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Publication numberUS3261284 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 19, 1966
Filing dateMar 26, 1962
Priority dateMar 26, 1962
Also published asDE1436661A1, DE1436661B2
Publication numberUS 3261284 A, US 3261284A, US-A-3261284, US3261284 A, US3261284A
InventorsJohnson Reynold B, Lynott John J
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Non-impact electrostatic printer
US 3261284 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 19, 1966 J. J. LYNOTT ETAL NON-IMPACT ELECTROSTATIC PRINTER 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 26, 1962 EEEE $2 596% H6583 INVENTOR. JOHN J. LYNOTT BY REYNOLD BJOHNSON 9% XS W,

ATTORNEY July 19, 1966 J. J. LYNOTT ETAL 3,251,284

NON-IMPACT ELECTROSTATIC PRINTER Filed March 26, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 BINARY LEVEL 0; 1 2 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 1O 11 12 13 14 15 Hm mm mu um um um um 1111+ {nnnunuunnnunuunnjz nuununnununuuuum ununnnj HIGH VOLTAGE CONTROLLER AMPLIFIER July 19, 1966 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 26, 1962 FIG.6

United States Patent 3,261,284 NON-IMPACT ELECTROSTATIC PRINTER John J. Lynott, Los Gatos, and Reynold B. Johnson, Palo Alto, Calif., assignors to International Business M..-

chines Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Mar. 26, 1962, Ser. No. 182,258 1 Claim. (Cl. 101-114) This invention relates to printing mechanisms in general, and more particularly to a non-impact printer of the electrostatic type.

Intensive efforts in research and development in recent years have resulted in many significant improvements in printing devices. For instance, instead of the usual type of key-moving carriage arrangement utilized in most typewriters, one typewriter now utilizes a rotatable print ball which moves transverse to the paper to be printed upon, thereby eliminating carriage movement. Likewise, developments have been made which have resulted in quieter typewriters, as well as typewriters which are less complex mechanically which provides greater reliability. However, while recent improvements have resulted in highly improved printing mechanisms, certain shortcomings still exist.

For instance, while as previously mentioned great strides forward have been made toward developing a less noisy type of printing mechanism, they are still relatively noisy since some impact mechanism must usually strike the paper or other printing medium employed. Thus, in those applications where numerous typewriters are simultaneously used, background noise often rises to a relatively high level which adversely affects both the quality and quantity of the work output of the employees subjected to it. Likewise, while the reliability of typewriters has been greatly increased, a relatively large number of moving parts are still employed. This relatively large number of moving parts not only results in a less reliable machine but, additionally, increases maintenance and repair costs since often machines which malfunction must be taken off premises for repair. Furthermore, since these typewriters are of the impact type and must, therefore, cause a print carrier such as a type key, to impact on the print medium with sufficient force to print'and return it out of the Way before the next key arrives, wear, due to acceleration and impact involved, substantially limits the life of the machine.

Other shortcomings attendant to the use of most present day typewriters are that eraser particles tend to clog print faces, and most employ a moving carriage. Moreover, due to their mechanical complexity they are heavy and are relatively expensive. Additionally, all require a carbon or similar ribbon which has a relatively short life and, consequentially, must be frequently changed. While engineering advances have simplified the ribboon changing operation, it still must be changed with a resultant loss of time.

It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a novel printing mechanism employing nonimpactprinting;

Another object of the present invention is to provide a printing mechanism which is extremely quiet, has relatively few moving parts, and is highly reliable;

Another object of the present invention is to provide a typewriter which does not require a ribbon and which has a fixed carriage;

Another object of the present invention is to provide a typewriter which is relatively inexpensive, lightweight and not subject to clogging by erasure particles;

Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel printing mechanism employing electrostaic patterns for character formation;

Another object of the present invention is to provide a printing mechanism employing electrostatic techniques to form visible toner characters on a print medium.

The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following more particular description of preferred embodiments of the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which: a

FIG. 1 is a partially cutaway isometric view of one embodiment of the herein disclosed printing mechanism which utilizes a plurality of selectively energizable electrodes in combination with a character drum for character formation.

FIG. 2 is a blown up portion of the character drum of the mechanism of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a graphic representation of strips illustrating the principle of operation of a permutation unit for use in character selection.

FIG. 4 is a partial isometric view of the character drum of the device of FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 is a combination block-isometric structural view of another embodiment of a printing mechanism which may be constructed in accordance with the present invention which utilizes a single electrode and an endless steel aperture tape in combination with a character drum for character formation.

FIG. 6 is a side view of another embodiment of a printing mechanism which may be constructed in accordance with the present invention which utilizes a dielectric web as the printing medium.

FIG. 7 is a side view illustrating another embodiment of the present invention which illustrates an endless dielectric web arrangement used for contact printing onto a print medium.

FIG. 8 is still another embodiment of the present invention which utilizes a single character wheel for printing onto a dielectric strip for pressure transfer to a print medium.

Briefly, the preferred embodiment of the present invention comprises a thin character drum or mask having a plurality of openings therein in the configuration of print characters. A micromesh screen is contained on the inner surface of the character drum. Means are provided for applying toner to the micromesh screen, such that toner print characters are formed. A plurality of electrostatic probes or electrodes are disposed adjacent to and parallel the axis of the character drum, and paper or other material to beprinted upon is passed therebetween. Energization of the electrodes will cause toner to be pulled from the character drum to the paper in the configuration of the particular print character which was in alignment with the probe upon energization. Means for selectively energizing the plurality of probes to accomplish printing responsive to an input keyboard or other external input means is provided.

Refer first to FIG. 1 wherein is shown the preferred embodiment of the subject invention. In FIG. 1 is shown a thin character drum or mask 1 which may be, for instance, .004 thick, made of conductive material. Disposed on the inner surface of the character drum 1 is a micromesh screen 2. Formed completely through the the character drum are a plurality of openings 3 in the configuration of print characters. As shown in FIG. 1, the print characters 3 on the character drum 1 are disposed around it in circumferential columns. All circumferential columns are identical such that, considering a line parallel to the axis of rotation of the character drum, it can be seen that all Zs are in alignment, all As are in alignment, etc. Means of applying toner to the character drum-mesh screen configuration are provided comprising a velvet toner roll 4 and mohair loading roll 5. Toner is applied to the mohair loading roll 5 which rotates at the same speed as the velvet toner roll 4 which in turn rotates at a speed slightly slower than the character drum 1. The velvet toner roll 4 rotates at a speed slower than the character drum 1 to produce a scrubbing action between them. In this manner toner is applied to the character drum-mesh screen configuration. It should be noted that the toner does not adhere to the character drum 1, but adheres only to the micromesh screen 2, such that print characters of toner are formed. This attraction of toner only to and retention of toner by the micromesh screen can be assured in several ways. For instance, as shown in FIG. 1, a center electrode 6 is provided having a potential applied thereto which causes the toner to be drawn toward it and thereby retained by the microswitch screen 2. In those areas other than the open areas 3 of the character drum 1, the character drum 1 acts as a shield and toner does not adhere thereto. Obviously, to act as an electrostatic shield the character drum, which is made of a conductive material, is grounded.

In FIG. 1 it should be obvious that the mohair loading roll 5, the velvet toner roll 4, the character drum 1 and the print medium feed sprocket 7 are rotated by conventional rotating means (not shown). Also, while in FIG. 1 there is shown a print medium sprocket feed mechanism 7, it will of course be apparent that any other type of feed mechanism such as a conventional roller feed, would be suitable.

Contained within the paper guide 8 are a plurality of selectively energizable electrostatic probes 9. One electrostatic probe 9 is provided for each print station. Each probe 9 is connected by leads 10 to the electrode decoder and amplifier 11. The paper guide 8 comprises not only the probe section, but also comprises a heater section 12. As is well known, toner is contained within resin and to make it adhere to the material which is to be printed on, the toner in almost all instances must be heat set. While other methods of heat setting the toner can be provided, it has been found that incorporation of the heating element in the paper guide has provided suitable heat setting.

Rotatably mounted on shaft 13 about which character drum 1 is rotated and afiixed to drum 1 is a photoelectric cell arm 14 having mounted on the outer extremity thereof a photoelectric cell 15. The photoelectric cell 15 is electrically connected to the slip ring 16, which in turn is electrically connected by means of leads 17 to the electrode decoder and amplifier 11. A plurality of permutation disks 18-1811 are rotatably mounted on the shaft 13 and free to rotate with respect thereto. Each permutation disk 18-18n is connected by means of an arm 19-19n to a solenoid armature 20-2011 which moves a predetermined distance upon energization of the solenoids 21-- 21. The solenoid-permutation disk unit is the character selection means in that it enables selection of a particular row of print characters across the drum 1 by means of a binary input. For instance, if there are to be 128 different characters in each circumferential column disposed on character drum 1, there would be 8 permutation disks and associated solenoids 21. The solenoids 21 are energized by striking the keys of the input keyboard 22, which provides a parallel binary output to the solenoids to accomplish energization of selected solenoids to select the particular character which is to be printed as will hereinafter become apparent from the following discussion. The electrode decoder and amplifier 11 may be of any conventional design. One such electrode and electrode decoder and amplifier is shown in US. Patent 2,726,940 to Buhler entitled Xerographic Printer.

Disposed on the opposite side of the permutation disks 18 from the photo cell 15 is a ring light source 23. As the photocell 15 rotates about the shaft 13 only one set of openings in the permutation disks will be in alignment, such that light is passed from the light source 23 to the photocell 15. It is at this instance that the photocell 15 emits an output pulse which is amplified and furnished to the particular electrostatic probe 9 involved. This operation will hereinafter become more clear.

In FIG. 3 are shown four straight strips, each corresponding to a binary level, i.e., 1, 2, 4, and 8. While these strips are shown for simplicity of operational description as straight in FIG. 3, it will become apparent that these strips could be formed in a circular configuration to form a circular disk member as is the actual case in FIG. 1. Each of the strips is selectively movable into one of two positions by a moving mechanism (not shown) which corresponds to the solenoids 21 of FIG. 1. Each of the strips are divided into 16 cells numbered 015. A rectangular shaped opening 27 is located in each cell either in the right or lift hand portion thereof. For instance, considering the uppermost strip labeled Binary Level 1 in cell 0, it can be seen that an opening is conin the right hand half, whereas the opening is contained in the left hand half of cell 1. As will hereinafter become obvious, the placing of the openings in either the left hand or right hand half of the cells will determine at which position the openings are in alignment, such that if there were a light source-photocell arrangement as shown in FIG. 1, alignment would exist and light would pass through all the strips and strike the photocell to cause an output pulse. The movement of each strip upon actuation of its associated binary mechanism is to the right for approximately one-half of the cell width. The permutation strips of FIG. 3 are shown in their initial or deenergized position with none of the binary positioning mechanisms corresponding to levels 1, 2, 4 or 8 energized. Thus, the output from the keyboard in this instance would be 0000 to each solenoid. It can readily be seen that if binary positioning mechanisms 4, 2 and 1 were energized, the openings in the strips would be in alignment such that position 7 would pass light. Likewise, it can be seen that if binary positioning mechanisms 8, 4 and 1 were energized, position 13 would pass light. Thus, if a photocell-light source combination were to pass along the strips on opposite sides thereof, an output pulse would be emitted from the photocell upon encountering the particular position at which the openings of the strips are in alignment, and this particular position is selected as heretofore explained by selectively activating the binary positioning mechanisms corresponding to binary levels 1, 2, 4 and 8. While to facilitate the description of operation of the permutation unit, only four permutation strips have been shown, it will, of course, be apparent that any number of permutation strips or disks could be employed; the limiting factor is the number of rows of print which can be physically placed on the character drum 1.

In FIG. 4 is shown a partial isometric view of the character drum of FIG. 1. In FIG. 4 a blank space 28 is shown on the periphery of the drum 29. During positioning of the permutation disks '18 responsive to energization of solenoids 21, it is possible that erroneous alignment through the disks may temporarily take place with the result that a pulse may be applied to a probe 9. To

prevent this occurrence, the blank space is provided in the character selection mask, and positioning of the permutartion disks 21 takes place during the time that the blank space of the character selection drum is adjacent the probes 9. Other types of muting devices could, of course, be provided to prevent the generation of pulses during alignment of the permutation disks, but this method has been found to be quite simple. Positioning of the permutation disks 18 at the moment that the blank space on the character drum 1 is adjacent the row of electrostatic probes 9 is accomplished by having the permutation units 18 always in alignment when the blank space is adjacent the probes 9 such that a pulse is emitted by the photocell which is gated with the binary code set up in the keyboard. Thus, only during the time that the blank space of the character drum 1 is adjacent the probes 9 can the code "be fed to the solenoids of the permutation unit.

The electrode decoder and amplifier III, which is the print station selector means, receives pulses from the slip ring 16, amplifies them and feeds them to a selected electrostatic probe 9. The electrode decoder and amplifier 11 has contained therein a progression or other similar type switch, such that as the code is entered from the keyboard 22 to the permutation disks 18, the switch is stepped forward one position allowing the next probe 9 in the line to be energized. Thus, the probes 9 are selectively energized across the print medium 24 to print a line at a time. In the event that no code is set up during a revolution, the stepping switch, of course, does not advance.

The number of output lines from the keyboard 22 is dependent upon the number of keys 25 on the keyboard. For instance, if 64 keys were on the keyboard, a 6 level binary code would be required. By striking a particular key 25 on the keyboard, a binary input code is set up on the lines leading from the keyboard, which in this instance are the leads to the solenoids 21 of the permutation unit. The keyboard must have the feature that even though a key has been struck the output from the keyboard is delayed pending acceptance of a read or print signalfrom a computer, or as in this case, the permutation unit indicating that the blank portion of the character mask 1 is in alignment with the row of electrostatic probes 9. Thus, energization of the solenoids of the permutation unit is accomplished under control of the input keyboard.

As heretofore described, the permutation disks 18 are aligned such that when the desired line of print characters on the rotating character drum 1 are in alignment with the row of electrostatic probes 9, light is received through the disks .18 from the light 23 source by the photocell 15. The photocell 15 at this time emits an output pulse which is fed along lines 17 from slip ring 16 to the electrode decoder and amplifier .11. The electrode decoder 11 amplifies the pulse received from the photocell 15 to a level such that when it is applied to a probe 9, sufficient electrostatic force will exist between the probe and the character mask to draw toner from the particular print character in alignment with it to the print medium 24 disposed between the charaoter drum 1 and probe 9. The electrode decoder 11 also as heretofore described acts as a controller to the probes in that it channels the amplified .phototube pulse to the proper probe 9.

It will be obvious then that upon energization of one of the plurality of probes 9, toner will be pulled from the character drum 1 onto the paper 24 from the particular print character involved. The toner will be pulled onto the paper in the configuration that it was on the character drum mesh screen combination as shown for example in FIG. 2 which shows a mesh screen FIGURE 26. Thus, by selective energization of the plurality of electrostatic probes 9, a line the width of the character drum 1 can be printed line by line upon a paper 24 or other medium to be printed upon. When one line of printing has been completed, the paper as in conventional typewriters is stepped up one line and printing on the next line commenced.

Refer next to FIG. 5 which is another embodiment of the subject invention wherein is shown a printer controller 30 connected along line .31 to a character selector 32. This character selector 32 corresponds to the heretofore described permutation unit of FIG. 1 comprising solenoids, disks, light source and photocell and is mechanically tied to the shaft on which the character drum 38 is mounted. It should also be understood that the printer controller 30 of FIG. 5 correspond-s to the input keyboard 22 of FIG. 1. Printer controller merely being a term which is intended to encompass not only input keyboard-sot the type of FIG. 1, but is intended to encompass any other type of controller which may be used to control the printing operation. In FIG. 5 the character drum 38 is constructed the same as the character drum-mesh screen configuration of FIG. 1. As illustrated in FIG. 5 however, toner is contained within the character drum 38 rather than applied externally, and there is no electrode in the character drum 3-8 as in the embodiment of FIG. 1. Likewise, as shown in FIG. 5, there is a high voltage electrode 39 adjacent to and extending the entire length of and parallel to the axis of rotation of the character drum 38. Disposed between the high voltage electrode 39 and the character drum is an endless steel tape 40. Contained in this steel tape 40 is an aperture 41 the size of the largest print character on the character drum 3-8. The steel tape 40 thus acts as a shield allowing electrostatic forces to pass from the high voltage electrode 39 upon energization only through the aperture 41. Thus, if a sheet of paper or other print medium 42 to be printed upon is disposed bet-ween the character drum 38 and the endless steel tape 40, upon energization of the high voltage electrode 39 toner will be pulled from the character drum 38 to the paper 42 only from the print character which is in alignment with the aperture 41.

There is also shown a conventional high voltage amplifier 34 connected to receive an input from the character selector-32 by means of line 33 as well as to the high voltage electrode 39 by means of line 43. The printer controller 30 is connected along line 31 to the character selector and also is connected along line 36 to a tape position control 35. The tape position control 35 may be of a conventional type such as a rotary stepping switch which imparts a stepping movement to the steel tape 40 under control of the printer controller 30 or of the ratchet and pawl type.

Thus, in operation the character selector 32, similar to the permutation unit of FIG. 1, under control of the printer controller 30 sets up the particular transverse row of characters on the character drum 38 which are to be adjacent the steel tape 40 upon energization of the electrode 39. Likewise, the printer controller 30, as the permutation unit 32 is set up, sends a pulse along line 36 to the tape position control 35 which steps the tape 40 forward one position. Thus, the aperture 41 is caused to step forward one position across the character'drum 38. When proper alignment exists in the disks of the character selector 32, an output pulse is emitted by the photocell to the high voltage amplifier 34. The amplified pulse is then applied to the electrode 39 thereby drawing toner through the character drum and mesh screen to the print medium 42 disposed between the character drum 38 and the endless steel tape 40 only from the print character in alignment with the aperture 41. Again, as in the embodiment of FIG. 1, the toner is drawn onto the paper 42 or other medium to be printed upon in the configuration of the particular print character involved.

Refer next to FIG. 6 wherein is shown another embodiment of the subject invention which is particularly suited for use in those applications in which extremely high speed printing is required. From a consideration of the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 5, it can be seen that the character drum cannot be rotated at extremely high speeds since toner would be flung from the character drum. Thus, for high speed applications the embodiment of FIG. 6 is provided which does not require toner to be placed on or in the extremely high speed rotating character drum 40.

In FIG, 6 the character drum 77 has a long center electrode 78 which is grounded by means of a wiper 79. Disposed parallel to the axis of rotation of the character drum 77 is a plurality of selectively energizable high voltage electrodes 80, as in FIG. 1, or the steel tape-single electrode arrangement of FIG. 5. A material 47 having dielectric characteristics is fed from the reel 44 over the paper guide 46 which is disposed between the character drum 77 and the plurality of selectively energizable electrodes 80. The dielectric 47 then passes by a toning station comprising toner rolls 48 and 49, through a heat fixing station comprising heat platens 50 and 51 and onto the take-up reel 45. Not shown in FIG. 6, but which is obviously necessary, are the permutation unit and method of selectively energizing the high voltage electrodes.

In operation as the probes are selectively energized, an electrostatic pattern is printed upon the dielectric 47 by the character drum 77 acting as a shield such that an electrostatic pattern in the form of the particular print character involved is formed on the dielectric which, upon application of toner, provides a visible image. The developed dielectric then passes through the heat fixing station 5051 and then on to the take-up reel 45. Thus, as is obvious from a consideration of this embodiment, relatively high printing speeds can be obtained since toner is applied to the dielectric, not from the rotating character drum 77 but from the external toner applicator.

Refer next to FIG. 7, which like the embodiment of FIG. 6, is particularly suited for use in those applications wherein relatively high speed printing is required. In FIG. 7 is shown a dielectric 52 fed between a character drum 53 and the plurality of selectively energizable electrodes 54, or the single electrode and steel tape arrangement of FIG. 5. The dielectric 52 is also fed past a. toner station 5556 and past a contact printing station comprising two pressure rollers 57 and 58 and a feed reel 61 and take-up reel 62 for feeding paper or other material 64 which is to be printed upon in rolling contact with the dielectric 52. While in FIG. 7 the dielectric 52 is shown to be an endless belt which is erased by the discharge unit 63 prior to being returned to the print operation station, it is, of course, obvious that the dielectric 52 need not be an endless belt, but may be for instance a web which is fed to a take-up reel.

The operation of the embodiment of FIG. 7 as far as the printing of the latent electrostatic images is identical to that of FIG. 6. The dielectric 52 then passes the toning station 5556 where toner is applied to develop the electrostatic image, but then passes to the contact printing station 57-58. At the contact printing station 57-58 the web of paper 64 is brought into rolling pressure contact with the dielectric 52 to thereby transfer the toner image on the dielectric 52 to the paper 58. Thus, as is obvious, the embodiment of FIG. 7 like the embodiment of FIG. 6 is ideally suited for those applications where high speed printing is required. Further, the embodiment of FIG. 7 provides a method of inexpensively providing high speed printing without the necessity of printing directly onto a dielectric and utilizing the dielectric for storage as is necessary in the embodiment of FIG. 6.

Refer next to FIG. 8 wherein is shown another embodiment which is admirably suited for use in those applications where a relatively inexpensive printing mechanism is required. In FIG. 8 is shown a strip of dielectric material 65 which is fed from a feed reel 66 to a take-up reel 67 in tangential relationship past a character wheel 68. A first electrode 69 is disposed on one side of the character wheel and a second electrode 70 is disposed on the opposite side of the dielectric tape at the point of tangency between the character wheel 68 and the dielectric tape 65. A permutation unit consisting of permutation disks 71, light source 72, photocell 73 tied to the rotation of character wheel 68, and high voltage amplifier (not shown) is provided. The operation of this permutation unit and high voltage amplifier is as heretofore described in conjunction with FIGS. 1 and 5. Thus, latent electrostatic images are formed on the dielectric 65 which is then fed by conventional drive means (not shown) past a toning roller 74. The dielectric tape 65 is then fed past a paper 75 or other medium to be printed upon, and is brought into alignment therewith one line at a time. A pressure transfer roller 76 is then caused to move along the dielectric tape 65 causing it to be brought into pressure contact with the paper 75. The roller 76 is then returned to its original position and another line is printed on the dielectric tape and again pressure transferred. This embodiment, as is obvious, is quite inexpensive and simple in operation and is admirably suited for those applications where extremely high speed printing is not required and medium speed printing can be tolerated. The embodiment of FIG. 8 is also quite inexpensive in that only one electrode is utilized and thus the output pulse furnished by the photocell 73 can be amplified and fed directly to the electrode without the necessity of selecting a particular electrode as in the embodiment of FIG. 1.

In the above described manner there has been provided a novel non-impact printer employing electrostatic techniques which is not only relatively quiet, but which is mechanically simple, highly reliable, and relatively inexpensive. Additionally, there has been provided a printing mechanism which does not require a moving carriage and which does not require a conventional type ribbon. Moreover, while the non-impact printer herein presented is capable of extremely high speed operation, it unlike normal impact printing mechanisms, is not subject to increased wear or unreliability due to the high speed operation.

While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and other changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

Apparatus for printing on a print medium comprising:

a rotatable cylindrical character member containing a plurality of circumferential columns of character forming openings,

toner retaining means in said character forming openings,

means for applying toner to said toner retaining means,

a single electrode in electrostatic relationship with said cylindrical character member extending substantially parallel to the axis of rotation thereof and separated therefrom to allow said print medium to pass therebetween,

shielding means including an aperture for selectively shielding portions of said single electrode disposed between said electrode and said cylindrical character member,

and means for sequentially stepping said aperture of said selective shielding means along said single electrode.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,278,964 9/1918 MacGill 346-74 2,586,047 2/1952 I-Iuebner 118637 X 2,643,753 6/1953 Wohlgemuth 197-18 2,676,100 4/1954 Huebner 118-637 X 2,726,940 12/1955 Buhler 101 (Other references on following page) 9 UNITED STATES PATENTS Gundlach 118-637 X Bolton 118-637 X Green et a1. 101 Hickerson 197-16 Hickerson 1971 X Bolton 118637 Schwertz 101 Hoffman 101 Schwartz 101 Shull 101-93 10 3,081,698 3/1963 Childress 101 3,160,091 12/1964 Schwertz 101 3,161,544 12/1964 Berry 101 FOREIGN PATENTS 81,920 9/1956 Denmark. 1,051,870 3/1959 Germany.

DAVID KLEIN, Primary Examiner.

10 ROBERT E. PULFREY, Examiner.

ERNEST R. WRIGHT, Assistant Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3340802 *May 19, 1966Sep 12, 1967Electrostatic Printing CorpElectrostatic printing wherein screen carries powder between loading and printing points
US3358592 *Mar 17, 1966Dec 19, 1967Xerox CorpElectrographic printing
US3362325 *Jul 12, 1965Jan 9, 1968Borg WarnerElectrostatic printer employing belt type stencil thru which ions are deposited
US3383699 *Nov 25, 1964May 14, 1968Honeywell IncElectrostatic recorder with drive system including feedback means
US3392642 *Jan 25, 1965Jul 16, 1968Germer HorstApparatus for printing
US3413654 *Nov 25, 1964Nov 26, 1968Honeywell IncElectrostatic trace recorder
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US3971040 *Aug 20, 1975Jul 20, 1976Skala Stephen FInk drop printer with traversing orifice band
US4038916 *Nov 10, 1975Aug 2, 1977Burroughs CorporationElectrostatic imaging apparatus
US4117518 *Nov 11, 1976Sep 26, 1978Skala Stephen FInk drop facsimile system
Classifications
U.S. Classification101/114, 400/152, 101/110, 400/136, 347/146, 400/161, 101/93.21, 399/265, 400/155, 400/462, 400/118.2, 400/100, 347/55
International ClassificationB41M1/12, G03G15/32, G03G15/00, G06K15/02, G06K15/14, B41J2/41
Cooperative ClassificationG06K15/14, G03G15/321, B41M1/125, B41J2/41
European ClassificationG03G15/32C, B41M1/12B, B41J2/41, G06K15/14