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Publication numberUS3258024 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 28, 1966
Filing dateFeb 18, 1964
Priority dateFeb 18, 1964
Publication numberUS 3258024 A, US 3258024A, US-A-3258024, US3258024 A, US3258024A
InventorsPeter Bauer
Original AssigneeSperry Rand Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fluid vortex flip-flop
US 3258024 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 28, 1966 BAUER 3,258,024

FLUID VORTEX FLIP-FLOP Filed Feb. 18, 1964 CONTROL 1: STREAM SOURCE STREAM SOURCE INVENTOR PETER BAUER BY J MQHZL ATTORNEYS 3,253,tl24 FLUID VORTEX FLIP-FLOP Peter Bauer, Germantown, Md, assignor to Sperry Rand Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Filed Feb. 18, 1964, Ser. No. 345,776 17 Claims. (Cl. 13781.5)

This invention relates to an improved device of the fluid amplifier type wherein a chamber with a single opening therein is provided to substantially reverse the direction of a fluid power stream during its travel theret-hrough so that it exits through one of several output channels. More particularly, the device in its preferredforrn has a bistable mode of operation so as to operate in flip-flop fashion.

Fluid amplifiers of the two-dimensional type have been generally devised wherein the main energy, or power stream, has been acted upon while still thereafter maintaining a generally forward (downstream) direction from its original inlet direction. Later developments in the art have provided devices wherein the power stream is caused to discharge from its interaction chamber at an angle varying up to but not exceeding 90 from its original inlet direction. The present invention, on the other hand, provides structure in the form of a chamber having a single opening through which the power stream both ingresses and egresses in one direction or the other along the chamber walls such that the power stream undergoes essentially a complete reversal of its original inlet direction during its passage to one of several output channels. These outlet channels, in one or more preferred embodiments, generally straddle the power stream input channel so that the high fluid energy connections to and from the amplifier can be conveniently grouped together. This is an advantagenot found in prior art devices. Furthermore, a fluid input control channel can be located immediatelyadjacent to that output channel to which the power stream is directed by control fluid therein. This means that a positive feed back channel can be easily connected therebetween without having to cross over other channels of the amplifier. However, by utilizing the principle of boundary layer control and vortex action, the power stream flow path preferably is made stable in one or more of said directions through the chamber without need for a positive feedback channel.

Broadly, therefore, it is an object of this invention to provide a fluid amplifier with power stream reversal within a specifically designed chamber. v

Another object of the present invention is to provide a fluid amplifier device having flip-flop characteristics by means of fluid boundary layer and vortex principles.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a fluid amplifier with a generally circular :power stream reversing chamber having a single opening through which the power stream simultaneously ingresses and egres-ses on its Way from a power stream input channel to one of several power stream output channels.

These and other objects of the present invention will become apparent during the course of the following description to be read in View of the drawings in which:

FIGURE 1 illustrates one embodiment of the invention wherein each control stream input channel is located to one side of the power stream reversing chamber;

FIGURE 2 illustrates a slight modification of the embodiment of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 illustrates another embodiment of the invention wherein each control stream input channel lies between the power stream input channel and one of the power stream output channels; and

FIGURE 4 shows a slight modification of the embodiment in FIGURE 3.

United States Patent or azssnti Patented June 28, 1966 Referring first to FIGURE 1, there is shown one preferred two-dimensional embodiment of the invention whose fluid channels and chamber may be cut or otherwise formed in a center laminate 10 of some fluid impervious material as, for example, transparent plastic. The top and bottom walls of the channels and chamber are provided by two other laminates of the material between which the center laminate 10 is positioned and sealed. This technique of fabricating a fluid amplifier is well known in the art so that no further description of same need be given here. Within the center laminate -10 a power stream input channel 12 is adapted to receive relatively high energy power stream fluid from a source such as 14 and to convey same to a nozzle outlet orifice 16. Positioned downstream from orifice 16 is a power stream reversing chamber generally indicated by 18 which is defined by a pair of curved side walls 20 and 22 joined together by a curvilinear unbroken end wall 24. Side Walls 20 and 22 together with end wall 24 form a generally circular shape in the preferred embodiment. Chamber 18 has a single opening 26 in its end facing orifice 16, with said opening being of suflicient size to permit both simultaneous ingress and egress of a power stream jet from orifice 16. A pair of power stream output chan nels 28 and 30 branch from opening 26 one to either side of power stream input channel 12. The egressing power stream fluid from chamber 18 can be received by any selected one of said power stream output channels and they conveyed to utilization means not shown.

Means are further provided to cause powerstream'fluid from orifice 16 to ingress into chamber 18 along either one of the side walls 20 or 22. In FIGURE 1 these directing means preferably take the form of a pair of input control stream channels 32 and 34 each terminating in respective output nozzle orifices 38 and 42 situated on opposite sides of chamber opening 26. Channel 32 in turn is adapted to selectively receive a fluid control stream from some external source 36 for applying same through its orifice 38 to impinge upon the power stream issuing from orifice 16. Similarly, control input channel 34 is adapted to selectively receive a fluid control stream from an external source 40 which thereafter flows from orifice 42 to likewise impinge upon the power stream at the region of orifice 16. Either control stream in channels 32 or 34 may be continuous after application, or alternatively may be pulsed for a short period of time. As is well known in pure fluid amplifier technology, a control stream of relatively low energy issuing at a fairly large angle to the power stream will, upon impingement therewith, cause a deviation in the latters trajectory due to the positive force applied thereto. The principle involved in said deflection is primarily that of momentum exchange between the control stream and the power stream. For example, control fluid issuing from orifice 38 deflects the power stream to the right as shown in FIGURE 1, while control fluid from channel 34 would deflect the power stream to the left. Conversely, a negative fluid pressure caused by a vacuum source 36 could be admitted via orifice 38 which would pull rather than push the power stream so that its deflection is to the left. It would also be possible to have power stream deflecting means other than fluid in nature especially where the device acts as an energy transducer for changing electrical or mechanical input signals into fluid output signals.

Chamber 1% is preferably designed so that power stream lock-on occurs to its walls such that the power stream remains flowing in a particular direction around the chamber even after its deflecting control stream is terminated. This condition of lock-on is provided by the creation of a recirculating fluid vortex 41 in the open, unobstructed center of chamber 18. To illustrate this phenomenon, first assume that source 14 is initially turned on and the fluid power stream emerges from orifie 16 so as to be initially disposed in a straight line path directed toward the center of chamber 18. Almost invariably, said straight line trajectory of the power stream is unstable due to either designed or unavoidable asymmetry of the chamber and input channel configuration. Consequently, the power stream from orifice 16 (represented by the solid line arrows) begins to turn toward one side of chamber 18 which, for the purpose of the present discussion, is assumed to be side wall 20. This turning may also be aided by the so-called boundary layer effect which is simply a low pressure region between the power stream and side wall 20 produced by the entrainment of fluid particles therein by power stream fluid. When the power stream once begins to ingess into chamber 18 closer to side wall 20 than to the other side wall 22, it generally follows a circular counterclockwise path around end wall 24 and returns along the opposite side wall 22 so as to emerge or egress from opening 26 at a location opposite from that wherein it enters. It should be noted that the power stream egresses from the chamber in a direction having a directional component opposite to the direction in which the power stream ingresses into the chamber. Due primarily to its large 180 angle of reversal in chamber 18, a portion of the power stream fluid flowing along the chamber walls continues to re-circulate in the center of chamber 18, so as to form a fluid vortex generally indicated by the arrows 41. This vortex 41 is thereafter continuously supplied with a portion of the power stream fluid ingressing into the chamber so that once it has been established, it impinges upon the power stream flowing against the chamber walls to thereafter maintain this flow path even in the absence of any control stream input.

For the power stream path shown in FIGURE 1, fluid egressing from chamber 18 via opening 26 generally continues to follow the contour of power stream output channel 28 which branches from side wall 22 of chamber 18. The continued lock-on of the power stream to a wall after leaving chamber 18, at least until it arrives in channel 28, is probably caused by the presence of a boundary layer effect which prevents the egressing power stream from colliding with the fluid issuing from orifice 16. Consequently, power stream flow is only detected in output channel 28 and not in output channel 30. If the power stream instead enters chamber 18 along side wall 22 it flows in an opposite direction therearound so as to exit from the device through output channel 30.

FIGURE 2 shows an almost identical configuration of fluid channels and chamber except for the fact that the control channels 32 and 34 are oriented so as to cause their respective control fluids to impinge upon the power stream at substantially a right angle rather than at the acute angle shown in FIGURE 1. However, the deflection of the power stream by control streams in FIGURE 2 occurs in the same directions and for the same reasons that deflection occurs in FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2 shows the issuing power stream locked-on to the opposite side wall 22 and exiting from the device via output channel 30. This flow path may be obtained from that of FIGURE 1 by a control stream from channel 34 which issues and strikes power stream 40 at a time when said power stream ingresses into chamber 18 along wall 20. The force so applied by this control stream causes the power stream to be deflected to the left so that the ingressing power stream breaks away from wall 20 and thereafter ingresses along wall 22 into chamber 18. The power stream consequently egress from chamber 18 along side Wall 20 and continues through output channel 30 which in turn may be connected to utilization means if so desired. Where the amplifier is designed for lock-on, power stream flow remains in the path shown in FIGURE 2 even after the control stream from channel 34 terminates. A subsequently applied control stream input from channel 32 is now required in order to return the device to the state shown in FIGURE 1, i.e., counter-clockwise power stream flow.

4 FIGURES 3 and 4 show slightly different embodiments of the invention wherein each input control fluid channel is located between the power stream input channel 58 and respective ones of the power stream output channels 68 and 70. The power stream input channel 50 terminates in nozzle orifice 52 through which issues fluid 54 supplied by source 56. The power stream reversing chamber 58 is of the same generally circular contour previously described, with its single opening 60 being large enough to permit the simultaneous ingress and egress of power stream fluid. Side walls 62 and 64 are joined together by an end wall 66 for reversing power stream flow in the manner described in connection with FIGURES l and 2. Similarly, output channels 68 and 70 branch from opening 60 one to either side of power stream input channel 50 so that each said output channel receives only egressing power stream fluid. Control channels 72 and 74 now terminate in respective orifices 76 and 78 which in turn lie between orifice 52 and the inlets to respective output channels 68 and 70. Control stream fluid selectively applied by either one of these control channels impinges upon power stream fluid issuing from orifice 52 in a manner to deflect the latter from its normal trajectory. This determines which side wall of chamber 58 will be followed by the ingressing power stream. Since the control fluid in FIGURE 3 is assumed to have a direction indicated by the dotted arrow in channel 74, the deflection taken by the power stream is away from that control orifice from which issues said control stream. It might be added at this point that a suction pressure could alternatively be applied through either of the control channels 72 and 74, rather than a positive pressure, in order to pull the power stream toward the control orifice. For either mode of operation, the power stream enters chamber 58 along one side wall thereof in a manner to emerge therefrom along the opposite side wall from whence it flows through the appropriate output channel. Chamber 58 is preferably designed so that a recirculating vortex 80 is established for insuring power stream lock-on to the chamber walls.

FIGURE 4 differs only slightly from FIGURE 3 in that a larger branching angle is taken by power stream output channels 68 and 70 from chamber opening 60. It will thus be observed that there can be a fairly wide latitude in the angle of the output channel from the opening of the chamber, with the obvious criterion only being the need for the power stream to navigate the bend into the output channel inlet so as to avoid collision with the ingressing power stream fluid.

Although several preferred embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, many modifioations thereto will occur to those skilled in the art without departure from the novel principles defined in the appended claims.

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:

1. A fluid amplifier device which comprises:

(a) a fluid power stream input channel which terminates at a first outlet orifice for issuing a power stream jet;

(b) a fluid stream reversing chamber positioned downstream from said first outlet orifice and partly defined by at least one pair of opposed side walls and which, at one end thereof facing said first outlet orifice, has an opening of suflicient extent for allowing the ingress thereto of all of the power stream fluid from said first outlet orifice simultaneously with the egress therefrom of power stream fluid, said chamber further having at the opposite end thereof a wall with a curvilinear unbroken contour for smoothly changing the direction of power stream fluid ingressing through said opening into said chamber along either side wall to a direction such that all of the power stream fluid egresses from said chamber along the other side wall through said opening in a direction having a directional component opposite to the di rection in which said fluid ingresses into said chamber;

(c) at least one pair of power stream output channels branching from said chamber opening one to either side of said power stream input channel such that each said output channel of said pair has an inlet generally facing said chamber opening in order to selectively receive all of the power stream fluid egressing from said chamber along a respectively different one of its said pair of side walls; and

(d) means for selectively causing the power stream jet from said first outlet orifice to ingress into said chamber along either one of its said pair of side walls so that all of said power stream flow egressing from said chamber is selectively directed into a selected one of said output channels.

2. A fluid amplifier device according to claim ll wherein the wall contour of said chamber has a design such that power stream flow therein in at least one direction generates fluid forces which in turn establish stable power stream lock-on to said chamber walls.

3). A fluid amplifier device according to claim ll wherein the wall contour of said chamber has a design such that power stream flow therein in at least one direction develops a fluid vortex in the center of said chamber which in turn recirculates in a manner to at least aid in the establishment of stable power stream lock-on to said chamber walls.

4. A fluid amplifier device according to claim ll wherein said chamber is generally circular in shape with said opening being of a size substantially less than the average diameter of said chamber.

5. A fluid amplifier device according to claim ll wherein said last mentioned means comprises at least one additional fluid channel for supplying fluid control pressure against a power stream jet issuing from said first outlet orifice.

6. A fluid amplifier device according to claim 1 wherein each of said pair of power stream output channels forms and acute angle junction with said power stream input channel.

7. A fluid amplifier device according to claim 1 wherein each of said pair of power stream output channels forms an angled junction with said power stream input channel which is no greater than ninety degrees.

8. A fluid amplifier device comprising:

(a) a fluid power stream input channel which terminates at a first outlet orifice for issuing a power stream jet;

(b) a fluid stream reversing chamber positioned downstream from said first outlet orifice and partly defined by at least one pair of opposed side walls and which, at one end thereof facing said first outlet orifice, has an opening of suflicient extent for allowing the ingress thereto of all of the power stream fluid from said first outlet orifice simultaneously with the egress therefrom of power stream fluid, said chamber further having at the opposite end thereof a wall with a curvilinear unbroken contour for smoothly changing the direction of power stream fluid ingressing through said opening into said chamber along either side wall to a direction such that all of the power stream fluid egresses from said chamber along the other side wall through said opening in a direction having a directional component opposite to the direction in which fluid ingresses into said chamber;

(c) at least one pair of power stream output channels branching from said chamber opening one to either side of said power stream input channel such that each said output channel of said pair has an inlet generally facing said chamber opening in order to selectively receive all of the power stream fluid egressing from said chamber along a respectively different one of its said pair of side walls; and

(d) at least one fluid control stream input channel terminating in a second outlet orifice which in turn is located between said first outlet orifice and the inlet of one of said pair of power stream output channels so as to selectively apply fluid control pressure against the power stream jet issuing from said first outlet orifice in order to selectively direct its ingress into said chamber along at least one of said pair of chamber side walls so that all of said power stream flow egressing from said chamber is selectively directed into a selected one of said output channels.

9. A fluid amplifier device according to claim 8 wherein the wall contour of said chamber has a design such that power stream flow therein in at least one direction generates fluid forces which in turn establish stable power stream lock-on to said chamber walls.

it A fluid amplifier device according to claim 8 wherein the wall contour of said chamber has a design such that power stream flow therein in at least one direction develops a fluid vortex in the center of said chamber which in turn recirculates in a manner to at least aid in the establishment of stable power stream lock-on to said chamber walls.

11. A fluid amplifier device according to claim 8 wherein said chamber is generally circular in shape with said opening being of a size substantially less than the average diameter of said chamber.

12. A fluid amplifier device according to claim 8 which further includes another fluid control stream input channel terminating in a third outlet orifice which in turn is located between said first outlet orifice and the inlet of the other of said pair of power streamoutput channels so as to apply fluid control pressure against a power stream jet issuing from said first outlet orifice in order to selectively direct its ingress into said chamber along at least the opposite one of said pair of chamber side walls. I j

13. A fluid amplifier device comprising:

(a) a fluid power stream input channel which terminates at a first outlet orifice for issuing a power stream jet;

(b) a fluid stream reversing chamber positioned downstream from said first outlet orifice and partly defined by at least one pair of opposed side walls and which, at one end thereof facing said first outlet orifice, has an opening of sufficient extent for allowing the ingress thereto of all of the power stream fluid from said first outlet orifice simultaneously with the egress therefrom of power stream fluid, said chamber further having at the opposite end thereof a wall with a curvilinear unbroken contour for smoothly changing the direction of power stream fluid ingressing through said opening into said chamber along either side wall to a direction such that all of the power stream fluid egress from said chamber along the other side wall through said opening in a direction having a directional component opposite to the direction in which fluid ingresses into said chamber.

(c) at least one pair of power stream output channels branching from said chamber opening one to either side of said power stream input channel such that each said output channel of said pair has an inlet generally facing said chamber opening in order to selectively receive all of the power stream fluid egressing from said chamber along a respectively different one of its said pair of side walls; and

(d) at least one fluid control stream input channel terminating in a second outlet orifice which in turn is located exterior to said chamber to one side of said chamber opening so as to selectively apply fluid control pressure against the power stream jet issuing from said first outlet orifice in order to selectively direct its ingress into said chamber along at least one of said pair of chamber side -walls so that all of said power stream flow egressing from said chamber is selectively directed into a selected one of said output channels.

14. A fluid amplifier according to claim 13 wherein the wall contour of said chamber has a design such that power stream flow therein in at least one direction generates fluid forces which in turn establish stable power stream lock-on to said chamber walls.

15. A fluid amplifier according to claim 13 wherein the wall contour of said chamber has a design such that power stream flow therein in at least one direction develops a fluid vortex in the center of said chamber which in turn recirculates in a manner to at least aid in the establishment of stable power stream lock-on to said chamber walls.

16. A fluid amplifier according to claim 13 wherein said chamber is generally circular in shape with said opening being of a size substantially less than the average diameter of said chamber.

17. A fluid amplifier device according to claim 13 which further includes another fluid control stream input channel terminating in a third outlet orifice which in turn is located exterior to said chamber to the opposite side of said chamber opening so as to selectively apply fluid pressure against the power stream jet issuing from said first outlet orifice in order to selectively direct its ingress into said chamber along at least the opposite one of said pair of chamber side Walls.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,65 8,797 2/ 1928 Charette et a1. 3,159,168 12/1964 Reader 13781.5 3,181,546 5/1965 Boothe 137-81.5

M. CARY NELSON, Primary Examiner.

S. SCOTT, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1658797 *Aug 11, 1927Feb 14, 1928Charette Jean BVacuum-producing apparatus
US3159168 *Feb 16, 1962Dec 1, 1964Sperry Rand CorpPneumatic clock
US3181546 *Nov 8, 1962May 4, 1965Gen ElectricFluid control devices
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3638671 *Dec 5, 1968Feb 1, 1972Garrett CorpElectrofluidic transducer
US4184636 *Dec 9, 1977Jan 22, 1980Peter BauerFluidic oscillator and spray-forming output chamber
US5035361 *Oct 19, 1978Jul 30, 1991Bowles Fluidics CorporationFluid dispersal device and method
USRE33448 *Jan 22, 1981Nov 20, 1990 Fluidic oscillator and spray-forming output chamber
USRE33605 *Jan 25, 1982Jun 4, 1991 Fluidic oscillator and spray-forming output chamber
WO1979000361A1 *Dec 7, 1978Jun 28, 1979P BauerImproved fluidic oscillator and spray-forming output chamber
Classifications
U.S. Classification137/811
International ClassificationF15C1/16, F15C1/00
Cooperative ClassificationF15C1/16
European ClassificationF15C1/16