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Publication numberUS3260112 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 12, 1966
Filing dateAug 5, 1963
Priority dateAug 5, 1963
Publication numberUS 3260112 A, US 3260112A, US-A-3260112, US3260112 A, US3260112A
InventorsBurdyn Ralph F, Godbey John K, Hodges Hayden D
Original AssigneeMobil Oil Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Temperature-recording device and method
US 3260112 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 12, 1966 J. K. GODBEY ETAL 3,259,112

TEMPERATURE-RECORDING DEVICE AND METHOD I Filed Aug. 5. 1963 FIG 4 FIG 3 JOHN K. GODBEY HAYDEN D. HODGES INVENTORS. RALPH F. BURDYN MyQMW ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,260,112 TEMPERATURE-RECORDING DEVICE AND METHGD John K. Godbey, Hayden l). Hodges, and Ralph F. Burdyn, Dallas, Tex., assignors to Mobil Oil Corporation,

a corporation of New York Filed Aug. 5, 1963, Ser. No. 299,955 Claims. (Cl. 73356) This invention relates to the measurement of the peak temperature of drilling fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well. More particularly, it relates to a temperature-recording device and a method for determining the peak temperature of drilling fluid as it is circulated during the drilling of a well.

One important condition desired to be determined during the drilling of a Well is the peak temperature of the drilling fluid as it is circulated. Usually, the drilling fluid is a mud containing bentonite. As is well known, the drilling fluid is circulated from the earths surface down the drill pipe and through the fluid-circulating openings of the drill bit adjacent the bottom of the well. The drilling fluid returns in the annulus between the drill pipe and the side walls of the well to the earths surface. The peak temperature in the circulating well fluid does not occur at the bottom of the well adjacent the drill bit. Rather, the peak temperature of the well fluid occurs in the annulus surrounding the drill pipe at some distance from the bottom of the well where a state of temperature equilibrium is reached. The distance from the Well bottom at which this peak temperature occurs varies during drilling. For this reason, measurements of temperature taken at any particular position in the well generally will not provide reliable determinations of the peak temperature. Neither can reliable measurements be obtained under static conditions in drilling or in the circulating of drilling fluid.

Serious damage to the drilling fluid can occur as a result of continued circulation at a temperature Where thermal degradation results. At present, only the results of thermal degradation can be detected at the earths surface in the returning drilling fluid to display the presence of excessively high temperatures in the well. For this reason, the peak temperature of the circulating drilling fluid is most important. With this information, wellknown steps can be used to protect the circulating drilling fluid against thermal deterioration.

Thus, the peak temperature in the circulating drilling fluid should be determined at dynamic circulating conditions as they exist during the drilling of a well. The measurement should neither require removing the drill pipe and bit from the well to the earths surface nor changing the conditions of drilling and fluid circulation normally utilized in the drilling of the well. Further, the structures and their use in the measurement of the peak temperature in the circulating drilling fluid should be compatible with the usual equipment and procedures used in drilling a well.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide for the measurement of the peak temperature of drilling fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well. Another object is to provide a temperature-recording device and a method for measuring the peak temperature of drilling fluid while circulating during the drilling of a well. A further object is to provide 3,260,112 Patented July 12, 1966 a device and its use for measuring the peak temperature of drilling fluid that is compatible with the equipment and procedures used in drilling a well. Yet another object is to provide a temperature-recording device for measuring the peak temperature of drilling fluid that neither requires the drill pipe and bit to be removed from the well to the earths surface nor requires a change in the drilling and circulating conditions or equipment used in drilling a well.

These and further objects will be more apparent when considered with the following detailed description, the appended claims, and the attached drawings, wherein:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective of a temperature-recording device partially broken away to illustrate its interior construction;

FIGURE 2 is a section taken medially through the device shown in FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 is a plan View of a temperature-indicating means utilized within the temperature-recording device of the present invention shown in FIGURES 1 and 2; and

FIGURE 4 is a partial section of one modifiication of the temperature-recording device of the present invention.

The temperature-recording device of this invention is comprised of a casing of an abrasion-resistant material which has at least one dimension of a size sufficient to pass through the circulating openings in a drill bit. A temperature-indicating means is disposed within the casing. Means cooperating with the casing are provided for securing the temperature-indicating means within the casing. The device is introduced into the drilling fluid circulating down through the drill pipe. The device passes through the circulating openings in the drill bit and up through the annulus of the well to the earths surface. The circulation of the device with the drilling fluid stream carries it through the region in the well where the peak temperature is encountered. The device is retrieved from the drilling fluid at the earths surface. The peak temperature of the drilling fluid is determined by extracting the temperature-indicating means from the casing and examining its temperature-indicating indicia.

Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to FIGURES 1 and 2, a preferred illustrative embodiment of the temperature-recording device 11 of the present invention will be described. The device 11 is comprised of a casing 12 of an abrasion-resistant material having one end 13 closed and the other end open. The casing 12 has at least one exterior dimension not greater than that dimension which is adapted to pass the casing 12 in the drilling fluid through the circulating openings in the drill bit used in drilling the well. Generally, the circulating openings in a drill bit are about inch in diameter. Thus, one exterior dimension of the casing 12 needs to be less than inch. Preferably, the casing 12 is tubular and also of a metallic material having a density somewhat greater than that of the drilling fluid. As a result, the device 11 may be readily carried along with the drilling fluid during circulation at any conventional circulation rate. The casing 12 can be a 22- caliber cartridge hull either of brass or steel because of its ready availability. This form of casing 12. has a diameter of about inch and can readily pass through the circulating openings of a drill bit. However, other types of structures may be used for providing the casing 12. For example, the casing 12 may be made of any material which is abrasion resistant. For example, various plastics may be utilized. Also, the casing 12 need not be tubular. The only property required for the casing 12 is that it have suflicient strength to prevent the abrasive forces encountered in the drilling fluid circulating system from damaging the temperature-indicating means contained in the casing 12. Of course, the casing 12 needs to be of a size that is readily recoverable, for example, a size for visual observation as it is caught by the shale shaker of the circulating system of the well.

Temperature-indicating means 14 are disposed Within the casing 12. Preferably, the temperature-indicating means provide a permanent change in one property which is visually detected after being subjected to a predetermined temperature or temperatures. Usually, the permanent change is one of color for best results. As can be seen in FIGURES 1 and 2, the temperature-indicating means 14 may be rolled lengthwise into a scroll for ready disposition within the casing 12. However, other ways for adapting the temperature-indicating means 14 for placement within the casing 12 may be used, if desired. Referring to FIGURE 3, the temperature-indicating means 14 used in the preferred embodiment are comprised of a relatively thin, foil-based member 16 on which is deposited a quantity of carbon black. Disposed on the carbon black coating are one or more fusible temperature-indicating materials 17, 18, 19, and 21. The temperature-indicating materials 17, 18, 19, and 21 are of a color which is different from the carbon black, for example, the color may be white. Preferably, the temperature-indicating materials 17, 18, 19, and 21 are selected so that each changes color at a different temperature. For example, the temperature-indicating materials 17, 18, 19, and 21 may be arranged to change color from white to black at the temperatures of 150 F., 160' F., 170 F., and 180 F., respectively. Thus, a temperature between 160 F. and 170 F. would result in the temperature-indicating materials 17 and 18 changing color to black, while the temperature-indicating materials 19 and 21 remain white in color.

The temperature-indicating means 14 described above may be provided by the Temperature Indicator disclosed in United States Patent 3,002,385. The temperatureindicating means 14 in this reference may be more generally described as comprising a backing material, a metallic base member disposed on the backing material, and a colored pigment material disposed on the base member. A fusible temperature-indicating material is disposed on the colored material with the temperatureindicating material being of a color which is different from the color of the colored pigment material. A transparent cover material disposed adjacent the temperature-indicating material is bonded to the base member, thereby enclosing the temperature-indicating material and the colored material between the base material and the cover material. A metallic cover member having perforations therein is disposed adjacent the cover material. The perforations serve as view holes for observing the temperature-indicating material. The metallic cover member is bonded to the backing material, thereby enclosing the base member, color-indicating material and transparent cover material between the backing material and the cover member.

The temperature-indicating means 14 heretofore described are well suited for the purposes of this invention. The temperature-indicating means 14 are not affected or altered by the usual drilling fluids used in drilling wells. Further, they are neither damaged by being flexed or creased during mounting within the casing 12 nor by their subsequent handling during extraction and examination at the earths surface. Thus, they need not be enclosed within a fluid-tight structure for the purposes of this invention. If desired, other suitable types of temperature-indicating means may be used as is apparent to one skilled in the art.

The temperature-indicating means 14 are secured within the casing 12 against loss and abrasion in the circulating mud by means cooperating with the casing 12. This means may be a closure mounted at the open end on the casing 12 for securing the temperature-indicating means 14 within the casing 12. In the embodiment shown in FIGURES 1 and 2, the temperature-indicating means 14 are secured within the casing 12 through the use of a sleeve 26 which is adapted to be inserted into the casing 12. The sleeve 26 has a longitudinal dimension such that it is spaced from the open end of the casing 12 when fully received therein. Preferably, the sleeve 26 has an exterior diameter such as to provide a snug fit between the side exterior surface of the sleeve 26 and the side interior surface of the casing 12. The sleeve 25 may be of any stiff material. Preferably, the sleeve 26 is of an abrasion-resistant material or metal similar to that of which the casing 12 is constructed. However, other materials may be used as desired. The function of the sleeve 26 is to provide an abutting surface upon which a closure may be rested. Referring to FIGURE 2, the closure may be a sphere 29 mounted at the open end of the casing 12. Preferably, the sphere 29 is formed of an abrasion-resistant material, especially a metal. The sphere 29 is of adequate size to engage the side interior surface of the casing 12 and the end of the sleeve 26. The casing 12 may be provided with a reduced area 31 adjacent the sphere 29 to secure the sphere 29 and casing 12 together. The reduced area 31 may be provided by swaging. If desired, other means to secure a closure to the casing 12 may be used.

The use of metallic materials to provide the casing 12, sleeve 26, and sphere 29 is of especial utility in that the device 11 will have a density approaching that of the usual drilling fluids. This is of great advantage in that the device 11 flows with least damage through the well with the drilling fluid Whose peak temperature is to be measured. Also, the metallic materials provide good protection for the temp-erature-indicating means 14 against injury from abrasion or loss in the circulating drilling fluid.

A modification of the device 11 is shown in partial section in FIGURE 4. The description applied to the embodiment of device 11 shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 is applicable to FIGURE 4 with this exception. In FIGURE 4, the means for securing the temperature-indicating means 14 within casing 12 is a stopper 34. The stopper 34 has a reduced diameter portion 36 to provide an abutting shoulder 37 spaced from its end 38. The stopper 34 is mounted with the shoulder 37 abutting the casing 12 at its open end, the reduced diameter portion 36 engaging the interior side surface of casing 12. The end 38 of the stopper 34, which is presented toward the interior of the casing 12, is seated against the sleeve 26. This embodiment is of utility in providing for readily disassembling of the device 11 for extraction of the temperature-recording means 14 therefrom. Preferably, the stopper 34 is constructed from Teflon. However, other abrasion-resistant materials, such as cork or plastics, may be used instead of Teflon. If desired, the means cooperating with the casing for securing the temperature-indicating means 14 within the casing 12 may be adapted to be positioned entirely within the casing 12.

The device 11 may be used with great facility in the following manner. As a first step, the device 11 is introduced into the drilling fluid circulated down the drill pipe into the well. The device 11 is passed from the drill pipe through the circulating openings of the drill bit into the well. Preferably, as another step, the drill bit is slightly raised from the bottom of the Well during the actual passage of the device 11 through the circulating openings of the drill bit. Continued circulation of the drilling fluid carries the device 11 upwardly through the annulus of the well to the earths surface. The device 11 generally will circulate in phase with the circulating drilling fluid. As another step, the device 11 is retrieved from the drilling fluid at the earths surface. For example, the device 11 may be retrieved at the shale shaker usually found at the well site. Other means for retrieving the device 11 from the drilling fluid at the earths surface may be used as is apparent. The temperature-indicating means 14 is extracted from within the casing 12 and unrolled. Visual observation may then be made as to the indicia change in the temperatureindicating means 14. For example, as previously described with respect to FIGURE 3, the temperatureindicating means 14 indicate a measurement of the peak temperature in the range of between 160 F. and 170 F. by the change in color of temperature-indicating materials 17 and 18 while the color remains unchanged for the temperature-indicating materials 19 and 21. Thus, corrective steps may 'be taken to protect the drilling fluids from thermal degradation at this temperature if desired.

From the foregoing it will be apparent that there has been provided a device and a method for its use which is Well suited for measuring the peak temperature of drillin fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well. No changes are required in the procedures or equipment conventionally used in drilling wells. The peak temperature of the circulating drilling fluid can be determined in only slightly more than the time it takes for the device of the present invention to be circulated through the well with the drilling fluid. Other advantages will be apparent to those skilled in the art as will be other embodiments and methods of utilizing the present invention.

Various changes may be made to the device of this invention and to the method of its use by those skilled in the art. For example, several temperature-indicating means 14 may be placed into the casing 12 so that a range of specific temperatures may be surveyed. Further, the casing 12 and the means for securing the temperature-indicating means 14 therein may be provided from various materials as will be apparent to those skilled in the art. It is intended that such changes be within the scope of the present invention. Further, it is intended that the foregoing description be taken as illustrative and not limitative of the present invention with the only limitations to be applied to the scope of the present invention being those found in the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A device for measuring the peak temperature of drilling fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well with fluid-circulating bits comprising a casing of an abrasion-resistant material with suflicient strength to prevent the abrasive forces encountered in fluid circulation in a well from damaging a temperatureindicating means carried therein, and said casing having at least one dimension of a size suificient to pass the casing through the circulating openings in a drill bit, a temperature-indicating means for providing a permanent change in indicia when subjected to a predetermined temperature disposed within the casing, and means cooperating with the casing for securing the temperature-indicating means within the casing.

2. The device of claim 1 wherein the temperature-indicating means is a relatively thin metal foil base member, a quantity of carbon black constituting a coating on said base member, and a fusible temperature-indicating material disposed on said coating, said temperature-indicating material being of a color which is different from the color of said carbon black.

3. A device for measuring peak temperatures of drilling fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well with fluid-circulating bits comprising a casing of an abrasion-resistant material with suflicient strength to prevent the abrasive forces encountered in fluid circulation in a well from damaging a temperature-indicating means carried therein, and said casing having at least one dimension of a size sufficient to pass the casing through the fluid-circulating openings in a drill bit, said casing having an open end, a temperature-indicator means for providing a permanent change in indicia when subjected to a predetermined temperature disposed within the casing, and a closure mounted at the open end on said casing for securing the temperature-indicator means within the casmg.

4. The device of claim 3 wherein the temperature-indicating means is a relatively thin metal foil base member, a quantity of carbon black constituting a coating on said base member, and a fusible temperature-indicating material disposed on said coating, said temperature-indicating material being of a color which is dilferent from the color of said carbon black.

5. A device for measuring peak temperatures of drilling fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well with fluid-circulating bits comprising a tubular metallic casing having one end closed and the other end open, said casing having an exterior diameter not greater than that diameter adapted to pass the casing through the circulating openings in a drill bit, a sleeve adapted to be inserted into the casing, said sleeve having a longitudinal dimension such that the sleeve is spaced from the open end of the casing when fully received therein and an exterior diameter such as to provide a snug fit between the side exterior surface of the sleeve and the side interior surface of the casing, a temperature-indicating means rolled lengthwise into a scroll and disposed Within the casing, and means cooperating with the casing for securing the temperature-indicating means within the casing.

6. The device of claim 5 wherein the means for securing the temperature-indicating means within the casing is a Teflon stopper having a reduced diameter portion to provide an abutting shoulder, the shoulder abutting the casing at its open end, the reduced diameter portion engaging the interior side surface of the casing, and the end of the stopper presented toward the casing seating against the sleeve.

7. A device for measuring peak temperatures of drilling fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well with fluid-circulating bits comprising a tubular metallic casing having one end closed and the other end open, said casing having an exterior diameter not greater than that diameter adapted to pass the casing through the circulating openings in a drill bit, a sleeve adapted to be inserted into the casing, said sleeve having a longitudinal dimension such that the sleeve is spaced from the open end of the casing when fully received therein and an exterior diameter such as to provide a snug fit between the side exterior surface of the sleeve and the side interior surface of the casing, a temperature-indicating means rolled lengthwise into a scroll and disposed within the casing, a metallic sphere mounted at the open end of the casing, said sphere of a size to engage the sleeve, and the open end of the casing having a reduced area adjacent the sphere to secure the sphere and casing together.

8. The device of claim 7 wherein the temperature-indicating means is a relatively thin metal foil base member, a quantity of carbon black constituting a coating on said base member, and a fusible temperature-indicating material disposed on said coating, said temperature-indicating material being of a color which is different from the color of said carbon black.

9. In the measurement of peak temperatures of drilling fluid at dynamic circulating conditions during the drilling of a well with a fluid-circulating drill bit on a drill pipe, the steps comprising introducing a temperature-recording device into the drilling fluid circulating down the drill pipe into the well, said device carrying a temperature-indicating means for providing a change in indicia when subjected to a predetermined temperature, circulating the device with the drilling fluid down the drill pipe through the circulating openings of the drill bit and up the annulus of the well to the earths surface, retrieving the device from the fluid at the earths surface, and examining the temperatureindicating means to determine the peak temperature of the circulating drilling fluid.

10. The method of claim 9 wherein the drill bit is slightly raised from the bottom of the well during the passage of the temperature-recording device through the circulating openings of the drill bit.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS Chaney et a1. 73356 Allen 25083.6 X Wahl et al. 73-356 Bienfait 116-1145 LOUIS R. PRINCE, Primary Examiner.

D. M. YASICH, Assistant Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3437070 *Jan 28, 1966Apr 8, 1969Campbell Lloyd BTemperature indicator
US3568627 *Dec 24, 1969Mar 9, 1971Irwin SelingerCombined record card and sterilization indicator
US3802269 *Apr 26, 1972Apr 9, 1974Dresser IndRock bit maximum temperature recording apparatus
US4390291 *Dec 10, 1980Jun 28, 1983Spectro-Systems, IncorporatedThermal indicator for wells
US4459936 *Apr 30, 1982Jul 17, 1984American Sterilizer CompanyApparatus for indicating whether the interior of a container has been sterilized during a sterilization process
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US5857776 *Apr 5, 1995Jan 12, 1999Visual Indicator Tag Systems AbVisual observation the color changing for detecting the quality control of temperature-sensitive material to prevent quality degradation; refrigerated or frozen products control
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US6443228 *May 25, 2000Sep 3, 2002Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethod of utilizing flowable devices in wellbores
US6745833Jul 29, 2002Jun 8, 2004Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethod of utilizing flowable devices in wellbores
US6935425 *Aug 21, 2002Aug 30, 2005Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethod for utilizing microflowable devices for pipeline inspections
US6976535Jan 7, 2004Dec 20, 2005Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethod of utilizing flowable devices in wellbores
US6990045Mar 28, 2002Jan 24, 2006Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethods for acquiring seismic data while tripping
US7037724Oct 15, 2004May 2, 2006Baker Hughes IncorporatedMixing variations in crude oil; measuring asphaltene in mixture; prevention precipitation; calibration; storage stability
US7668041Nov 2, 2005Feb 23, 2010Baker Hughes IncorporatedApparatus and methods for acquiring seismic data while tripping
US8171989Aug 2, 2001May 8, 2012Schlumberger Technology CorporationWell having a self-contained inter vention system
US20100139386 *Dec 1, 2009Jun 10, 2010Baker Hughes IncorporatedSystem and method for monitoring volume and fluid flow of a wellbore
Classifications
U.S. Classification374/104, 175/50, 408/16, 116/201, 374/162, 116/216, 374/E11.6, 73/152.43, 374/136
International ClassificationG01K11/00, G01K11/06
Cooperative ClassificationG01K11/06
European ClassificationG01K11/06