US 3260079 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Filed June 5, 1964 T- J. CASKEY SECURITY DEVICE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
PM, W ll 1M July 12, 1966 T. J. CASKEY 3,260,079
SECURITY DEVICE Filed June 5, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I NVENTOR.
Tar-mfg Z mu M,
United States Patent 3,260,079 SECURITY DEVICE Tom J. Caskey, Chicago, 111., assignor of one-half to Larry I. Kane, Skokie, Ill. Filed June 5, 1964, Ser. No. 372,915 16 Claims. (Cl. 7025) This invention relates to a security device and more particularly to a keyless lock which is operated by the sense of touch.
In the past, keyless locks have, for example, operated through the use of dials and numerical indices or through indicators capable of producing audible sounds or clicks, the number of clicks indicating the degree of rotation of the tumblers and the consequent point at which the lock could be opened. These locks, however, have been unsuitable for many of the applications in which security devices are necessary. For example, a combination lock having a dial and numerical index cannot be used in unlighted places or by persons, such as those afflicted with blindness or imperfect sight, who are unable to read the index. Moreover, these locks generally require the use of both hands for their operation and frequently are incapable of rapid operation. In addition, such locks as those employing the audible clicks are often limited in the number of combinations or arrangements available.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a security device which may be operated without reference to an index, audible clicks, or the like.
It is another object of this invention to provide a security device which is capable of relatively simple, rapid, one-hand operation.
A further object of this invention is to provide a security device which may be operated in unlighted areas and by persons unable to operate locks having a dial and index.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a device, such as a lock or other security device, which is operated by manipulating an exteriorly positioned knob or button through a predetermined pattern wheneby suitably disposed permutation elements are brought into a position at which the unlocking or opening function is effected.
Another object of this invention is to provide a security device capable of being constructed with any one of a practically unlimited number of either simple or complex combinations or permutations for elfecting unlocking.
A further object of this invention is to provide a security device which may be operated only by one familiar with the pattern through which the operating knob or button must be manipulated to effect unlocking.
Another object of this invention is to provide a security device which is tamperproof and does not reveal through its mode of operation or otherwise the pattern through which the operating knob or button must necessarily be moved to unlock the device.
It is also an object of this invention to provide a security device which can be used in those applications in which the conventional combination lock employing a dial and an index is currently used.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a security device which can be conveniently and economically manufactured.
Additional objects and advantages will become manifest from the description, the drawings, and the claims.
One form of this invention comprises a security device including a housing; a shackle; tumbler means normally disposed in relation to the shackle so as to obstruct movement of the shackle and retain it in a locked position; a plurality of permutation elements suitably disposed in overlying relationship within the housing and adapted to engage the tumbler means; and operating means, such as a translatable shaft, for moving the permutation elements 3,260,079 Fatented July 12, 1966 "ice into a position whereby the tumbler means is released from its shackle-obstructing position and the shackle is movable to an unlocked position. The permutation elements in the disclosed embodiment are plates, each of which has a predetermined-shaped aperture therein. The aperture in each plate generally varies both in size and shape from the apertures in the other plates. It is desirable that the plates move freely and independently in relation to one another. Accordingly, the plates are preferably spaced from each other to prevent contact between them and, thus, to insure the desired freedom 'of movement. Such spacing may be accomplished by employing shims of other suitable means. The shaft of the operating means extends through the aperture in each plate, and transverse movement of the shaft in relation to its longitudinal axis eifects movement of the plates. Thus, by transversely translating the shaft through a predetermined pattern, the plates are moved relative to each other until they are brought into alignment, at which point the tumbler is released from its shackle-obstructing position and the unlocking function is effected. The pattern through which the shaft must be moved to unlock the present device is determined by the size and shape of the apertures in the plates and the number of plates employed in the lock. Since the variety of different sized and shaped apertures is practically limitless, the number of possible unlocking patterns is considerable.
For a more complete understanding of this invention, drawings have been provided as follows:
FIGURE 1 is a plan view of an embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 2 is a side view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is an exploded view of the embodiment of FIG. 1 showing the housing in section and other internal parts in elevation.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along line 55 of FIG. 2, showing the embodiment of FIG. 1 in a locked position.
FIG. 6 is a sectional view similar to FIG. 5, showing the embodiment of FIG. 1 in an unlocked position.
FIG. 7 is an exploded view showing the relationship of the permutation elements and the shims of the embodiment of FIG. 1.
FIG. 8 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line 88 of FIG. 6.
FIG. 9 is an enlarged perspective view of the tumbler means shown in FIGS. 5 and 6.
FIG. 10 is a sectional view of a modification of the embodiment of FIG. 1.
FIG. 11 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken along line 11-11 of FIG. 10, with the front part of the housing added.
FIG. 12 is an enlarged perspective view of the tumbler means shown in FIG. 10.
Referring now to the drawings and more particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2 wherein the front and one side, respectively, of a lock 10 are shown. The lock comprises a housing 12, a shackle 14, and operating means 16 mounted in the housing 12. The housing may be constructed of aluminum or steel, but the former is preferable because it is more adaptable to die-casting; and die-casting is more economical than such processes as stamping, which would be necessary for steel constructions. Furthermore, finer tolerances may be obtained through die-casting. The shackle is preferably made of steel in order to obtain the advantage of the strength of this material. The housing may comprise a single part which is folded or bent over onto itself and sealed at the free ends by any suitable means, or it may consist of two or more parts riveted, welded or otherwise suitably joined together. In the embodiment of FIG. 1, the housing 12 has two spaced upper portions 12a and 12b which contain the shackle 14. The shackle 14 is shown as an arcuate member having a circular cross section. It is provided with a protuberance 18 which extends through an arcuate opening 20 in portion 12a of the housing 12. This protuberance acts as a stop for terminating both clockwise and counterclockwise movement of the shackle by engaging the housing 12 at the extreme ends of the opening 20. The protuberance 18 also functions as a handle for facilitating shackle movement. Clockwise and counterclockwise movement of the shackle is also terminated when the distal ends thereof engage stops 60 and 62 (shown in FIGS. and 6), which either are formed as a part of the housing or may be separate parts attached thereto. The shackle is in a locking or closed position when it has been rotated in a clockwise direction to the point where its distal end is inserted in housing portion 12b and engages stop 60.
Referring to FIG. 3, a section of the central portion of lock and the operating means 16 is shown, as well as the relationship of the operating means to such internal parts of lock 10 as the permutation elements 22, 24 and 26 and the shims or spacers 28 and 30. The operating means 16, which is further illustrated in FIG. 4, comprises a knob or button 32 mounted on a rectangular plate or slide 34, which in turn is slidably mounted on another rectangular plate or slide 36. Connected to slide 34 in fixed relation to the knob 32 and the slide 34 is a shaft 38 (shown best in FIG. 3), which is disposed in perpendicular relationship to the slide. The shaft extends through apertures in the permutation elements 22, 24 and 26 and in the shims 28 and 30, normal to the planes of the elements and spacers. By moving the shaft 38 transversely in relation to its longitudinal axis, one or more of the permutation elements may be moved.
As will be seen in FIG. 4, the operating means 16 is mounted in a cavity 37 provided in the front portion of housing 12 and is retained in position by a stationary flat member 41 having therein a rectangular aperture 43 through which shaft 38 extends. The aperture 43 must be sufiiciently large to permit adequate movement of the shaft. The walls or edges 37a and 37b of cavity 37, as well as raised portions 39 and 40, operate as guides for the slide 36 of the operating means, the slide 36 being movable along said guides. The slide 34 is movable in relation to slide 36 in a direction perpendicular to the path of movement of slide 36, and slide 34 is so positioned in relation to guides 39 and 40 that its movement will .not be impeded by the guides.
Since knob 32 is fixed with respect to both the shaft 38 and slide 34, horizontal movement of the knob also effects horizontal movement of shaft 38 and slide 34. Vertical movement of the knob causes slide 36 to slide within cavity 37 and thus effects vertical movement of shaft 38. Because of the relationship of the slides 34 and 36, the knob 32 and the shaft 38 may be moved obliquely, as well as horizontally and vertically. An opening or window 42 is provided in housing 12 so that the knob 32 will be accessible to the operator. The window is preferably the same size and shape as the aperture 43 in member 41, and in any event should be sufiiciently large to permit the knob 32 and the shaft 38 to be moved to the desired extent in all directions in their respective planes of movement.
In FIGS. 5 and 6 the rear portion of the housing 12 of lock 10 is shown. FIG. 5 shows the lock 10 with the shackle 14 in a locked position, being retained in this position by a tumbler 44. FIG. 6 is similar to FIG. 5, except that the shackle 14 is in an unlocked position and the tumbler 44, as well as the permutation elements 22, 24 and 26, of lock 10 are so arranged as to permit unobstructed movement of the shackle into this unlocked position.
Referring to FIGS. 7 and 8, it will be seen that the permutation elements 22, 24 and 26 are each rectangularshaped, flat, and identical in size and are provided with apertures 23, 25 and 27, respectively, each of which is of a different size and configuration. Where desired, the size and shape of these permutation elements may be modified. In addition, modification of the size and shape of the apertures of the elements is contemplated because this provides a practical way in which to vary the pattern necessary to effect unlocking. The permutation elements are disposed in spaced parallel planes and are adapted to overlie each other in a cavity 50 provided in the rear portion of housing 12. They are horizontally movable relative to each other and are separated from each other by stationary thin shims or spacers 28 and 30. The shims prevent the permutation elements from contacting each other, thus, insuring free movement of the elements with respect to each other. This free movement prevents one element from dragging or otherwise causing movement of another element during operation of lock 10, and increases the security function of the lock by preventing the unlocking pattern from being communicated to the outside as a result of the existence of an external feel of the action of the plates. The configuration of the shims is substantially rectangular, although the corners thereof are bevelled. The shims are identical to each other in size and shape and have major portions cut out therefrom to form large elliptically-shaped apertures 29 and 31. It will be understood that, where desirable and appropriate, the configuration of the shims as well as the size and shape of the aperturestherein, may be varied. Furthermore, as shown, for example, in FIGS. 10-12, other suitable means than the shims may be employed, where desired, to afford free movement of the elements with respect to each other.
The tumbler 44 is pivotally mounted on a pin 45 and is provided with a flange 46 and two slotted nu bs 47 and 48, the slots 47a and 48a, respectively, being best shown in FIG. 9. The nubs 47 and 48 are adapted to extend through passageways 52 and 54 in the rear portion of housing 12 and into cavity 50 when the permutation elements 22, 24 and 26 are aligned, as shown in .FIG. 6. When the nubs of tumbler 44 are fully extended into cavity 50, the flange 46 of the tumbler does not obstruct the counterclockwise movement of shackle 14 and the lock 10 may be opened. Moreover, the permutation elements are retained in alignment by the nubs and the latter remain fully extended into cavity 50' so long as shackle 14 is in its fully opened position. On the other hand, when the permutation elements are unaligned, as shown, for example, in FIG. 5, they block either or both of the mouths of the passageways 52 and 54 and, thus, prevent the nubs 47 and 48 from extending into the cavity. This causes the tumbler 44 to remain in a position where the flange 46 thereof prevents counterclockwise movement of shackle 14 and consequent opening of lock 10. The slots 47a and 48a, provided in the nubs of the tumbler 44, receive the upper portions of spacers 28 and 30 so that the latter will not prevent the nubs from extending into the cavity 50 In those forms of this invention where spacers are not employed, such as in the embodiment of FIGS. 10-12, the slots in the nubs will, of course, be unnecessary.
The edges 22a, 24a, and 26a of the permutation elements, which contact the tumbler 44, are serrated to prevent the shackle from being forced open by the application of an external force. When pressure is applied to the shackle in a counterclockwise direction, the nubs 47 and 48 will lock with the serrated edges of the elements and prevent any appreciable movement of the permutation elements. If the element edges were smooth, and not serrated, there would not be sufficient friction between them and the tumbler nubs; and the elements could be aligned by applying a counterclockwise force on the shackle while manipulating the knob 32. The lock 10 could thereby be opened without knowledge of the unlocking pattern.
The lock with the disclosed permutation elements is opened by first moving knob 32 along the periphery of window 42 through at least one clockwise revolution. Movement of the knob is then continued about the perimeter of the window until the knob is along the right edge and slightly below the top edge thereof. From this point, the knob 32 is moved obliquely through a curvilinear path across the window 42 until it reaches a point along the bottom edge of the window about two-thirds of the distance measured from the right side to the left side of the window 42. At this position the shaft 38, which is actuated by the knob 32, has moved the permutation plates into alignment thereby releasing the tumbler 44 so that the shackle 14 may be moved counterclockwise and the lock opened. The path through which knob 32 must be moved to eifect unlocking is shown by the dotted line 66 on FIG. 1. It will be understood that other paths for effecting unlocking may be devised by altering the size and shape of the apertures 23, 25 and 27 in the permutation elements 22, 24 and 26 or by varying the number of permutation elements. To relock the present invention, the shackle is moved clockwise to a closed position and knob 32 is moved out of the unlocking position whereby the alignment of the permutation elements is upset and the tumbler 44 is forced into a position where it obstructs counterclockwise movement of shackle 14.
FIGS. 10 and 11 show a modification 70 of the lock 10 shown in FIG. 1, in which the rear portion of the housing 72 is provided with a cavity 74 having step-like arrangements therein for supporting the permutation elements 76, 78, and 80. The steps are disposed on opposed sides of the cavity 74, and each step has a height slightly greater than the thickness of the permutation element it supports. Accordingly, the permutation elements are prevented from contacting each other and are assured of free movement in relation to each other.
The permutation elements 76, 78, and 80 differ from elements 22, 24, and 26 in that they are not the same size although they all have a rectangular configuration. Element 76 is slightly larger than element 78 which in turn is slightly larger than 80. This variation in size allows the elements to correspond to the step-like arrangement in cavity 74, as best shown in FIG. 11. Similar to elements 22, 24, and 26, the upper edges76a, 78a, and 80a-of the permutation elements 76, 78, and 80 are serrated so as to preclude slipping between the elements and the tumbler 82.
Because shims are not used in this embodiment, the tumbler 82, shown in FIG. 12, does not have slots in the nubs 84 and 86 thereof, corresponding to the slots 47a and 48a of tumbler 44. The nubs 84 and 86, however, will be provided with steps corresponding to each permutation element so that when the lock 70 is in a locked position, the tumbler nubs may be in contact simultaneously with the upper edge of each of the elements.
It will be understood that, in addition to those modifications already set forth, certain further variations of the precise structures disclosed may be made which fall within the scope of this invention. Thus, it will be understood that the designs of the housing and other parts of the invention may be altered from those shown. For example, the housing may be constructed without the spaced upper portions so that a greater portion of the shackle would be exposed; provided, of course, that necessary corresponding changes are made in the shackle. Moreover, various suitable types of housings and shackles may be employed where desired. It will also be understood that within the limits imposed by this invention such parts as the operating means may be modified and the permutation elements may be varied in size, shape, and number. Moreover, suitable means, other than those 6 shown, may be employed to efiect free movement of the permutation elements with respect to each other.
While particular embodiments and modifications of this invention are shown above, it will be understood that the invention is not limited thereto since many further modifications may be made; and it is contemplated, therefore,
to cover by the claims any such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
1. In a security device including a housing, a shackle mounted in said housing for movement between locked and unlocked positions, and a tumbler in said housing for retaining said shackle in its locked position, the improvement comprising: a plurality of elements disposed in overlying relationship and movable relative to each other, each element having a predetermined-shaped aperture therein and said elements communicating with said tum bler and being adapted to be brought into alignment at which position said tumbler is released from its shackle retaining position; and means for aligning said elements, said means extending through the apertures in said elements and being adapted for movement through a predetermined pattern to effect alignment of said elements.
2. The structure of claim 1 wherein said aligning means comprises a shaft which is adapted for transverse translational movement through a predetermined pattern to effect alignment of said elements.
3. The structure of claim 1 wherein said aligning means comprises a shaft which extends through the apertures of said elements, and means mounted on the exterior of said housing in fixed relation to said shaft, said means being adapted to effect transverse translational movement of said shaft so as to align said elements.
4. The structure of claims 1 wherein said housing has guides therein and said aligning means comprises first and second members mounted in said housing for movement in paths normal to each other along said guides in said housing, a shaft mounted on one of said members in fixed relation thereto and extending through the apertures of said elements, and means mounted on the exterior of said housing in fixed relation .to said shaft, said means being adapted to effect transverse translational movement of said shaft so as to align said elements.
5. The structure of claim 1 wherein said elements are plates and each aperture in said plates has a different configuration from every other aperture.
6. The structure of claim 1 wherein said elements are rectangular plates having the same size and shape and shims are interposed between the plates to permit said plates to move freely with respect to each other.
7. The structure of claim 1 wherein the housing has guides therein and said elements are reciprocally movable relative to each other in a single linear path along said guides.
8. The structure of claim 1 wherein said elements are in overlying spaced relation to each other.
9. The structure of claim 1 wherein said elements are in overlying spaced parallel relation to each other and said aligning means includes a shaft which extends through the apertures of the elements and is disposed normal to said elements.
10. The structure of claim 1 wherein means are interposed between the elements to permit said elements to move freely with respect .to each other.
11. The structure of claim 1 wherein shims are interposed between said elements to permit said elements to move freely with respect to each other.
12. A security device comprising: a housing; a shackle mounted in said housing for movement between locked and unlocked positions; a plurality of elements disposed in said housing in overlying relationship and adapted to be brought into alignment, said elements being movable relative to each other and having predetermined-shaped apertures therein; means for aligning said plates, said means extending through said apertures in said elements and being adapted for movement through a predetermined pattern to effect alignment of said elements; and tumbler means including a first member, a second member eX- tending from said first member and adapted to retain said shackle in its locked position, and a plurality of nubs which engage the upper edges of said elements when said elements are unaligned and retain said tumbler means in its shackle retaining position, said nubs being adapted to disengage the upper edges of said elements when .the latter are brought into alignment and to release said tumbler means from its shackle retaining position.
13. The structure of claim 12 wherein means are provided for preventing slippage between the nubs of said tumbler means and the edges of said elements while said nubs and edges are in engagement.
14. The structure of claim 12 wherein the edges of said elements which engage said nubs are serrated.
15. The structure of claim 12 wherein shims are interposed between said elements and said nubs have slots therein which receive the shims when said nubs are disengaged from said elements and said shackle is in its unlocked position.
16. A security device comprising: a housing; first means mounted therein for movement between locked and unlocked positions; second means mounted in said housing for retaining said first means in a locked position; and
third means mounted in said hOusing for releasing said second means from its retaining position, said .third means comprising a plurality of elements disposed in overlying relationship and adapted to be brought into alignment at which position said second means is released from its retaining position, said elements being movable relative to each other and having predetermined-shaped apertures therein, and means for effecting movement of and aligning said elements, said aligning means extending through said apertures in said elements and being adapted for movement through a predetermined pattern to effect align ment.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,413,209 4/1922 Williams 70-25 1,643,752 9/1927 Rosenhahn 7025 2,852,928 9/1958 Miller 70-25 X 2,928,271 3/1960 Watson 7025 FOREIGN PATENTS 425,026 6/1946 Italy.
PATRICK A, CLIFFORD, Primary Examiner.
BOBBY R. GAY, Examiner.