US 3264816 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
M. JGG: MQ
PROCESS FOR PRODUCING COMPOSITE YARN STRUCTURE ug. 9, i966 Filed June 2l, 1965 United States Patent O 3,264,816 PRGCESS EUR PRUDlUClNG COMPSITE YARN STRUCTURE Markus Jggi, Wattwil, Switzerland, assigner to Heberlein Patent `Cor-poration, New York, NSY., a corporation of New York Filed lune 2l, 1963, Ser. No. 289,475
Claims priority, application Switzerland, .luly 2, 1962,
7 Claims. (Cl. 57-160) This invention relates to the Vproduction of composite yarns, and more particularly it concerns a process for manufacturing yarns in which fully synthetic threads or bundles "of filaments are blended with staple fibers such as wool or cotton. The invention is especially suited to the combining of especially crimped synthetic threads or filaments with staple fibers in such a manner as to obtain the advantages of both materials without the internal slippage which tends to prevail in prior combinations.
In the plast, composite yarns containing both synthetic materials and `staple fibers have been manufactured by rst forming -a core of the synthetic material and then wrapping this `core fully Iwith the staplefibers. This permits the synthetic threads to stretch s1nce the relatively non-elastic staple twisted fibers readily yield. Furthermore, the staple fibers, fully covering the synthetic threads or filaments, provide han exterior or finished fabric surface which is pleasing both no the touch and to the eye. Yarns formed in this manner, however, are characterized by a lack of slip pr-oofness between the staple and the synthetic materials. As a result, shifting or fiber disorientation often takes place when the cornposite yarn is being worked in knitting machines or on looms. This shifting involves the longitudinal slippage of the stable fibers along Athe synthetic core; and it occurs even when smooth or crimped synthetic yarns or filaments are plied with yarns of staple fibers such `las cotton or wool. A further disadvantage of the conve-ntional processes for manufacturing ply or composite yarns is that such processes have generally required a number of steps wlhereby a thread must first be spun from the short staple fibers and then this must be plied with the fully synthetic yarns.
Another prior art process for producing composite yarns involves the covering of two previously twisted, highly crimped, fully synthetic cores each with a wiapping of staple fibers and then plying together these two wrapped cores. This process, like the process described above, has the disadvantage of requiring several operations. Furthermore, it is limited to the production of coarser or relatively thick yarns, and is completely inadequate for the production of very fine yarns.
According to the present invention there is provided in one single and continuous operation, a composite yarn of fully synthetic threads or bundles of filaments and of staple fibers, which yarn is characterized Iby a high degree of slip proofness, land at the same time is pleasant to vthe sight and touch and may be made extremely fine. The yarn produced according to the present invention comprises a core of tfully synthetic material which is first wrapped with a staple fiber. This composite is then plied with an additional fully synthetic thread or bundle of filaments. This produces an interlocking effect which aids in preventing the shifting or disorientation lof the various fibers of different materials with respect to each other during further processing of the yarn.
The process described herein for producing such novel yarn involves a single continuous operation whereby the various synthetic and staple fibers are fed into a twisting device, such a-s a ring twister, at proper points lblll Patented August 9, 1966 relative to each other so that the staple fibers first become wrapped around ya core of synthetic material and then, further on toward the twisting device, the oomposite thus produced becomes plied with an additional thread or bundle of fibers of the synthetic material. The synthetic material prior to this operation may be crimped according to one of the known mechanical crimping processes, c g., high twisting, fixation by heat and 'subsequent detwisting, or in separate operations with the help of ring twisting machines. It is also possible to utilize threads or bundles of synthetic filaments which have been crimped lby other means such as for example, by the use of a stuffing box, inter-engaging rollers, or by drawing of the thread over a sharp edge, etc.
For high elastic pull of the composite yarn it is preferable to use bundles of filaments of the fully synthetic material, such bundles consisting of relatively coarse filaments of :at least 3 denier weight which bundles of laments are crimped according to a false twisting process.
Among the fully synthetic, organic, fibrous materials which are useable in connection with the present invention, it has been found preferable to utilize polyamides such as for example, polyhexamethylene adipamide, polycondensates of e-caprolactam or l1-aminoudecanoic acid. It has also been found suitable to utilize fibrous material on a polyvinyl basis such as for example, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinyl chloride, polyesters such as for example, polyethylene glycol terephthalate, polyethylene or polyproepylene.
Among the staple fibers which may be utilized are those natural fibers Iof animal and vegetable origin such as wool Iand cotton as well as artificial bers such as spun rayo-n. It is also possible to utilize staple fibers of a fully synthetic material. The proportion of the staple fibers is governed by the final gauge off the composite yarn to be produced and the nature of the textile produets to be produced therefrom. This proportion may vary in amount between 20 and 80 percent.
The fully synthetic threads or bundles of filaments to be covered by the staple fiber yarn and the fully synthetic threads or bundles of filaments to be plied with the core yarn, may be of the same or of different weights. For example, where the staple fibers are to show up strongly in the composite yarn, the core yarns would be plied with relatively fine synthetic threads or bundles of filaments. On the other hand, where the fully synthetic bundles of filaments or threads are to predominate, as in the production of Moulin effects, then the wrapped yarn must be plied with a fully synthetic thread or bundle of filaments approaching its own total thickness.
In the production of yarn according to the present invention, conventional spinning machines may be utilized with a minimum of modification. An illustrative method and apparatus for so producing such composite yarns is illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. l is a schematic illustration in side elevation depicting apparatus producing a composite yarn according to the principles of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration showing in-end View a portion of the apparatus of FIG. l.
FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration, shown in perspective, depicting a modified version of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1.
As shown in FIG. l, there is provided a spool 10 freely rotatably supported to spin about a vertical axis between an upper platform l2 and a lower platform 14. The spool llt) has wound thereon a staple fiber roving 16 which is withdrawn from the spool by means of a pair of rollers l, 18. The roving 16, after passing between the first set of rollers i8, 18', is reduced or stretched to a desired yarn number in a conventional manner by means of another pair of rollers 36, 36 (referred to hereinafter as the third roller pair), which are driven at a greater peripheral velocity than rollers 18, 18. The diference in peripheral velocities between these roller pairs determines the amount of elongation, and hence the amount of decrease in diameter, or final yarn number, imparted to the roving 16. On the embodiment illustrated an intermediate (or second) roller pair 20, 20 is employed, which in the case of cotton roving is driven at a speed slightly higher than 18, 1S', but substantially slower than pair 36, 36 to so effect reduction in two stages. With long fibers such as wool occasionally only two sets of rollers are required in which event the pair 20, 20 serves only as guide means.
Mounted above the upper platform 12 are second and third spools designated respectively as 24 and 26. The second and third spools have wound thereon Synthetic strands 25 and 27 respectively. These synthetic threads may be single filaments or they may be made up of bundles of filaments. In either case, they are made from a fully synthetic material such as, for example, a polyamide. The synthetic threads are withdrawn from the respective spools upwardly towards corresponding guide rings 28 and 30, are directed over a guiding bar 32 and then down toward a third pair of rollers 36, 36'. As can be seen from FIG. 2, the two synthetic threads 25 and 27 are displaced from each other by approximately one centimeter as they pass over the guiding bar 32 and the third pair of rollers 36, 36'. One of the synthetic threads such as 25 passes into the nip of the third pair `of rollers 36, 36 at a position immediately adjacent the roving 16 and together these two items pass through the third set of rollers. From the rollers, the one synthetic thread 25 and the roving 16 together pass directly downward through a guiding ring 38 and thence through an eye 40 and On t0 a spindle 42 of a ring type thread twisting and winding unit, designated generally as 44. The other or second synthetic thread 27 also passes through the third set of rollers 36, 36', but upon emerging therefrom this thread is directed outwardly over a displacement guide 46 and down through the guiding ring 38 where it joins with the first synthetic thread 25 and the roving 16; and together with these elements passes into the thread twisting and winding unit 44.
The thread twisting and winding unit 44 operates to produce a twist in the threads passing through the ring traveler 40, and then to wrap the threads so twisted onto the spindle 42. This is accomplished by mounting the ring traveler 40 in frictional engagement with the yarn passing to the spindle 42 so that it rotates with the spindle thus causing the threads passing through the ring traveler to become twisted. As twisting proceeds, however, the threads tend to shorten and develop a back pull or resistance against the ring traveler 40, causing it to slip backwards relative to the spinning motion of the spindle 42. This difference in relative rotation between the ring traveler 40 and the spindle 42 causes a wrapping about the spindle 42 of the twisted threads.
As can be seen in FIG. 2, in the zone designated at A, which is between the guiding ring 38 and the output of the third set of rollers 36, 36', the roving 16 is wrapped about the first synthetic thread 25 while the second synthetic thread 27, being displaced therefrom by means of its position in the third pair of rollers 36, 36' and the displacement guide 46, does not become involved with these other threads until a point below the guiding ring 38. Thus, it is possible in zone A to effect a complete wrapping of the first synthetic thread 25 with the staple roving 16 and then in the region below zone A to effect a locking of the staple material in its wrapped position by means of twisting or plying this composite together with the second synthetic thread 27.
Coiling7 or Wrapping of the staple roving about the synthetic thread 25 occurs readily in zone A because of the comparatively greater tension in the thread or yarn 25. The staple fiber roving by reason of its very nature and substantially untwisted condition is incapable of being tensioncd appreciably or as compared with the continuous filament yarn 25, even though roving 16 and yarn 25 enter zone A at the same speed as determined by the velocity of rollers 36, 36.
The relatively loose roving 16 thus becomes wrapped or coiled about the straight taut core formed by the synthetic thread 25. However, in the region below zone A both the wrapped synthetic thread 25 and the unwrapped synthetic thread 27 are under substantially the same tension, both having passed through the nip of the third set of rollers 36, 36'; and accordingly, they become evenly plied or twisted together beyond guide ring 38 as they are wound upon the spindle 42. As a result, a composite yarn is produced having exposed but effectively locked in staple fibers wrapped about a fully synthetic core.
The variation according to FIG. 3 is identical with that shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, except for the fact that each of the fully synthetic threads 25 and 27 are wrapped in zone A (the region between the output of the third set of rollers 36, 36 and the guiding ring 38) with its own staple roving 16, 16 respectively, prior to plying in the region below the guiding ring 38. In order to accommodate the additional staple fiber there must, of course, be provided means for mounting an additional roving spindle 10'. Also, the various sets of rollers which accommodate the roving must be made sufiiciently long to handle the roving of both spindles.
It is to be noted -in connection with FIG. 1, that the displacement bar 46 serves the sole purpose of preventing the twisting of the second synthetic thread 27 with the synthetic thread 25 and the roving 16 prior to their passage through the guiding ring 38. As shown in FIG. 3, this same result may be accomplished without such guiding bar simply by maintaining sufiicient distance, such as a distance of more than one inch, between the two synthetic threads as they pass between the third set of rollers 36, 36'.
The present process has been used with various types of synthetic and staple materials, among which the followying examples are given:
Example l A bundle of filaments of polyhexamethylene adipamide, 100 denier, 23 filaments, crimped according to a false twisting process, is wrapped, as described in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2, with a wool roving of the metrical number Nm 2, which has been stretched to about thirty fold. In the same operation the core yarn so obtained is plied with a bundle of filaments of polyhexamethylene adipamide, 30 denier, 10 filaments, crimped according to a false twisting process. The total twist with the wrapping and the plying amounts to 450 turns per meter. Thus, one obtains a voluminous, composite yarn, with high slip proofness, high elastic pull and good ability to retain heat. This yarn consists 50% of wool and 50% of polyamide tilaments.
Example 2 A bundle of filaments of polyethylene glycol terephthalate, denier, 36 filaments, crimped by drawing over a sharp edge, is wrapped, as described in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2, with a cotton roving of the English yarn number (Ne) 0, 9, which is stretched to about 27 fold. In the same operation, the core yarn so obtained is twisted with a bundle of filaments of the same titer crimped in the same manner. The total twist in the wrapping and plying amounts to 375 turns per meter. One obtains a composite, elastic yarn with an agreeably soft touch and high slip proofness, which after scalding, shows good absorbent quality. This yarn consists 60% of cotton and 40% or polyester filaments.
Example 3 A bundle of filaments of polyacrylonitrile, 50 denier, 24 filaments, crimped by means of a stuffing box, is wrapped as described in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2 with a wool roving Nm 2, 2, which has been stretched to about 30 fold. In connection with the same operation, the core yarn so obtained is plied with a bundle of filaments of polyacrylonitrile, 80 denier, 36laments, which has also been crimped by means of a stuffing box. The total twist in the wrapping and the plying amounts to 450 turns per meter. One obtains a composite, voluminous, elastic yarn with high slip proofness, which, thanks to the distinctive dyeing quality of the fibrous materials, is eX- cellently suited to the production of Moulin effects. It consists 50% of wool and 50% of polyacrylonitrile filaments.
Example 4 A bundle of filaments of polyvinylchloride, 100 denier, filaments, crimped according to a false twisting process, is, as described -in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2, wrapped with a wool roving Nm 2, 2, which has been stretched to about 30 fold, and in connection with the same operation is plied with a bundle of filaments of the same titer, crimped in the same manner. The total twist with the wrapping and plying amounts to 450 turns per meter. One obtains a voluminous composite yarn with high slip proofness, negative electrostatic charging capacity and good ability to hold heat, which is suitable for the production of textile articles for therapeutic purposes. It consists about 40% of wool and 60% of polyvinyl filaments.
Example 5 A bundle of filaments of a polycondensate of e-caprolactam, 70 denier, 30 filaments, crimped according to a false twisting method is, as described in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2, wrapped with a staple fiber roving polyethylene glycol terephthalate Nm 2, 5, which has been stretched to about fold. In connection with the same operation, the core yarn so obtained is plied with a bundle of filaments of the same titer, crimped in the same manner. The entire twist in the wrapping and plying amounts to 450 turns per meter. One obtains a composite, elastic, voluminous and quick drying yarn with good slip proofness which is excellently suited to the production of' Moulin effects. It consists 50% of polyester staple fibers and 50% of polyamide filaments.
Example 6 A smooth bundle of filaments of polyhexamethylene adipamide, 70 denier, 34 filaments, is wrapped, as described in connection with FIGS. 1 an-d 2, with a wool roving Nm 2, 2, which has been stretched to about 28 fold, and in connection with the same operation the core yarn so obtained is plied with an identical bundle of filaments. The total twisting with lthe wrapping and plying amounts to 550 turns per meter, one obtains a composite, elastic, voluminous yarn with good ability to hold heat and very good .slip proofness. It consists 50% of wool and 50% of polyamide filaments.
Example 7 Two bundles of filaments of polyhexamethylene adipamide, 40 denier, 13 filaments, crimped according to the talse twisting process, are each, as described in connection with FIG. 3, wrapped with a wool roving Nm 2, 2, which has been stretched to about 30 fold, and in connection with the same operation, the core yarns so formed are plied with each other. The total twist in the wrapping and plying amounts to 390` turns per meter. One obtains a composite, elastic, voluminous yarn with high slip proofness and a pronounced woolen character. This yarn consists 76.5% of wool and 23.5% of polyamide filaments.
Having .thus described my invention with particular reference to the preferred form thereof, i-t will be obvious to those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains, after understanding my invention, that various changes and modifications may -be made therein wi-thout departing from the spirit and scope o-f my invention, as defined by the claims appended thereto.
What is claimed .as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A process for producing composite yarns containing staple fibers and continuous crimped synthetic filaments, said process comprising the steps of, withdrawing a roving of staple fibers from a first spool 'by means of a first pair of rollers driven at a first peripheral velocity, stretching the roving so withdrawn by means of another pair of rollers driven at a second peripheral velocity higher than said first peripheral velocity, withdrawing two crimped synthetic filament yarns from separate second .and third spools and passing said filament yarns through said other pair of rollers, passing said roving through said other pair of rollers in contact with one of said synthetic filament yarns, guiding the second synthetic filament yarn into adjacent lrelationship with said roving and said one filament yarn at a first point beyond said other pair of rollers, and continuously plying said roving and one said synthetic filament yarn with the second synthetic filament yarn at a second point beyond said first point.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein said roving is stretched to the desired yarn number pnior to wrapping.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein the crimped synthetic yarns are bundles consisting of filaments of at least 3 denier.
4. The process of claim 1 wherein the roving consists of artificial fibers..
5. The process of claim 1 wherein a second roving of staple fibers is withdrawn from a fourth spool by means of the first pair of rollers, the second roving is stretched by means of the other pair of rollers, the second roving is passed through the other pair of rollers in contact with the second synthetic filament yarn, the second synthetic filament yarn and roving are guided into adjacent relationship with the first roving and said one filament yarn, .and the lfirst roving and said one filament yarn are continuously plied with the second roving .and said second filament yarn.
6. A process as described in Iclaim 1 wherein the roving is twisted with the first synthetic filament yarn to form a wrapping about said first yarn, and the total twist with the wrapping of staple fiber roving around the first synthetic filament yarn and the plying of the wrapped yarn with the `second synthetic filament yarn is in the order of 375 to 550 turns per meter.
7. A process as described in claim 1 wherein the first and the second synthetic filament yarns are displaced from each other by about 1 cm. by means of a thread guide placed before the last pair of rollers to avoid wrapping of the second synthetic filament yarn by the staple fiber roving.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,313,05'81 3/ 19431 Francis. 2,332,395 10/ 1943 =Nutter et al. 57-12 2,971,3'22 2/1961 Bouvet 57--152 X 3,068,636 12/1962 Masurel 57-144 X 3,070,950 1/1963 Thomas 57-140 X FOREIGN PATENTS 515,696 12/1939 Great Britain.
781,344 8/1957 Great Britain.
850,059 9/ 1960 Great Britain.
MERVIN STEIN, Primary Examiner.