US 3262440 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 26, 1966 .1. o: KUHN TOY GUN WITH PIVOTABLE BARREL 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Dec. 23, 1964 1 I. .illllm July 26, 1966 J. o. KUHN 3,252,440
TOY GUN WITH PIVOTABLE BARREL Filed Dec. 23, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 a} INVENTORL July 26, 1966 J. o. KUHN 3,262,440
TOY GUN WITH PIVOTABLE BARREL Filed Dec. 25, 1964 4 Sheets-Sheet INVENTO W Q 1120 BY United States Patent 3,262,440 TOY GUN WITH PIVOTABLE BARREL James 0. Kuhn, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor to Kennel- Products Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Filed Dec. 23, 1964, Ser. No. 42%,659 7 Claims. (Cl. 124-15) This invention relates to toy guns and it is directed in particular to an articulated toy gun that is adapted to be aimed and fired to shoot a projectile, preferably a harmless rubber ball, around a corner. Thus, the person using the toy may remain out of sight.
One of the primary objectives of the invention has been to provide a sighting device for a toy gun of the type set forth. The gun comprises essentially two sections that are hinged so that one section, the barrel for example, may be swung in a plane about the hinge axis relative to the other section, for example the breech. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a mirror is provided that resides in a plane normal to the plane about which the two sections swing, and through which the hinge axis passes. Means are provided to cause this mirror to rotate about the hinge axis as the two sections are swung relatively about this same axis. However, so that a front sight on the barrel remains in sighting position with respect to a sighting mark on the mirror, means are provided to cause the mirror to rotate at exactly one-half the rate of the hinged sections as they are swung relative to one another. Thus, when the two sections of the gun are aligned, the mirror is in a position with its side toward the one sighting the gun and his line of sight is to one side of the mirror and over the front sight on the barrel. When one section is turned so that it is at 90 to the other, the mirror is turned 45 from its initial position and the line of sight is from the shooters eye, through 90 in reflecting off the mirror and out over the front sight. It may be seen therefore that the angle of reflection off the mirror always remains twice the angular disposition of the mirror, or equal to that of the angular disposition of the two sections, so that the front sight always remains in the line of sight regardless of the angular disposition of the two sections of the gun.
Another objective of the invention has been to provide a gun of the type set forth that is air operated. Toward this end a plunger is provided in the breech section of the gun. This plunger is adapted to be pulled rearwardly against spring pressure and held in cocked position by a trigger mechanism. When the trigger mechr anism is actuated, the plunger springs forward to develop a charge of compressed air within the breech. One of the features of this invention is that the means hinging one of the sections to the other is hollow so as to provide a passageway for the charge of compressed air from the breech to the barrel where a ball therein is subjected to the force of the charge of compressed air. Preferably the breech section in which the charge of compressed air is generated is substantially larger in diameter than the barrel so that considerable pressure is developed suddenly in the barrel behind the ball whereby it is projected from the barrel with a reasonable velocity for accuracy but still at not such a high rate of velocity as to be dangerous, taking into account that the preferred material for the balls is soft rubber.
Other objects and advantages will bereadily apparent to those skilled in the art from the following description of the drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a toy gun incorporating my invention.
FIGURE 2 is a longitudinal cross sectional view thereof, showing the magazine of the gun partially loaded.
3,262,440 Patented July 26, 1966 FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary cross sectional view through the elevator section of the gun, showing the elevator in its lowermost position.
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged fragmentary cross sectional view taken along the longitudinal center line showing a projectile in the barrel of the gun and the plunger ready to be released.
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary cross sectional view taken along line 55 of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 6 is a view similar to FIGURE 5, but with the barrel pivoted through an angle of 60 degrees.
FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary cross sectional view taken along line 77 of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 8 is a view similar to FIGURE 7, but with the barrel pivoted through an angle of 60 degrees as in FIGURE 6.
FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary cross sectional view taken along line 99 of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 10 is a fragmentary cross sectional view taken along line 10-10 of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 11 is a fragmentary cross sectional view taken along line 11-11 of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 12 is a fragmentary cross sectional view taken along line 1212 of FIGURE 3.
Referring now to the drawings and FIGURE 1 in particular, as shown, the toy gun of this invention comprises generally a barrel and magazine section 10, an elevator section 11, a gear box and mirror section 12, a pivotal connection 13, a pressure chamber 14, a breech and trigger section 15, a plunger 16, and a stock section 17.
Reference is now directed to the barrel and magazine section 10 and to FIGURES 2 and 4. As shown, the barrel and magazine section comprises a cylindrical barrel 2t and a cylindrical magazine 21 that are molded integrally with each other and with the elevator section 11. The barrel and magazine parallel one another with the barrel above the magazine.
The forward end of magazine 21 is closed by a wall 27 and an opening 26 is located near this wall at the bottom side of magazine 21. A disc 28 withinthe magazine is urged rearwardly by a spring 29. An annular shoulder 30 on the forward face of disc 28 is encircled by the end of spring 29 to retain the spring on the disc. Longitudinal slots 3232 are formed in the respective opposite sides of the magazine and these slots receive arms 3333 that extend laterally from the sides of disc 23.
To load the magazine 21 with balls 34, arms 33 are pulled forward in slots 32. This causes the spring 29 .to compress between the forward Wall 27 and the disc 28. When in the forwardmost position, a rotational forc'e applied to the arms 33 engages them in notches 38-38 formed as a T at the forward ends of slots 3232. Balls 34 can now be inesrted into opening 26 until the magazine is full, or until a desired number is inserted. After filling the magazine with the desired number of balls, a twist of arms 3333 in the opposite direction will disengage them from T notches 3838. The spring can now push them rearwardly in the magazine and into abutment with a depending flange 42 on an elevator shown generally at 43.
Elevator 43 is normally in a raised position, as illustrated in FIGURE 2, and is held in'this position by a compression spring 44 disposed between a bottom wall 45 of elevator section 11 and a lateral arm 46 extending rearwardly from the top of depending flange 42. A rod 49 with a loop 50 at its lower extremity extends through spring 44 and bottom wall 45. A head 51 is on the top of rod 49 and is surrounded by a gasket 52. Head 51 and gasket 52 are sandwiched between the arm 46 and a bot tom wall 53 of a ball transporting chamber 54 of the elevator 43. The rubber gasket 52 forms an air tight seal between barrel and magazine 21 when the elevator is in its uppermost position. Gasket 52 seals at the front of the elevator by pressing against a lower rear lip 57 of barrel 20, at the rear, by pressing against a rear wall 58 of elevator section 11, and on its sides by pressing against side walls 59-59 of the elevator section 11. The necessity of this air tight seal will become apparent below in the description of the operation.
It is to be noted at this time that the barrel and magazine section 10 and elevator housing 22 are molded integrally but in two halves. They are joined and held securely together by a plastic cement in a manner well known in the art. This cementing process leaves an acbarrel which is undesirable during the initial movement of the ball 34 which is to be projected from the gun.
,To eliminate this problem, until the ball has inertia enough to overcome the roughness, a sleeve 23 is received within a recess 24. The inner diameter of the sleeve is slightly larger than the diameter of the barrel 20, and is free from any roughness. The various elevator components are likewise of molded plastic and cemented together to make elevator 43 appear as if it were formed from one mold and the gasket 52 inserted in a groove.
The ball transporting chamber 54 of elevator 43 has an inside diameter that is tapered slightly with the forwardmost diameter equal to the inside diameter of the sleeve 23 and is in alignment with the aforementioned sleeve when the elevator is in its uppermost position. To accomplish this, another recess 62 is formed on the inside of the barrel to receive the walls of the ball transporting chamber 54.
Rear wall 58 of the elevator housing extends to the top of the barrel and it has a generally L shaped, hollow projection 66 protruding from it at the rear. This projection has a gear 67 rigidly attached to its upper side. The purpose of this gear will be described below in connection with the other gears in the gear box.
The pivotal connection 13 is disposed between elevator housing 22 and pressure chamber 14. This connection is the mechanical linkage between the barrel and magazine section 10 and the pressure chamber 14. Another pivotal connection is made on projection 66 within an air passageway at 70 to be described later. This gives the gun pivotal support at two junctions along a vertical line and thus strengthens the connection.
Pivotal connection 13 consists of a rearwardly extending hinge plate 72 that is connected along a vertical flange 73 thereof to wall 58 of housing 22. A cylindrical lug 74 depends from the hinge plate 72 and it is received in a mating sleeve 75 of a hinge plate 76. Hinge plate 76 has a vertical flange 77 at its rear end that is cemented to a forward end 78 of pressure chamber 14. Disposed between the bottom of hinge plate 72 and the top of sleeve 75 is a friction washer 79. The hinge plates are held in pivotal relationship by a hollow rivet '80 that passes through hole 81 in lug 74 and hole 82 in hinge plate 76.
At the upper or air passageway pivotal joint, a leg '86 of projection 66 is disposed within an opening 87 of a projection 88 extending forwardly from wall 78 of pressure chamber 14. It can be seen from inspection of the drawings, FIGURE 4 in particular, that projections 66 and 88 are hollow to allow air from the pressure chamber to travel into the barrel, these projections constituting a pivotal fitting. The necessity for this air passageway will be described below in connection with the operation of the gun. A rubber seal 89, that is of the O ring type, is seated in a recess 90 in projection 66 and is compressed against the wall of the opening 87 so that an air tight seal is provided for the fitting.
The plunger 16 is disposed within pressure chamber 14 with a control arm portion 95 projecting through an cumulation of dried cementonlheinner surfaceofthe aperture 96 in rear wall 97. A ball is molded to the outer end of this arm for ease of grasping. The opposite end of the plunger has a piston 98 rigidly affixed thereto by means of a pin 99. A compression spring 100 is disposed between rear wall 97 and piston 98 surrounding plunger 16. I
The main component of the piston is a rubber packing cup 102 that is flared on its periphery as at 103. The diameter of this flared portion is somewhat greater than the inside diameter of the pressure chamber so that it is pressed against this wall at all times due to the flexible quality of the material from which .the cup is formed. The cup is installed with the open side of the flare facing the opening in the forward wall 78. Any pressure, built up in this chamber, forces the flared portion 103 against the outer .walls of the chamber, thus assuring an even greater seal as the pressure increases.
Cup 102 is sandwiched between a plate 104 of less diameter and plate 105 which has a recess 106 that receives an annular ring 107 of the plate 104. Cement is applied at this juncture to lock the cup between the plates.
The rear of the piston, in the central area thereof, is recessed as at 108 to receive the forward end of the plunger 16. The plunger is locked to plate 105 by a disc 109. This disc has an annular ring 110 thereon that seats with an annular ring 111 on the back of plate 105. Cement holds the two rings together. The cross pin 99, propecting from plunger 16, is engaged between plate 105 and disc 109 so as to hold the plunger in place. A sleeve 113 projects rearwardly from the disc surrounding the plunger, this sleeve serving to journal the plunger and, with the back of the disc, provide a seat for plunger spring 100.
It is to be noted that the forward half of the pressure chamber 14 is in the shape of a cup and has an annular rim 92 on its rearward edge, that receives the rear portion of the chamber. The rear portion is molded in two halves, and is integral with the handle 15 and the stock 17.
It can be appreciated that this construction isnecessary so that the plunger can reciprocate, in the chamber, unimpaired by any roughness that would occur if it were joined along a longitudinal seam.
A lip or trigger catch 114, in the form of a groove is provided on the outer periphery of disc 109. An upstanding latch 119 of a trigger 120 has its forward edge tapered as at 121. This tapered surface 121 cooperates with an inclined surface 11 5 on the disc 109 when the control arm 95 is being pulled rearwardly. A more complete description of this action is set forth below in connection with the operation.
Trigger 120 is pivotally mounted upon a cross pin 126 molded into the handle 15, and a finger piece 122 of the trigger projects through a slot 123 provided in handle 15. A thin strip 124 of plastic material is molded integrally with the trigger, projecting downwardly from a hub 125 through which cross pin 126 passes. This strip constitutes a spring for the trigger urging it outwardly of slot 123. To retain the trigger in the position illustrated in FIGURE 2, a pin 127 projects from the handle and into engagement with an "abutment 128 on the trigger.
It can readily be seen that pressure applied to the finger piece 122 will cause a counterclockwise rotation about the pin 126 against the elasticity of the plastic strip 124.
As noted above, a gear 67 is rigidly afiixed atop the projection 66. This gear meshes with the lower, large diameter set of teeth 130 of a gear 131. Gear 131 has a second set of teeth 132 that are of a smaller diameter. The upper teeth 132 mesh with the teeth of a gear 133 that is formed on the lowermost part of a reflector sight support 134. The gears are designed so that their ratio is 2:1 between the barrel 20 and a mirror 135, which is mounted on support 134. In other words, if the barrel were turned on its pivot support 13, through an angle of 60 degrees as shown in the drawings, the mirror is caused to rotate one half of this angulation, or 30 degrees. The purpose of this ratio will become apparent in the description of the operation.
Gear 131 is rotatably mounted on a pin 140 depending from a gear housing 141 that completely encloses the gears exceptfor an opening 142. In assembly, the gear 131 and housing 141 are positioned and cemented into place. The mirror or reflector sight support 134, with its gear 133, is inserted through the opening 142 and meshed with the teeth 130 of gear 131. Sight support 134 is inserted until the gear 133 comes to rest on a rim 143 formed as an integral part of projection 66. Gear 133 also retates upon this rim 143 and therefore a small amount of suitable lubricant may be applied if desired. Next, gear 67 is inserted through the opening 144 in the sight support 134 and bottoms in a recess 145 formed on the top of projection 66. An annular flange 146 bottoms in a recess 147 formed in the sight support 134 at the same instant that contact is made in recess 145. Cement is applied to the area that seats in recess 145 prior to assembly. Again, lubricant may be applied to the underside of flange 146 or to the upper surface of recess 147 if desired, as these surfaces are in rotatable engagement. It can be seen that the flange 146 of gear 67 secures the sight support 134 in place and therefore must be in constant engagement with the bottom surface of recess 147 to accomplish this.
The reflector 135 is a double mirror, held in place by a generally C shaped bracket 150 that is grooved around its edges, as at 151 (FIGURES 5 and 6), for receiving the mirror and securing it in place. The vertical legs of bracket 150 :are slightly longer than the length of the mirror. These extensions 152 are inserted into holes in the support 134 and cemented in place. A simulated sight 155 is painted, or otherwise marked, on the surface of the mirror and is in horizontal alignment with the top of a front sight 156.
The elevator housing 11 is located and shaped in such a manner that it also functions as the forward hand hold for the user of the toy. The gun is held in the same manner as a real weapon, in that the stock 17 is positioned against the shoulder, the right hand on handle 15 with the index finger on the trigger 120 and the left hand on elevator housing 11.
Operation Assuming that the magazine 21 has been loaded with a number of balls 34, as described above, and it is desired to ready the gun for firing, a downward pull and then release of the loop 50 places a ball in the barrel.
Pulling down on loop 50 causes the elevator 43 to lower and compress spring 44 until the bottom edge of flange 42 abuts the top surface of the elevator housing bottom Wall 45. When this abutment occurs the ball transporting chamber 54 is in alignment with the magazine 21. The end ball in the magazine is now unrestricted against rearward movement and the spring 29 pushes the ball into chamber 54 until it comes into engagement with the rear wall 58 of the elevator housing 22, as viewed in FIGURE 3. Removal of the operators finger from loop 50 permits the compressed spring 44 to raise the elevator 43, and more particularly, the transport chamber 54 into its normal position, in alignment with the sleeve 23 and barrel 20, as viewed in FIGURE 4. The chamber 54 receives the ball in friction fit relation so that it does not run from the barrel when the barrel is lowered at any time.
The next step is to pull plunger arm 95 and thus the piston 98 rearwardly to compress spring 100 to a point where the catch 114 slides over the upstanding latch 119 of the trigger 120. See FIGURE 4. The gun is now readiedfor firing if it is desired for use as a straight barrel gun. The operator draws head on the target by aligning the front sight 156 directly in front of the reflector sight bracket 150 with the top of it approximately one-half the distance up the bracket. A squeeze is applied to the surface 122 of trigger 120 causing the latch 119 to disengage catch 114. The spring 100 urges the piston 98 forwardly in its chamber. Because of the large area in which the air is being compressed, and the small opening at the opposite end from which it egresses, the air passes through the pivotal passageway and into the barrel 20 at a relatively high velocity. Upon its entrance into the barrel the air comes into contact with the rear side of the ball 34, forcing it out of the barrel. The air is restricted to this passageway by seals 52 and 89. Thus, the full force of the air is applied to the back side of the ball until his projected from the end of the barrel. Not until this time is the air permitted to escape freely.
If it is desired to shoot around the corner of a building, or the like, and remain out of the sight of the target, the barrel can be turned through an angle of up to degrees. As described above, the reflector sight will rotate through an angle of one-half that of the barrel so that the line of sight Will be the front sight 156 and the simulated sight 155. Although the drawings show the barrel pivoted in one direction only, it is to be understood that it can be pivoted in the opposite direction as well. Otherwise expressed, the barrel is pivotally mounted to be turned through an arc of 18 0 degrees. The ball 34 is forced from the barrel in the same manner as described above in connection with a straight barrelled gun.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A toy gun comprising a barrel section, a breech section, means hinging said sections whereby one section may be pivoted angularly with respect to the other in a plane about an axis, sighting means including a pivotable mirror, and means interconnecting one of said sections to said pivotal mirror adapted to cause said mirror to pivot angularly at one-half of the rate of the pivotal movement of one section with respect to the other.
2. A toy gun as set forth in claim 1 in which said means interconnecting one of said sections to said pivotal mirror includes gear means.
3. A toy gun as set forth in claim 1 in which said mirror resides in a plane normal to the first mentioned plane and is adapted to rotate about said axis.
4. A toy gun comprising a barrel section, a breech section, means hinging said sections whereby one section may be pivoted angularly with respect to the other in a plane about an axis, means including trigger means to create a charge of compressed air within said breech section, said means hinging said sections including means to convey said charge of compressed air from said breech section to said barrel upon the actuation of said trigger means, sighting means including a pivotal mirror residing in a plane normal to said first mentioned plane and adapted to rotate about said axis, and gear means interconnecting one of said sections to said pivotal mirror adapted to cause said mirror to pivot angularly at onehalf of the pivotal movement of one section with respect to the other.
5. In a gun having a barrel section and a breech section the improvement comprising hinge means interconnecting said sections for relative pivotal movement in a plane about an axis, a sight on said barrel section, a sighting mirror at the juncture of said sections adapted to pivot about said axis in a second plane normal to the first mentioned plane, and means interconnecting said mirror and one of said sections whereby said mirror moves about said axis at a rate equal to one-half of the pivotal movement ofone section relative to the other.
6. The improvement as set forth in claim 1 in which said means interconnecting said mirror and one of said sections comprises gear means associated 'with both of said sections.
7. A toy gun comprising .a combined barrel and magazine section,-means to convey projectiles one at a time from said magazine to said barrel within said section, a breech section including a cylinder, a trigger and a spring loaded piston associated with said cylinder, means to manually move said spring loaded piston into a trig- References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,888,003 5/1959 Swanson 214-51 X 2,938,422 5/1960 Hardy 881 FOREIGN PATENTS 574,329 4/1933 Germany.
RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Primary Examiner.
0 W. R. BROWNE, Assistant Examiner.