive non-crossing warp threads, a plate having slanting slots with hook-shaped ends adapted to receive crossing warp threads and means connected with said plate for reciprocating said plate parallel to said needles between upper and lower positions to cause said threads to form crossing selvages; means connected with said needles for axially and individually reciprocating such between upper and lower positions, the point of said needles in their upper position being located above said slots carrying said crossing warp threads.
2. A device in accordance with claim 1, further comprising a thread guiding eye carried by each said needles.
3. A device in accordance with claim 1, wherein the first-mentioned 'means comprise a rod connected with said plate, a swingable lever connected with said rod and a drive actuating said lever.
4. A device in accordance with claim 1, wherein the second-mentioned means comprise a plurality of roller carrying levers, each said lever being connected with a respective one of said needles and wherein individual interchangeable cam disc is in driving contact with each said roller and an interchangeable drive is connected with each said cam disc.
(References on following page) References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Lutton 13954 Wattie 13954 Hale 13948 Picanol 139-54 Pfarrwaller 13954 M-asson et a1 13954 Hall 139-54 8 2,918,949 12/ 1959 Hall 139 -383 3,000,404. '9/1961 Eisen 13938 3 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,004,913 12/ 1951 France.
1,058,668 12/1951 France.
DONALD W. PARKER, Primary Examiner.
H. S. IAUDON, Assistant Examiner.