US 3261741 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 19, 1966 H. BIDWELL APPARATUS FOR lREPARING PAPER STOCKS Original Filed May 1'7, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet l L imi en. ...f
wmf mn? July 19y 1966 H. BIDWELL APPARATUS FOR FREPARING PAPER STOCKS Original Filed May 17, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. /wara/ @mz/06H July 19, 1966 H. BlDwELL APPARATUS FOR PREPARING PAPER STOCKS Original Filed May 17, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. /L/Ow'ard /a/afel/ @and July 19, 1966 H. BTDWELL 3,261,741
APPARATUS FOR PREPARING PAPER STOCKS Original Filed May 17, 1961 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 SUPPLY AIR DRY SUPPLY ATR DRY HARD FIDERS SOFT FIBERS SUPPLY WET STOCK /4 STOCK STOCK E 5 PRECOND|T|ON1NG PRECONDITIONINO ZI 2 m m 5 STOCK STOCK i J DLENDING BLENDlNO SUPPLY WET STOCK STOCK STOCK THICKENING REFlNlNG WET OR DRY PTDROUS ,/-WHITE WATER MATLS. WHWE STOCK STOCK WATE-R- PRECONDITIONINO PROPORTIONINO ,/ALTERNATE ENTRANCE MOISTURE |MD|B|NAT|ON STOCK THICKENING /WHITE WATER FIBER DEFORMINO STOCK BLENDING ACCEPTED STOCK CHEST 1 TO PAPER MAKING MACHINE INVENTOR. Hawai/o /a/we [l BY am United States Patent O 3,261,741 APPARATUS FR PREPARING PAPER STOCKS Howard Bidwell, Granby, Mass., assigner of fifty percent to Rachel Bidwell, Granby, Mass. Original application May 17, 1961, Ser. No. 118,756. Divided and this application .lune 30, 1964, Ser. No.
3 Claims. (Cl. 162-261) This application is a division of my copending application Ser. No. 118,756 filed May 17, 1961.
This invention relates t-o methods `and apparatus for preparing paper stocks for subsequent processing. More particularly it relates to methods and apparatus for the reduction or dry, raw, fibrous aggregate to a suitable condition for further processing and refining.
In general, this invention relates to apparatus comprising `granular working surfaces contoured to manipulate paper stock to accomplish pulp processing and is exemplified by my Letters Patents Nos. 2,912,174 dated Nov. 10, 1959, 2,936,128 dated May l0, 1960, 3,058,678 dated Oct. 16, 1962 and 3,116,028 dated Dec. 3, 1963 and by my copending applications, Ser. No. 78,072 filed Dec. 23, 1960, Ser. No. 89,423 filed Feb. 15, 1961 and Ser. No. 93,272 tiled Mar. 3, 1961.
More particularly, the invention relates to methods and aparatus for processing either Wet or dry, raw, fibrous, tinrened aggregate for a reconditioned state for propagating moisture penetration through the outer primary walls of the fibers for expediting moisture absorption by the cellulose strands that comprise the several layers and zones of the inner secondary wall of the fiber to the end of promoting a more rapid fiber development to an accepted stock condition for attaining a reduction in the amount of required further processing whereby to elimi-- nate the cutting action and other detrimental effects that consistently accompany the conventional processing techniques employing the principle of bar against bar.
In general, this invention envisions methods and apparatus comprehending a fiber reconditioning phase for more general operational use in conjunction with working surfaces contoured to manipulate paper stock over granular surfaced processing surfaces as exemplified in my aforementioned Letters Patent and copending applications.
The principal object of the invention is directed to achieving the reduction of either wet or dry unrefined raw aggregate of all types to a readjusted condition as respects stock moisture content, delineated as stock consistency, and/ or stock density and also to achieving a reconditioned state of constituent fibers as respects moisture permeability of the outer primary walls tof the fibers which normally resist moisture penetration and moisture accessibility to the cellulose strands confined within the outer primary walls, which strands constitute the various layers and zones of the secondary walls.
tRaW, dry, unrefined, fibrous aggregate of all types may be reduced to a fiowable stock in such manner that the fiibrous characteristics of the stock, whatever its nature, are rapidly transformed Afrom a rigid, stiff, unyielding condition, to a tempered condition wherein the fibers are characterized by softness, pliability and toughness.
Tempered fibers are more resistant to cutting and reduction of their length than are dry fibers. Moreover, tempered fibrous materials can be readily separated into individual fibers and readjusted as to an increased or higher stock density to facilitate their extrusion in the form of dense, compact Wads so as to aid in more effectively abrading the primary Walls of the constituent fibers.
Raw, wet, unrefined, fibrous chemical or semi-chemical or other pulps, including preconditioned aggregates in fiowable slurry form, may be readjusted, as to the stock density of the lfiber-to-liquid ratio, to a suitable density for extruding in the form of a dense, compact, wad and also for providing an effective means for breaking down the primary fiber walls of the constituent fibers.
Additionally, it is an object of the present invention to achieve a suitable altered condition of raw, unrefined, aggregate stock as respects stock density and/ or consistency pertaining t-o the fiber-to-liquid ratio of all types of organic fibrous materials, regardless of their origin, such as wet or dry pulps which are moisture preconditioned to a state of mobility and handleability, if need be, for stock reconditioning the physical state and condition of the primary walls of the constituent fibers from a moisture resistant state to that of a free moisture transmissible state all to the end of sufficiently promoting free moisture imbibition by the cellulose strands of the inner layers comprising the several zones, which constitute the secondary inner wall of a fiber, so as to release the cellulose strands from the restricted bonding and confinement of the outer primary wall, thereby to permit swelling action and exposure of the cellulose strands. Such swelling and exposure is essential to the development of a so-called state of hydration and/or to the attainment of the gelatinous effects without the fiber cutting action or other detrimental effects whereby is eliminated the necessity for the refining methods as practiced by the more conventional techniques. Such procedures as here taught produce results superior to those obtainable by conventional methods and in less time and with less eX- penditure of power.
Another salient object of the invention hereof is to provide means for the reduction of paper broke for the return thereof from the papermaking machine to its cooperant stock preparation system.
Other and further objects and advantages are made apparent in the disclosure of the accompanying drawings and in the following specification and claims:
FIG. l is an elevational view in cross section of one type of paper stock preconditioner embodying the invention;
FlG. 2 is a view in plan, partly in section, of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view in section, on line 3 3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an end View in cross section showing an alternative form of preconditioner embodying the invention;
FIG. 5 is a side view in cross section of the apparatus shown in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a plan view, partly in section, of the apparatus shown in FIG. 5; Y
FIG. 7 is a view in section, on line 7-7 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is an elevational view, in cross section, of one end of a paper broke reclaiming unit;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary side view of the unit of FIG. 8 shown as attached at its bottom center point;
FIG. 10 is a diagrammatical view showing a reclaiming apparatus oriented in relation to the .dry end of a papermaking machine;
FIGS. 1l and 12 are diagrammatical views showing the application of the invention for reclaiming paper web at the wet end of a papermaking machine; and
FIG. 13 is a schematic flow line diagram showing one method of interconnecting the apparatus, exemplified and shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 in my copending parent application, Ser. No. 118,756, as arranged for operating in conjunction with the apparatus shown in FIGS. 4, 5, 6 and 7 of this application, all of which are component `parts of a continuous flow integrated stock blending and processing system arranged for receiving either wet or dry aggregate materials or both wet stock and dry aggregate material for processing preparatory to subsequent processing for producing a superior quality of accepted stock, free of cut fibers and other detrimental effects characteristic of conventional refining techniques.
It has been found that superior reduction of a dry, raw, fibrous material can be obtained by moisture-penetrating or ltempering a portion of the aggregate and continuously separating the so tempered or penetrated portion of the aggregate from the remainder.
In FIGS. l-3, shown generally at 8, is one type of apparatus for preconditioning raw paper stock prior to introduction of the stock into apparatus for carrying out subsequent phases tof the pulp preparation process, such as described in my copending application, Ser. No. 93,272. The apparatus embodying the invention comprises a chamber or vessel opening upwardly to permit the introduction of raw paper stock, such as shown at 12, in FIG. 1. The vessel includes an inlet opening 14 for fluid and an opening 16 for discharging water-borne stock. Disposed within the vessel are a plurality of granular-surfaced cylindrical rolls 18, 20, 22 and 24, mounted in side-by-side, spaced relation with their axes parallel. The rolls are formed of a porous, or moisturepervious, coarse, granular material of t-he type described in my above-referenced patents and applications. As shown, the rolls are mounted on tubular shafts 26 which are provided with a number of radially extending holes or perforations 28 to enable fluid to be forced through the porous granular material and discharged radially from the outer surfaces Vof the rolls. For ease of manufacture the rolls may be, and as shown are, composed of a number of sections.
As shown, the tubular shafts extend through openings in the walls of the vessel which may be sealed by seal rings 29. The shafts are supported by bearings 30 and may be rotated by any suitable means, not shown. The shafts 26 may be drivingly connected to the cylindrical rolls by any suitable means such as end plates 32 and bolts 34.
In the arrangement shown, the rolls are rotated in the same direction such as indicated by .the arrows in FIG. 1 with their upper surface portions moving generally toward the inlet -opening 14. The rolls are preferably rotated at relatively slow speeds so as to separate the tempered portions of the fibrous aggregate with minimum damage to the fibers, the lspeed of rotation of each roll being different than the speed of the adjacent rolls. In the illustrated embodiment, the roll is rotated at a speed twice the speed of rotation of the roll 18, and the roll 22 is'rotated at twice the speed of rotation of the roll 20, and ithe roll 24 is rotated at twice the speed of rotation of the roll 22. The major portion of the vaporpenetrated aggregate is thus carried toward the roll 18. The roll 1S is preferably rotated at a substantially lower rate than the other rolls and acts more or less as an anvil against which the major portion of the vapor-penetrated stock is carried and introduced into the liuid flowing into the vessel through opening 14.
The surfaces of the rolls are deeply scored or contoured to provide efficient fiber separation and motivation with minimum damage or breakage of the individual fibers. In operation of the apparatus shown in FIGS. 1-3, the dry fibrous aggregate 12 is charged or introduced into the vessel through its top opening so that it comes to rest directly on the upper surfaces of the granular-surfaced rolls. Fluid, such as low-pressure steam, is introduced into the tubular shafts with sufiicient pressure to be emitted radially from the surfaces of the rolls. The steam rapidly penetratesthe fibers of the stock aggregate contiguous the roll surfaces. The steam tempers the fibers, in effect, paving the way for more rapid saturation when the stock comes into contact with fluid introduced into the vessel through pipe connection 14. The tempered fibers of the `stock are characterized by pliability, tensile strength and handleability superior to the dry fibers. Moreover, the tempered portions of the fibrous aggregate are readily separable, with `minimum ber damage, from the remainder of the aggregate composed of the dry or untempered fibers. Continuous rotation of granular-surfaced, vapor-emitting rolls acts to further separate the tempered bers and transfer them into the fluid fiowing below the rolls in such a state of wettablity that they quickly become moisture-saturated.
Rotation of the granular-surfaced rolls 1.8, 2t? and 22 turbulently advances the water-borne pulp toward the outlet opening 16 from which the pulp may be introduced into apparatus suitable for carrying out subsequent phases in the pulp-making process.
While the conditioner, shown and described in FIGS. 1 3, is highly effective for preconditioning fibrous materials of the type considered easy to pulp, in FIGS. 4 7 is shown an apparatus 40 preferable for use in preconditioning materials considered difficult to pulp, such as hair seed fibers, which may be in sheet or bulk form, or in the form of woven fabrics.
The conditioner 40 comprises a vessel or chamber 42 supported by a base 44. The vessel has an open top for receiving pulp 46 which may be introduced into the vessel by means of a conveyor, such as shown at 48.
The conditioner comprises a pair of coarse, granularsurfaced rolls 5t) and S2 disposed in spaced, side-by-side relation with their axes parallel and lying in a generally horizontal plane for supporting the aggregate on their upper surfaces. The rolls are of generally porous character as described above, and are mounted on tubular shafts S4 and 56. The shafts may be provided with openings or perforations for supplying fluids such as lowpressure steam, water, or a combination of both which may be introduced into the shafts through any suitable rotary joints, such as shown at 57. Due to the porous nature of the cylindrical rolls, the fluids will be discharged from the outer surfaces of the rolls. Means is provided for rotating the rolls 50 and 52 at different speeds and with their upper surfaces moving inwardly and downwardly for carrying the moisture-penetrated pulp downwardly toward a rotor 64 and for reducing the moisture-penetrated portions of the aggregate as it passes through the nip. The reducing action depends on the differential speeds of the rolls and their coarse surface texture and contouring. The rolls 50 and 52 comprise separate granular sections. Two of the granular sections tend to propel the aggregate in one direction, to the right as shown in FIG. 6, While the contours of the remaining sections tend to reverse this direction of movement of the aggregate. This opposing movement of the aggregate along the axes of the rolls and within the chamber 46, increases the effectiveness of the reduction of the aggregate. In the embodiment shown, the `roll drive means comprises motors 58 and 59 drivingly engaged with the tubular shafts 54 and 56 respectively by worms 60 and pinions 62.
The rotor 64 is disposed below the rolls 5t) and S2 with its axis parallel to the axes of the upper rolls and directly below the nip formed by the opposed surfaces of the upper rolls. The rotor has a coarse granular outer surface similar to the rolls 5t) and 52 and is also porous in nature. The rotor is mounted on a tubular drive shaft 65 which may be perforated to supply or remove by suction fluid from the conditioning vessel through the porous rotor. In this way the amount of fluid in the vessel 42 may be effectively controlled to obtain stock having the desired characteristics. The shaft 65 may be driven by any suitable means, not shown, for rotating the shaft at a different speed and preferably faster than the upper rolls. The rotor 64 comprises a cylindrical portion and a frusto-conical portion 66 at its outer end.
The rotor 64 is spirally contoured throughout its length to impel the stock toward a discharge orifice 68. The rotor is mounted within a coarse granular-surfaced porous shell or stator member 70 disposed in the bottom of the conditioner, extending generally throughout the length of the cylindrical portion of the rotor. The inner surface of the stator is coaxial with and radially spaced from the outer surface of the rotor 64. The portion of the stator underlying the upper rolls is of generally semi-cylindrical configuration, while the remainder of the stator is cylindrical, entirely surrounding the rotor.
Drain openings 72 are provided in the bottom of the vessel 42 for discharge of surplus water which passes through the walls of the porous stator 7 0.
The conical end portion of the rotor 64 extends into a chamber 73 of conical cross section communicating with the orifice 68. As the fibrous mass is forced toward the conical end of the vessel by the contoured rotor 64, the fibrous mass is de-watered, that is, unabsorbed or surplus water is extracted from the mass. The de-watered fibers are forced through the orifice 68 into a chamber 76 in a dense, firm, compact mass or wad. Disposed within the chamber 76 is another granular-surfaced roll '78 disposed with its axis normal to the axis of the rotor 64. Means, such as motor 84, is provided for rotating the roll 78. The orifice 68 is of relatively small cross sectional size terminating adjacent the periphery of the roll 78 to insure engagement of the maximum number of fibers with the coarse surface of the roll. The chamber also includes an adjustable granular-surfaced shoe 80 extending through a portion of the periphery of the roll 78. The spacing between the opposed surfaces of the shoe 30 and the roll is adjustable by cam 81 for effective abrading action on the fibers. The chamber 76 is provided with an outlet 82 through which the preconditioned fibrous material may be supplied to subsequent apparatus employed in the pulp- Ving process.
Water for lubricating the fiber abrading action is introduced into chamber 76 just above the point where the extruded fibers contact the abrading wheel perimeter from ports provided for that purpose (not shown). Additional water may be supplied through port 83, as required.
Operation of the apparatus shown in FIGS. 4-7 is commenced by introduction of dry, fibrous stock aggregate, through the top opening of the vessel. As shown in FIG. 4, this material is supported by the upper surfaces of the rolls 50 and 52. The stock supporting rolls are rotated in opposite directions such as indicated by arrows in FIG, 4. The fiuid, such as low-pressure ste-am, discharged from the rolls continuously penetrates the fibers of the aggregate, contiguous with the surface of the rolls. Rotation ofthe coarse, granular-surfaced rolls gently separate the vapor-penetrated portions of the aggregate from `the remainder of the aggregate and carries them downwardly toward the upper surface of the rotor 64. Rotation of the rotor acts to maintain the surfaces of the upper rolls in generally clean ycondition `and causes further reduction of the fibrous aggregate. The surface contouring of the rotor `advances the pulp toward the orifice 68.
The conical end 66 of the rotor 64 and the orifice 68 act to compress the moisturedaden fibers extending surplus or unabsorbed water and discharging it through the porous cylindrical stator 70 and the ports 72. The rotor 64 forces the fibers in a dense compact mass through the orifice 68. The action of the coarse-surfaced rotor 78 on the dense wad of fibers effectively ruptures and removes the primary wall portions of the fibers. Primary wall is the name applied to the tenacious outer surface of cellulosic fibers. Unless the primary wall is broken down or ruptured sufficiently to permit full utilization of fiber affinity for moisture, extensive beating of the pulp is rcquired. As mentioned above, the rotor 78 exerts an abrading action on the dense fibrous mass forced through the orifice 68 with the attainment of a high degree of fiber treatment such that the maximum number of fibers are subjected to rupture and at least partial removal of their primary wall. Fibers so treated are prone to rapid swelling and the formation of fibrels with a resultant increase in external fibrous surface area which enables rapid and effective fiber treatment in the following refining phase as well as high bonding ability.
While the conical end 66 of the rotor is shown as being granular surfaced, it may alternatively be of metallic construction on which spiral fiutes are provided to effect discharge of the fibers through orifice 68.. The inner wall of the con-ical chamber 73 may also be provided with spiral flutes which will cooperate in the transmission of the fiber mass through the orifice 68.
While the above description of the apparatus sho-wn in FIGS. 4, 5, 6 and 7 has been made on the basis of its being operated independently for the treatment of dry fibrous materials, it is to be understood that itis not necessarily to be confined to such limited operation as it is equally effective in reconditioning wet flowable and nonflowable -unrefined pulps. Additionally, it is effective in reconditioning the stock density of wet pulps to a higher or lower stock consistency as desired by reversing the flow of moisture at will through rolls -50 and S2, hollow shafts 54 and 56, and rotary joints 57, by the manipulation of provided valve means, not shown, which will connect to the desired ty/pe of service, such `as vacuum, for the removal o-f fluids as in the case of tubular drive shaft 65.
When the apparatus of FIGS. 4, 5, 6 and 7 is used singularly and independently, with .all rolls 50, 52 and 64 operating under suction of partial vacuum, it may be used for reducing raw unrefined pulp from a fiowafble slurry condition to a reconditioned state as respects both the moisture content of the stock and its mobility and handleability since t-he apparatus `may be manipulated to receive fibrous stocks in a slurry form and to discharge the so received slurry material as individualized fibers in a semidry fluffy non-flowable state by virtue of the allowed moisture readjustment and the abrading action of rotor 78 on the compact wad.
Additionally to the above mentioned effects resulting from the reconditioning operation performed by this apparatus is the fact that the actual physical properties of the fibers have been changed due to their undergoing a definite alteration in the tough primary outer fiber which formerly was highly resistant to moisture penetration and consequently ,prevented swelling of the inner cellulose strands, ybut which now no longer form a barrier to free moisture wherefore it may be made readily accessible to the cellulose strands constituting the fiber inner layers making up the sto-called secondary fiber wall, thereby Ipermitting moisture inhibition and swelling and greatly reducing the need for the usual customary refining techniques in the achievement of a predetermined quality of accepted stock condition, and also without the fiber cutting action which consistently accompanies conventional refining techniques.
For the reasons submitted above, the apparatus shown in FIGS. 1 .to 3 may -be referred to as the 'preconditioner and the apparatus shown in FIGS. 4 to 7 may he referred to as the reconditioner. Such terminology is more accurately descriptive of the functions of the two described types of apparatus. Particularly as respects the latter type of apparatus in view of the plurality of ways in which its utility may be exploited, either separately an-d/ or in conjunction with arrangements with other apparatus, as will be apparent =by a reference to the flow line diagram (FIG. 13) which also includes a multi-stock processing arrangement.
The efiiciency of the reconditioner is, of course, increased when preceded by a thickener when supplied with low consistency stocks.
It has been found that very little poiwer input is required to precondition the fibrous aggregate from its condition of maximum fiber affinity, or resistance to separation, to a condition in which the fibers are readily separable.
The application of this invention is not confined to the preparation of raw stock but may also be suitably applied for reduction of either wet or dry paper broke such as may occur at either the wet or dry ends of a paper making machine. Utilization of a conditioner similar to the type described may be beneficially employed for reclamation of paper broke enabling the reclaimed stock to be returned to the main stock preparation system or directly into t-he paper machine chest in the form of high consistency stock.
In FIGS. 8, 9 and 1() is shown apparatus for reclaiming paper broke. In general the apparatus comprises a conditioner 89 and a unit 90 for further processing of the type disclosed in my copending application, Ser. No. 99,473, filed Mar. 3'0, 1961, no-w Patent 3,116,028 of Dec. 3l, 1963. T-he conditioner 89 is generally similar to the conditioner shown in FIG. 4, and like reference characters are used to indicate functionally similar components. The conditioner 89 comprises an upwardly opening vessel in which are disposed granular surfaced porous rolls 50 and 52 and rotor 64 which are generally of the same construction as the like numbered members shown in FIG. 4. However, since this conditioner is utilized for handling a bro-ken web of paper, the rolls and rotor may be considera-bly'smaller in diameter than those described above. As shoiwn in FIG. 9, the rolls and rotor sections 91 are contoured to move the web axially toward the center of the rolls for introduction into the unit 90 to reduce the web stock to pulp and return the pulp to the machine chest or stock preparation system. As shown the conditioner is provided with sprays 100 for mostening webs of paper being processed by the unit.
The reclamation .apparatus is adapted to handle a web of paper, such as shown at 96, should the web break in its travel through a paper making machine, a portion of wh-ich is shown in FIG. 10. The Imachine comprises a drier roll 94, a set of calender rolls 102 and a slitter 104. The slitter is used to sever the web longitudinally to provide a portion of its width as a leader for threading the web into the cale-nder. The slitter is controlled to move transversely of the web gradually increasing the width of the leader until the webs entire width is being received by the calender.
Means is provided for guiding the web into the conditioner 89 and for automatically starting the conditioner in response to breakage of the web. As shown in EIG. 10, spaced opposed members 106 and 1698 are provided for guiding the web into the conditioner 89, through an opening 109 in the iioor which supports the paper machine. A roll 110 is normally biased by any suitable means such as spring 110 toward a position closing a switch 111. With the web properly tensioned about the roll 110 the switch 111 is kept open. However, if the web should break, the roll 110 would be moved suiiiciently by spring 110 to cause the switch 111 to be closed, thereby actuating the conditioner 89 including the sprays and roll members and the deiibering unit 90, thereby eliminating any possibility of broke accumulation.
In FIGS. 11 and 12 the working side of a press doctor is shown generally at 114. A chute 116 is provided for receiving wet broke which collects in doctor bar 118 when the web 96 breaks. The chute introduces the broke into reclaiming apparatus as shown and described above. Means may be provided for collecting the broke from the doctor bar and introducing it into the chute 116. As shown the collecting means comprises an endless belt 118 driven by .a motor 119 in a direction so that its upper surface carries the broke toward the chute 1116.
Within the limitation that all opposed Working surfaces be sufliciently spaced from each other to avoid cutting of the iibers, the relative position and spacing of the rolls to each other and of the rolls to the stators may be varied, to control the rate or volume of iiow of the stock in conformity with the nature of the aggregate, its state of ber separation, its initial or acquired water content, as attainment of the above disclosed objective teaching may suggest or require.
1. Apparatus for altering the moisture content of brous material comprising in combination, a housing for a roll-enclosing material-receiving chamber and having an opening therethrough for admitting the fibrous material into the chamber and an outlet therefrom for the exiting of the altered stock from the chamber, at least four hollow coarse granular-surfaced porous moisturepervious stock agitating rolls disposed in spaced side-byside U-shaped relationship within the chamber of said housing, means for rotating said rolls at variable speeds respective to each other, the rotation of said rolls effecting .separation of the more moisture-penetrated portions of the charged fibrous material from the remainder thereof, means for supplying fluids to the chamber of said housing through said rolls, the chamber of said housing having a fluid inlet and fluid outlet for allowing a uid ow therethrough the moisture-penetrated portions of the fibrous being transported by the fluid fiow through the chamber of said housing material.
2. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1, in which said rolls are rotated in the same direction with their upper surface portions moving in a direction for advancing the moisturepenetrated stock generally toward said fluid inlet.
3. Apparatus for effecting abbreviated processing by the rapid break-down of the moisture-resistant outer primary wall of the constituent iibers of paper stocks without cutting `action and other detrimental effects respective to iiber length preparatory to further liber treatment and processing comprising in combination, a housing for a multi-roll enclosing chamber and having an opening for admitting the fibrous stock material into the chamber, at least four coarse granular-surfaced porous moisturepervious rolls disposed in spaced side-by-side U-shaped formation within the chamber for supporting and agitating and deibering the fibrous stock material, means for rotating the rolls of said plurality thereof at variable speeds respective to each other the rotation of said rolls effecting separation of the more reconditioned portions of the iibrous stock material from the remainder thereof, means for impelling the altered and readjusted portions of brous stock material in a given direction, and means for flowing uids through the rolls of said plurality thereof independently of each other.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 926,168 6/1909 Cadwgan 241-235 1,252,898 1/1918 Gauntt 241-235 2,912,174 11/1959 Bidwell 24l-27 2,936,128 5/1960 Bidwell 241-157 3,116,028 12/1963 Bidwell 241-97 DONALL H. SYLVESTER, Primary Examiner.
HOWARD R. CAINE, Examiner.