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Publication numberUS3260046 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 12, 1966
Filing dateSep 9, 1963
Publication numberUS 3260046 A, US 3260046A, US-A-3260046, US3260046 A, US3260046A
InventorsConstantine A. Serriades
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Jet engine
US 3260046 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 12, 1966 c. A. SERRIADES JET ENGINE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 9, 1963 H3 HI I21 Illa INVENTOR. CONSTANTIN E A. SERRIADES ATTO RNEYS United States Patent 3,260,046 JET ENGINE Constantine A. Serriades, 3950 N. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Ill. Filed Sept. 9, 1963, Ser. No. 307,471 Claims. (Cl. 60-35.6)

This invention generally relates to a jet engine and more particularly relates to .an improved high altitude supersonic engine.

Present jet engines are plagued with many problems which prevent them from operating efliciently at high altitutes. The engines have inadequate cooling and means that are inadequate to supply sufficient compressed air for efiicient operation of the jet engine. The present invention provides a jet engine having a pluarity of tandem compressors, cooperating with a turbine and afterburners to supply the propulsion forces for the jet engine. Also, the jet engine of the present invention has means for cooling the turbine as well as the afterburners.

Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved jet engine.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a jet engine utilizing at least one pair of tandem compressors.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a jet engine having a turbine and annular baifie means, forming a combustion chamber for the turbine, spaced from the walls of the turbine and means to supply a coolant between the walls of the baffie and the walls of the turbine to cool the turbine and the gases fiowing into the turbine.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an improved jet engine having at least one tandem compressor delivering compressed air to at least one afterburner.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a jet engine having a second-stage tandem radial compressor in the forward portion of the jet engine, a secondstage tandem radial compressor in the rear portion of the jet engine, and first-stage compressors and turbine in the central portion of the jet engine between the forward and rear second-stage tandem compressors.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a tandem radial compressor having inlets at both ends of each compressor in the tandem relationship and a central outlet in each compressor between the inlets.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an improved jet engine utilizing tandem radial compressors having four end inlets, and two top central outlets.

Other features and objects of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art after a careful consideration of the following detailed description when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein like reference numerals and characters refer to like and corresponding parts throughout the several views.

On the drawings:

FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal cross-sectional View with parts in elevation of a jet engine constructed in accordance to the principles of the present invention;

FIGURE 2 is an enlarged longitudinal cross-sectional view-with parts in elevation of a tandem compressor constructed in accordance to the principles of the present invention;

' ing an air intake for the jet engine.

3,260,046 Patented July 12, 1966 FIGURE 3 is a transverse cross-sectional view with parts in elevation taken along the lines IIIIII of FIG- URE 1; and

FIGURE 4 is an enlarged partial longitudinal crosssectional view with parts in elevation of a turbine combustion chamber constructed in accordance to the principles of the present invention.

As shown on the drawings:

The jet engine of the present invention has cylindrical outer shell with forward and rear portions. The front portion of the jet engine has spider supports to provide an intake for air and midway along the jet engine there is provided intake scoop means for air. The air is directed to a secondary pair of axially spaced first-stage compressors. From one of the first-stage compressors, compressed air is directed into a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward tandem radial compressors and from the other first-stage compressor, compressed air is directed into a plurality of circumferentially spaced rear tandem radial compressors. The forward second-stage tandem compressors deliver compressed air to a central combustion chamber from both axial ends thereof. The combustion chamber is spaced from a turbine, positioned adjacent the combustion chamber to receive gas therefrom, by a pair of annular bafiles extending from a perforated cylindrical passage means.

Fuel and compressed air are mixed in the combustion chamber and ignited. The ignited gases are expanded to rotate the contrarotating turbine blades. The gases exhausted from the turbine are directed through exhaust nozzles to the atmosphere to provide part of the propulsion forces for the jet engine. The rotor blades of the first-stage compressors are connected to the turbine as are a plurality of shafts which are utilized to rotate the forward and rear second-stage compressors. The rear tandem compressors direct compressed air to a plurality of circumferentially spaced afterburners. The compressed air is mixed with fuel in the afterburners and ignited to provide a part of the propulsion forces for the jet engine. Fuel, liquid coolant, and compressed air pipes concentrically extend along the axial center of the jet engine. The fuel and coolant pipes have a first group of branch pipes extending therefrom to direct water between the bafile walls and the turbine walls and to supply fuel to the combustion chamber, and a second group of branch pipes to direct water to cool the afterburners and fuel into the afterburners to be ignited therein.

The jet engine of the present invention provides an improved jet engine which has efficient operating conditions and may be effectively utilized at high altitudes. The jet engine provides means for adequately compress ing atmospheric air as well as providing auxiliary cool ing means for the jet engine and the afterburners thereof. My invention substantially reduces the hazard caused by extreme heat generated in jet engines which cause parts in the engines to prematurely rupture.

Referring to FIGURE 1, there is illustrated a jet engine 11 constructed in accordance to the principles of the present invention. The jet engine 11 has a generally cylindrical shell 12 having at its forward end a plurality of radially inwardly extending spider supports 13 form- The rear portion of the shell has a circular support plate 14 connected to the inner circumference thereof.

A plurality of circumferentially spaced afterburners conduits 34 extending therefrom connected to a forward portion of the conduit 16 to deliver compressed air along the conduit 16 towards the rear of the jet engine (FIG- URE l). The conduits 108 interconnecting the outlets 31 have conduit 79 connected thereto which connects to the conduit 16 adjacent a deflector 81 that direct compressed air along the conduit 16 towards the front portion thereof.

The conduits 108 (FIGURE 3) interconnecting the outlets 74 and 76 of adjacent tandem compressors are interconnected by a conduit 94 leading to an afterburner 84 through a throat 96 (FIGURE 1) Therefore, a jet engine utilizing six rear tandem compressors 68 with adjacent pairs of the rear tandem compressors having their outlets interconnected by a conduit that feeds into an afterburner, would require only three afterburners.

It is of course understood that more or less tandem compressors may be utilized as well as more or less afterburners may be utilized. Also, the ratio of rear tandem compressors to afte rburners may be increased or decreased depending upon what is desired. For example, there may be an afterburner for every rear tandem compressor or even two afterburners for every tandem compressor. The number of afterburners and compressors being dependent upon the use of the jet engine. However, at least two forward tandem compressors and at least two rear tandem compressors appears to be preferable for the jet engine of the present invention.

Referring to FIGURE 2 there is illustrated a forward tandem compressor 23 constructed in accordance to the principles of the present invention. It is of course, understood that the rear tandem compressor 6-8 is identical to the forward tandem compressor 23 and is constructed in a similar manner. Therefore, although the description of FIGURE 2 will refer to the tandem compressor 23 it is also meant to describe the tandem compressors 68. The tandem compressor 23 has first and second radial compressors 24 and 26 interconnected by a cylindrical housing 109. The shaft 25 extends through both compressors with one end being journaled thereto and the other end extending through the compressor and having fixed thereto a gear wheel 33. The shaft is rotatably connected to the tandem compressor by suitable bearings 110.

Attached to the shaft 25 adjacent each end of the compressor 26 is a rotor radial compressor impeller blade 111 and adjacent each end of the compressor 24 a rotor radial compressor impeller blade 112. The impellers 111 and 112 have vanes 1-13, 114 respectively connected thereto. The vanes direct air from the inlets 27 and 28 to a plurality of stationary diffuser members 117 fixed at one end to the interior compressor housing and at its other end forming a suitable journal with the shaft by bearing means 118 each of the diffusers 117 has a radially extending wall 137 facing an axially inwardly facing side 111a of its corresponding impeller 111 and a peripheral wall 138 extending from the periphery of the radially extending Wall 137 axially and radially inwardly with respect to the shaft 33 to provide one surface of a diffuser section 139. Therefore, there is an impeller-diffuser compressor set adjacent each inlet in the tandem compressor. Between the two diffusers 117 is attached to the shaft a central double entry centrifugal impeller 1 19. The impeller has on each side face thereof vanes 121 to receive air from the diffusers and direct the air radially outwardly into a central annular passage 122 which communicates with the compressor outlets '29 and 31. A hollow substantially cylindrical unitary sheet form structure v133 completely surrounds the shaft 33, the impellers 111 and 119, and the diffuser 117, and extends axially substantially the length of the said shaft. The sheet form structure 133 comprises a pair of inlet portions 28a which are situated respectively axially outwardly of the single entry impellers 1 11 to provide air inlets 28 thereto, and which slope respectively axially and radially inwardly toward their corresponding single entry impellers 1 11. The structure :133 is further characterized as comprising a pair of first portions which extend axially inwardly from the inlet portions 28a, respectively, and which then slope axially inwardly and radially outwardly and then axially and radially inwardly to surround their respective impellers 111 and their corresponding diffusers 117, and to form with the peripheral walls 138 of the diffusers 1 17 a pair of diffuser sections 139 for receiving the air from the impellers 111. The structure 133 further comprises a pair of second portions 136 which extend axially inwardly from the first portions 135, respectively, and which slope axially inwardly and radially outwardly to join each other in spaced surround ing relation about said double entry impeller 1-19.

In this manner air is brought into both tends of the radial compressors 24 and 26, compressed, and exited through a top central outlet.

Referring to FIGURE 4 there is illustrated a portion of the turbine 40 of the present invention. As is illustrated, the turbine 40 has an entrance adjacent to the exit of the combustion chamber 106 which is formed by the baffles 103 and 104. The cooling fluid, water or any other suitable cooling fluid, is delivered to the pipe 17. The water flows along the pipe 17 from the front end of the jet engine towards the rear end. The pipe 17 has a first set of a plurality of branch conduits 123 and 126 extending therefrom and through openings 124 and 127 formed in the conduit 16. The branch pipes 123 and 126 deliver coolant fluid to the area between the baffles and the tu-rbine rotor walls 101 and 102. The water injected between the combustion chamber walls and the walls of the turbine insulate and protect the turbine walls from the heat generated in the combustion chamber. The water vaporizes and mixes with the combustion gases to lower the temperature of the combustion gases and then passes through the turbine blades.

The fuel conduit 18 is interconnected with the fuel nozzles 20 by a plurality of branch pipes (not shown) in order to deliver fuel to the combustion chamber 106.

A second set of branch pipes 92 connect the water pipe 17 to the afterburners hollow shell to supply water coolant thereto and a second set of branch pipes 93 are connected to the fuel pipe 18 to deliver fuel to the afterburner nozzles 89.

The auxiliary compressed air annular tanks 48 and 63 are utilized to store compressed air for starting the jet engine. The annular tank 48 has a conduit 128 connecting the interior of the tank to the conduits 34 to supply compressed air thereto and to the combustion chamber 106. The tank 63 has a plurality of conduits 129 connected to the conduits 79 to supply compressed air thereto and to the combustion chamber 106. The conduits 128 and-129 have valve means (not shown) that are controlled by a remote control signal to open and close the valves as desired to start the engine. Also, the compressed air tanks 48 and 63 have a plurality of inlets 131 and 132 respectively which are connected to a high pressure auxiliary compression (not shown). It is of course understood that the inlets 131 and 132 are provided with valve means (not shown) that automatically closes the inlets once the desired pressure in the tanks 48 and 63 is obtained.

In ope-ration, atmospheric air is drawn through the spider supports 13 and the scoops 97 and delivered to the first-stage compressors 45 and 59. The first-stage compressed air is directed to a plurality of forward tandem The rear and front flow of compressed air meet and are radially directed into a combustion chamber where they are mixed with fuel and ignited. The combustion chamber is cooled by water flowing between the combustion chamber and turbine walls. The ignited fuel and compressed air is combined with vaporized water and directed into the contrarotating turbine blades 46 and 58 and exited through exhaust nozzles to give propulsion to the jet engine. Meanwhile, the rear tandem radial flow compressors 68 supply compressed air to a plurality of after burners 84 which are regeneratively cooled by a cooling liquid such as water. The compressed air is mixed with fuel in the afterburners and ignited therein. The gases are exhausted through the afterburners to provide propulsion for the jet engine.

Therefore, it is seen where I have provided an improved jet engine which will provide supersonic air craft with a superior operating engine especially at high altitude where it is desirous to have a high degree of compression where the atmospheric air content is sparse.

It will be understood that the above embodiment of my invention has been used for illustrative purposes only and that other modifications and variations in the present invention may be effected without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the herein appended claims.

I claim as my invention:

1. A jet engine comprising:

a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end,

said jet engine body having mounted therein a plurality of circumferentially spaced afterburners having their nozzle exhaust extending beyond the rear end of the jet engine body,

said afterburners having hollow shell bodies,

a compressed air conduit means extending from the forward end of the jet engine body towards the rear end,

said compressed air conduit being mounted along the axial centerline of the jet engine body,

an enlarged housing portion on said compressed air conduit being approximately at the center of the jet engine body,

said enlarged housing portion having a plurality of compressed air apertures therein and a plurality of fuel nozzle apertures therein,

a water conduit being concentric with the compressed air conduit and extending therethrough for substantially the length of the jet engine,

a fuel conduit being concentric with the compressed air conduit and extending through the water conduit and extending substantially the length of the jet engine,

a turbine radially outwardly spaced from the enlarged central housing,

said turbine having contrarotating turbine blades connected to a pair of contrarotating turbine rotors,

one of the contrarotating turbine rotors being rotatably connected adjacent the forward end of the enlarged housing and the other contrarotating turbine rotor being rotatably connected adjacent the rear end of the enlarged housing,

said contrarotating turbine rotors being rotatable about said compressed air conduit and having axially extending turbine blades connected there- [0,

two spaced circular baffles extending from the compressed air conduit to form an annular turbine combustion chamber therebetween above the compressed air and fuel apertures in the enlarged housing,

said turbine combustion chamber leading into the turbine,

a first plurality of branch water pipes connected to the water conduit and being mounted to spray water in the spaces between the battles and the walls of the turbine rotors,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor rotor blades connected to the one turbine rotor to rotate therewith,

a forward annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the one rotor,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor stator blades connected to said forward compressed air tank to cooperate with the forward first-stage compressor rotor blades,

rear first-stage axially extending compressor rotor blades connected to the other turbine rotor to rotate therewith,

a rear annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the other rotor,

rear first-stage axially extending compressor stator blades connected to said rear compressed air tank to cooperate with the rear first-stage compress-or rotor blades,

said compressed air conduit being connected to the compressed air apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver compressed air therethrough and into the turbine combustion chamber,

first fuel conduit means for communicating the fuel conduit with the fuel apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the turbine combustion chamber,

second water pipe means connected to the water conduit and the afterburners to deliver water to the hollow afterburner shells,

second fuel pipe means connected to the fuel conduit and the afterburners to deliver fuel to the afterburners,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward tandem compressors,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced rear tandem compressors,

each of said forward and rear tandem compressors having a first and second interconnected radial compressor having a common rotor shaft extending therethrough,

said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet,

each of said first and second compressors having an impeller-diffuser set adjacent each inlet to compress air entering the inlets and direct air towards the center of the first and second compressors,

a central centrifugal impeller located in the center of both the first and second compressors,

each centrifugal impeller having directing vanes on each side thereof to receive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and second compressors,

first and second pipe means respectively interconnecting the outlets of the first and second compressors of two adjacent forward and rear tandem compressors,

first delivery pipe means connecting the first pipes of the forward tandem compressors with the compressed air conduit at a point before the enlarged housing to flow compressed air towards the rear of the jet engine and towards the enlarged housing,

second delivery pipe means connecting the second pipes of the forward tandem compressors with the compressed air conduit at a predetermined distance beyond the enlarged housing to flow compressed air towards the forward end of the jet engine and towards the enlarged housing,

third delivery pipe means connecting the first and second pipes of the rear tandem compressors to the afterburners to deliver compressed air thereto,

a forward and rear centrifugal type impeller vane connected respectively to the forward and rear turbine rotors to receive compressed air from the forward and rear first-stage compressors,

, a manifold hood means connected to each forward and rear tandem compressors to deliver air to the end inlets of the first and second compressors thereof,

forward and rear conduit means connected to the forward and rear centrifugal type impeller and the forward and rear compressor manifold hoods to deliver compressed air from the first stage compressors to the tandom compressors,

gear wheel means connected to the turbine to rotate therewith the rotor shaft .of the forward and rear tandem compressors,

means connected to the forward and rear auxiliary compressor tanks to deliver pressurized air stored in the tanks to the compressed air conduit in response to a signal received,

means connected to the forward and rear auxiliary compressor tanks to refill the tanks with pressurized air after the jet engine is started, and

conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine.

2. A jet engine comprising: a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end,

said jet engine body having mounted therein a plurality of circumferentially spaced after burners mounted at the rear end of the jet engine body,

said afterburners having hollow shell bodies,

a compressed air conduit means extending from the forward end of the jet engine body towards the rear end,

said compressed air conduit being mounted along the axial centerl-ine of the jet engine body,

an enlarged housing portion on said compressed air conduit being approximately at the center of the jet engine body,

said enlarged housing portion having a plurality of compressed air apertures therein and a plurality of fuel nozzle apertures therein,

a water conduit being concentric with the compressed air conduit and extending therethrough for substantially the length of the jet engine,

a fuel conduit being concentric with the compressed air conduit and extending through the water conduit and extending substantially the length of the jet engine, a

a turbine radially outwardly spaced from the enlarged central housing,

said turbine having contrarotating turbine blades rotating about the axis of the jet engine,

two spaced circular baffles extending from the enlarged housing to form an annular turbine combustion chamber therebetween above the enlarged housing compressed air and fuel apertures,

said turbine combustion chamber leading into the turbine,

a first plurality of branch Water pipes connected to the water conduit and being mounted to spray water in the spaces between the bafiies and the walls of the turbine,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor blades connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

a forward annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the turbine,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor stator blades connected to said forward compressed air tank to cooperate with the forward first-stage compressor rotor blades,

rear first-stage axially extending compressor rotor blades connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

a rear annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the turbine,

rear first-stage axially extending compressor stator blades connected to said rear compressed air tank to cooperate with the rear first-stage compressor rotor blades,

said compressed air conduit being connected to the compressed air apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver compressed air therethrough and into the turbine combustion chamber,

first fuel conduit means for communicating the fuel conduit with the fuel apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the turbine combustion chamber,

second water pipe means connected to the water conduit and the afterburners to deliver water to the hollow afterburner shells,

second fuel pipe means connected to the fuel conduit and the afterburners to deliver fuel to the afterburners,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward tandem compressors,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced rear tandem compressors,

each of said forward and rear tandem compressors having a first and second interconnected radial compressor having a common rotor shaft extending therethrough,

said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet,

each of said first and second compressors having an impeller-diffuser set adjacent each inlet to compress air entering the inlets and direct air towards the center of the first and second compressors,

a central centrifugal impeller located in the center of both the first and second compressors,

each centrifugal impeller having directing vanes on each side thereof to receive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and sec-0nd compressors,

first delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the first compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the compressed air conduit at a point before the enlarged housing to flow compressed air towards the rear of the jet engine and towards the enlarged housing,

second delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the second compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the compressed air conduit at a predetermined distance beyond the enlarged housing to How compressed air towards the forward end of the jet engine and towards the enlarged housing,

third delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the rear tandem compressors to the afterburners to deliver compressed air thereto,

a forward and rear centrifugal type impeller vane connected to the turbine to receive compressed air from the forward and rear first-stage compressors,

a manifold hood means connected to each forward and rear tandem compressors and to the forward and rear centrifugal-type turbine impellers to deliver first-stage compressed air to the end inlets of the first and second compressors thereof,

means connected to the turbine to rotate the rotor shaft of the forward and rear tandem compressors, and conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine.

3. A jet engine comprising:

a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end,

said jet engine body having mounted therein a plurality of circumferentially spaced afterburners mounted at the rear end of the jet engine body,

a compressed air conduit means extending from the forward end of the jet engine body towards the rear end,

said compressed air conduit being mounted along the axial centerline of the jet engine body,

an enlarged housing portion on said compressed air conduit being approximately at the center of the jet engine body,

said enlarged housing portion having a plurality of compressed air apertures therein and a plurality of fuel nozzle apertures therein,

a water conduit being concentric with the compressed air conduit and extending therethrough for substantially the length of the jet engine,

a fuel conduit being concentric with the compressed air conduit and extending through the water conduit and extending substantially the length of the jet engine,

a turbine radially outwardly spaced from the enlarged central housing,

said turbine having contrarotating turbine blades rotating about the axis of the jet engine,

two spaced circular baffles extending from the enlarged housing to form an annular turbine combustion chamber therebetween above the enlarged housing compressed air and fuel apertures,

said turbine combustion chamber leading into the turbine,

.a first plurality of branch water pipes connected to the water conduit and being mounted to spray water in the spaces between the bafiles and the walls of the turbine,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor rotor blades connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

a forward annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the turbine,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor stator blades connected to said forward compressed air tank to cooperate with the forward first-stage compressor rotor blades,

rear first-stage axially extending compressor rotor blades connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

a rear annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the turbine,

rear first-stage axially extending compressor stator blades connected to said rear compressed air tank to cooperate with the rear first-stage compressor rotor blades,

said compressed air conduit being connected to the compressed air apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver compressed air therethrough and into the turbine combustion chamber,

first fuel conduit means for communicating the fuel conduit with the fuel apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the turbine combustion chamber,

second water pipe means connected to the water conduit and the afterburners to deliver water to cool the afterburners,

second fuel pipe means connected to the fuel conduit and the afterburners to deliver fuel to the afterburners,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward tandem compressors,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced rear tandem compressors,

each of said forward and rear tandem compressors having a first and second interconnected radial compressor having a common rotor shaft extending therethrough,

said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet,

each of said first and second compressors having an impeller-diffuser set adjacent each inlet to compress air entering the inlets and direct air towards the center of the first and second compressors,

a central centrifugal impeller located in the center of both the first and second compressors,

each centrifugal impeller having directing vanes on each side thereof to receive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and second compressors,

first delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the first compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the compressed air conduit at a point before the enlarged housing to fiow compressed air towards the rear of the jet engine and towards the enlarged housing, I

second delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the second compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the compressed iair conduit at a predetermined distance beyond the enlarged housing to flow compressed air towards the forward end of the jet engine and towards the enlarged housing,

third delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the rear tandem compressors to the afterburners to deliver compressed air thereto,

a forward and rear centrifugal type impeller vane connected to the turbine to receive compressed air from the forward and rear first-stage compressors,

a manifold means connected to each forward and rear tandem compressors and to the forward and rear centrifugal type turbine impellers to deliver first-stage compressed air to the end inlets of the first and second compressors thereof,

gear means connected to the turbine to rotate the rotor shaft of the forward and rear tandem compressors, and

13 conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine. 4. A jet engine comprising: a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end, said jet engine body having mounted therein a plurality of circumferentially spaced afterburners mounted at the rear end of the jet engine body,

an enlarged housing being mounted approximately at the center of the jet engine body,

said enlarged housing having a plurality of compressed air apertures therein and a plurality of fuel nozzle apertures therein,

a water conduit extending for substantially the length of the jet engine,

a fuel conduit being concentric with the water conduit and extending through the water conduit for substantially the length of the jet engine,

a turbine radially outwardly spaced from the enlarged central housing,

said turbine having contrarotating turbine blades rotating about the axis of the jet engine,

two spaced circular bafiles extending from the enlarged housing to form an annular turbine combustion chamber therebetween above the enlarged housing compressed air and fuel apertures,

said turbine combustion chamber leading into the turbine.

a first plurality of branch water pipes connected to the water conduit and being mounted to spray water in the spaces between the baflles and the walls of the turbine,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor rotor blades connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

a forward annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the turbine,

forward first-stage axially extending compressor stator blades connected to said forward compressedair tank to cooperate with the forward first-stage compressor rotor blades,

-, rear first-stage axially. extending compressor rotor blades connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

a rear annular auxiliary compressed air tank mounted adjacent the turbine,

rear first-stage axiallyextending compressor stator blades connected to said rear compressed air tank to cooperate with the rear first stage compressor rotor blades,

means connected to the compressed air apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver compressed ,air therethrough'and into the turbine combustion chamber,

first fuel conduit means for communicating the fuel conduit with the fuel apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the turbine combustion chamber,

second water pipe means connected to the water conduit and the afterburners to deliver water to cool the afterburners,

second fuel pipe means connected to the fuel conduit and the afterburners to deliver fuel to the afterburners,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward tandem compressors,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced rear tandem compressors,

each of said forward and rear tandem compres sors having a first and second interconnected radial compressor having a common rotor shaft extending therethrough,

said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet,

each of said first and second compressors having an impeller-diffuser set adjacent each inlet to compress air entering the inlets and direct air towards the center of the first and second compressors,

a central centrifugal impeller located in the center of both the first and second compressors,

each centrifugal impeller having directing vanes on each side thereof to receive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and second compressors,

first and second pipe means respectively interconnecting the outlets of the first and second compressors of two adjacent forward and rear tandem compressors,

first delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the first compressors of the forward tandem compressors with one end of the enlarged hous- 111g,

second delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the second compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the other end of the enlarged housing,

third delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the rear tandem compressors to the afterburners to deliver compressed air thereto,

a forward and rear centrifugal type impeller vane connected to the turbine to receive compressed air from the forward and rear first-stage compressors,

a manifold means connected to each forward and rear tandem compressors and to the forward and rear centrifugal-type turgine impellers to deliver first stage compressed air to the end inlets of the first and second compressors thereof,

means connected to the turbine to rotate the rotor shaft of the forward and rear tandem compressors, and

conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine.

5. A jet engine comprising: a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end,

said jet engine body having mounted therein said turbine combustion chamber leading into the turbine, a first plurality of branch coolant pipes connected to the coolant conduit and being mounted to 15 inject coolant between the bafiles and the walls of the turbine, a forward first-stage compressor connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

l6 burners mounted at the rear end of the jet engine body, an enlarged housing being approximately at the center of the jet engine body,

a forward annular auxiliary compressed air tank said enlarged housing having a plurality of commounted adjacent the turbine, pressed air apertures therein and a plurality of a rear first-stage compressor connected to the turfuel nozzle apertures therein,

bine to rotate therewith, a water conduit, a rear annular auxiliary compressed air tank a fuel conduit,

mounted adjacent the turbine, 10 a turbine radially outwardly spaced from the enmeans to deliver compressed air into the turbine larged central housing,

combustion chamber, said turbine having contrarotating turbine blades first fuel pipe means for communicating the fuel rotating about the axis of the jet engine, spaced conduit with the fuel apertures in the enlarged circular bafiles extending from the enlarged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the housing to \form an annular turbine combustion turbine combustion chamber, chamber therebetween above the enlarged houssecond coolant pipe means connected to the cooling compressed air and fuel apertures,

ant conduit and the afterburners to deliver coolsaid turbine combustion chamber leading into the ant to the afterburners, turbine, second fuel pipe means connected to the fuel a first plurality of branch water pipes connected conduit and the afterburners to deliver fuel to the water conduit and being mounted to spray to the afterburners, Water in the spaces between the bafiles and the a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward walls of the turbine,

tendem compressors, forward first-stage axially extending compressor a plurality of circumferentially spaced rear tandem 2 rotor blades connected to the turbine to rotate compressors, therewith, each of said forward and rear tandem compressors a forward annular auxiliary compressed air tank having mounted adjacent the turbine,

a first and second interconnected compressor forward first-stage axially extending compressor having a common rotor shaft x ng stator blades connected to said forward comtherethrough, pressed air tank to cooperate with the forward said first and second compressors each having first-stage compressor rotor blades,

a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet rear first-stage axially extending compressor rotor and a central outlet, and blades connected to the turbine to rotate theremeans to receive compressed air from both with,

ends of each of the first and second a rear annular auxiliary compressed air tank compressors and impel the compressed air mounted adjacent the tunbine, upwards towards the central outlets of the rear first-stage axially extending compressor stator first and second compressors, blades connected to said rear compressed air first delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of tank to cooperate With the rear first-stage comfirst compressors of the forward tandem compressor rot blad pressors With One end of the enlarged housing means connected to the compressed air apertures to fiow compressed air towards the rear of the i th enlarged housing to deliver compressed l engine into the enlarged housing, air therethrough and into the turbine combussecond delivery pipe means connecting the outlets i h b of the Second Compressors 0f the forward first rfuel conduit means for communicating the dem Compressors With the other end of the fuel conduit with the fuel apertures in the enehlarged housing to flow compressed air towards larged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the forward end of the jet engine into the enh bi combustion h b larged P 5 second water pipe means connected to the water thud dehvery plpe means connecting the outlets conduit and the afterburners to deliver water of the rear tanden compressors to the afterburners to deliver compressed air thereto, to (:1Oo1t1he-afterbumem d h f 1 a forward and rear centrifugal-type impeller vane sec-01% fue P1P e means connecte i t e ue connected to the turbine to receive compressed duit and the afterburners to deliver fuel to the air from the forward and rear first-stage comafterblimers pressors a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward a manifold means connected to each forward and tandem compressom rear tandem compressors and to the forward and a plurality of circumferentially Spaced rear rear centrifugal-type turbine impellers to dedem Compressors, liver first-stage compressed air to the forward each of said forward and rear tandem compressors and rear end inlets of the first and second comhaving pressors thereof, a first and second interconnected radial c0m means connected to the turbine to rotate the rotor pressor having a common rotor shaft exshaft of the forward and rear tandem comtending therethrough pressors, and

conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine.

said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet,

each of said first and second compressors having an impeller-diffuser set adjacent each inlet to compress air entering the inlets and direct air towards the center of the first and second compressors,

a central centrifugal impeller located in the 6. A jet engine comprising: a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end, said jet engine body having mounted therein a plurality of circumferentially spaced aftercenter of both the first and second compressors,

each centrifugal impeller having directing vanes on each side thereof to receive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and second compressors,

first delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the first compressors of the forward tandem compressors with one end of the enlarged housing to fi'ow compressed air towards the rear of the jet engine towards the enlarged housing,

second delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the second compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the other end of the enlarged housing to flow compressed air towards the forward end of the jet engine towards the enlarged housing,

third delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the rear tandem compressors to the after- .burners to deliver compressed air thereto,

a forward and rear centrifugal type impeller vane connected to the turbine to receive compressed air from the forward and rear first-stage compressors,

a manifold hood means connected to each forward and rear tandem compressors and to the forward and rear centrifugal-type turbine impellers to deliver first stage compressed air to the end inlets to the first and second compressors thereof,

means connected to the turbine to rotate the rotor shaft of the forward and rear tandem compressors, and

conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine.

7. A jet engine comprising: i

a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end,

said jet engine body having mounted therein a plurality of circumferentially spaced afterburners mounted at the rear end of the engine body.

said enlarged housing portion having a plurality of compressed air apertures therein and a plurality of fuel nozzle apertures therein,

a coolant conduit,

a turbine radially outwardly spaced from the enlarged housing,

said turbine having contrarotating turbine blades,

said turbine forming an annular turbine combustion turbine chamber above the compressed air and fuel apertures in the enlarged housing leading into the turbine,

a first plurality of branch coolant pipes connected to the coolant conduit and being mounted to spray coolant along the walls of the turbine forming the turbine combustion chamber,

a forward first-stage compressor connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

a rear first stage compressor connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

means to deliver compressed air into the turbine combustion chamber from the enlarged housfirst fuel pipe means communicating the fuel conduit with the fuel apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the turbine combustion chamber,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced forward tandem compressors,

a plurality of circumferentially spaced rear tandem compressors,

each of said forward and rear tandem compressors having a first and second innterconnected compressor, said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet, and means to receive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and second compressors,

first delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the first compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the enlarged housing,

second delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the second compressors of the forward tandem compressors with the enlarged housing,

third delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the rear tandem compressors to the afterburners to deliver compressed air thereto,

a forward and rear centrifugal-type impeller vane connected to the turbine to receive compressed air from the forward and rear first-stage compressors,

a manifold means connected to each forward and rear tandem compressors to deliver first-stage compressed air to the forward and rear end inlets of the first and second compressors thereof,

means connected to the turbine to rotate therewith a rotor for the forward and rear tandem compressors, and conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine.

8. A jet engine comprising:

a jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end,

said jet engine body having mounted therein a turbine,

said turbine, having axially extending contrarotating turbine blades rotating about the axis of the jet engine,

said turbine forming an annular turbine combustion chamber leading into the turbine,

coolant pipes being mounted to spray coolant along the walls of the turbine forming the turbine combustion chamber,

a first-stage compressor connected to the turbine to rotate therewith,

means to deliver compressed air into the turbine combustion chamber,

first fuel pipe means to deliver fuel into the turbine combustion chamber,

a plurality of spaced tandem compressors, each of said tandem compressors having a first and second interconnected compressor,

said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet, and

means to receive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and second compressors,

first delivery pipe means connecting the first compressor outlets to flow compressed air towards the rear of the jet engine and into the turbine compressed air delivery means,

second delivery pipe means connecting the second compressor outlets to flow compressed air towards the forward end of the jet engine and into the turbine compressed air delivery means,

means connected to the tandem compressors to deliver air from the first-stage compressor to the end inlets of the first and second compressors thereof, means connected to the turbine to rotate the tandem compressor rotor shaft therewith, and conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzle to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine. 9. A jet engine comprising:

jet engine body formed by a shell having a forward and a rear end, said jet engine body having mounted therein a plurality of ciroumferentially spaced afterburners mounted at the rear end of the jet engine body, an enlarged housing, said enlarged housing portion having a plurality of compressed air apertures therein and a plurality of fuel nozzle apertures therein, a coolant conduit, a turbine radially outwardly spaced from the enlarged housing, said turbine having contrarotating turbine blades, said turbine forming an annular turbine combustion chamber above the compressed air and fuel apertures in the enlarged housing leading into the turbine, first coolant pipes connected to the coolant conduit and being mounted to spray coolant along the walls of the turbine forming the turbine combustion chamher, a first-stage compressor connected to the turbine to rotate therewith, enlarged housing means to deliver compressed air into the turbine combustion chamber, first fuel pipe means communicating the fuel conduit with the fuel apertures in the enlarged housing to deliver fuel therethrough into the turbine combustion chamber, second fuel pipe means connected to the fuel conduit and the afterburners to deliver fuel to the afterburners, a plurality of ciroumferentially spaced tandem compressors, each of said tandem compressors having a first and second interconnected radial compressor with a common rotor shaft extending therethrough, said first and second compressors each having a forward end inlet and a rear end inlet and a central outlet, each of said first and second compressors having an impeller-diffuser set adjacent each inlet to compress air entering the inlets and direct air towards the center of the first and second compressors, a central centrifugal impeller located in the center of both the first and second compressors, each centrifugal impeller having directing vanes on each side thereof to rceive compressed air from both ends of each of the first and second compressors and impel the compressed air upwards towards the central outlets of the first and second compressors, first delivery pipe means connecting the outlets of the first compressors with the enlarged housing, second deli-very pipe means connecting the outlets of the second compressors with the enlarged housing, means connected to the tandem compressors to deliver air to the end inlets of the first and second compressors thereof from the first-stage compressor, means connected to the turbine to rotate the tandem compressor rotors therewith, and conduit means connected to the turbine to deliver gases therefrom to exhaust nozzles to form a portion of the propulsion force of the jet engine. 10. A centrifugal compressor for a jet engine comprising rotatable shaft,

a pair of single entry impellers mounted on the ends of said shaft for corotation therewith,

said impellers each having a pair of radially extending sides one of which faces axially outwardly of the shaft and the other of which faces axially inwardly of the shaft,

impeller vanes formed only on the axially outwardly facing side of each of said impellers,

a pair of diffuser members situated respectively adjacent the axially inwardly facing sides of said impellers,

each of said diff-user members having a radially extending wall facing the axially inwardly facing side of its corresponding impeller and a peripheral wall extending from the periphery of said radially extending wall axially and radially inwardly with respect to said shaft to provide one surface of a diffuser section,

a double entry impeller mounted for corotation on said shaft intermediate said single entry impellers and having a pair of oppositely facing radially extending sides formed thereon,

impeller vanes formed on both sides of said double entry impeller,

a hollow substantially cylindrical ciroumferenti-ally continuous, unitary sheet-form structure completely surrounding said shaft, said impellers and said diffuser members and extending axially substantially the length of said shaft,

said sheet-form structure comprising a pair of inlet portions situated axially outwardly of said single entry impellers to provide inlets thereto and sloping, respectively, axially and radially inwardly toward their corresponding single entry impellers,

a pair of first portions extending axially inwardly from said inlet portions, respectively, and then sloping axially inwardly and radially outwardly and then axially and radially inwardly to surround, respectively, each of said single entry impellers and their corresponding diffuser members and to form with the peripheral walls of said diffuser members a pair of diffuser sections for receiving the air from said single entry impellers, and

a pair of second portions extending axially inwardly from said first portions, respectively, and sloping axially inwardly and radially outwardly to join each other in spaced surrounding relation about said double entry impeller, and

means forming an outlet in said structure in longitudinal alignment with said double entry impeller for directing the compressed air from said structure.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 957,682 5/1910 Jones 103-107 2,050,349 8/1936 Lysholm etal 60-39.17 X 2,470,348 5/ 1949 Haight 60-35.6 2,580,591 l/1952 Pouit 6039.16 X 2,655,364 10/1953 Maldague 6039.16 X 2,853,853 9/1958 Ford 60-39.58 2,920,843 1/1960 Ferri.

2,982,094 5/1961 Peterson. 3,009,319 11/1961 Filipenco 6035.6

MARK NEWMAN, Primary Examiner.

7 CARLTON R. CROYLE, Examiner.

July 12, 1966 w. KESTING 3,250,047

FLUID INJECTOR, SELF-COMPENSATING FOR LATERAL ACCELERATION Filed Jan. 2, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Lawrence W. Kesting,

INVENTOR.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4405290 *Nov 24, 1980Sep 20, 1983United Technologies CorporationPneumatic supply system having variable geometry compressor
USRE31835 *Dec 19, 1983Feb 19, 1985United Technologies CorporationPneumatic supply system having variable geometry compressor
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/264, 415/199.2, 60/39.58, 60/269, 60/791
International ClassificationF02C3/08
Cooperative ClassificationF02C3/085
European ClassificationF02C3/08C