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Publication numberUS3267693 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 23, 1966
Filing dateJun 29, 1965
Priority dateJun 29, 1965
Publication numberUS 3267693 A, US 3267693A, US-A-3267693, US3267693 A, US3267693A
InventorsJohn L Ditzler, James R Harnish, Douglas K Richardson
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shell-and-tube type liquid chillers
US 3267693 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

23, 1966 D. K. RICHARDSON ETAL 3,

SHELL-AND-TUBE TYRE LIQUID CHILLERS 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 29, 1965 INVENTORS DOUGLAS K.RICHARDSON JOHN L.DITZLER, JAMES R.HARNISH, BYWU-% ATTORNEY 3, 1966 D. K. RICHARDSON ETAL 3,

SHELL-AND-TUBE TYPE LIQUID CHILLERS Filed June 29, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 0 m Q Q 5; 8@ 8@ @g j/ u. \l g g@ g@ @2 @8@ ll, i 7 O ///Q INVENTORS DOUGLAS K; RICHARDSON,

JOHN L. DITZLER, JAMES R. HARNISH, BYWJUM ATTORNEY g- 1966 n. K. RICHARDSON ETAL 3,

SHELL-AND-TUBE TYPE LIQUID CHILLERS 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 0 mm 000000 000000&

OGGGOQOG GOOGGGOG OOOGOOGO GOGGOQOOG OOOOOOGOG @OOGGO O O G G G G O O Q O G O G GOQGOGGO GAMO wdI Filed June 29, 1965 G O O O Q O O G O GGG Q G O QO o 93 INVENTORS= v DOUGLA JA Maya-Gm &

S m R AE H L 0 Z R W K 8 L R. HARNISH,

ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,267,693 SHELL-AND-TUBE TYPE LIQUID CHILLERS Douglas K. Richardson and James R. Hamish, Staunton,

Va., and John L. Ditzler, York, Pa., assignors to Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed June 29, 1965, Ser. No. 467,988 11 Claims. (Cl. 62-527) This invention relates to shell-and-tube type liquid chillers.

In the usual flooded, shell-and-tube type liquid chiller, the liquid to be chilled is flowed through closely spaced, parallel tubes, with the refrigerant flowed in a single pass over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. In a shelland-tube type liquid chiller embodying this invention, the liquid to be chilled is flowed through closely spaced, parallel tubes, but the refrigerant is flowed in a plurality of passes over the exterior surfaces of the tubes.

In one embodiment of this invention, a refrigerant inlet is provided at the longitudinal center of the bottom of a horizontally extending shell, and a refrigerant gas outlet is provided at the longitudinal center of the top of the shell. Baffies are used to cause the entering refrigerant to flow over the exterior surfaces of the tubes in a plurality of horizontal and vertical passes along the en tire lengths of the tubes between the refrigerant inlet and outlet. The liquid to be chilled is caused by manifolds at the ends of the tubes to flow through the tubes in the desired number of passes.

An advantage of this invention is that the velocity of the boiling refrigerant is greatly increased over that in conventional chillers, enabling a substantially smaller refrigerant charge to be used; increasing refrigerant side heat transfer, and reducing the amount of refrigerant side surface or the number of tubes required. The size and cost of the chiller is reduced.

An object of his invention is to increase the velocity of the boiling refrigerant in a shell-and-tube type liquid chiller.

Another object of this invention is to reduce the refrigerant charge in a shell-and-tube type liquid chiller.

Another object of this invention is to reduce the size and cost of a shell-and-tube type liquid chiller.

This invention will now be described with reference to the annexed drawings, of Which:

FIG. 1 is a fragmentary side view of a liquid chiller embodying this invention, with baffle sheets and tube support sheets shown by dashed lines;

FIG. 2 is a view, with a portion removed, of the left end of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a view, with a portion removed, of the right end of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged section along the lines 44 of FIG. 1, with some of the tubes omitted;

FIG. 5 is a view along the lines 55 of FIG. 1, on an enlarged scale, with some of the tubes omitted;

FIG. 6 is a greatly enlarged side view of one of the tub support sheets used, and

FIG. 7 is an end view of FIG. 6.

A horizontally extending, cylindrical shell 10 is supported on base members 11. A tube sheet 12 extends across and is welded to the right end of the shell 10, and a similar tube sheet 13 extends across and is welded to the left end of the shell 10. The tube sheets 12 and 13 have circular holes 14 and 15 respectively in their upper corners for receiving hoist supports. A circular head ring 16 is attached by bolts 17 to the tube sheet 12, with a gasket 18 between the sheet 12 and the ring 16. A similar circular head ring 19 is attached by bolts 20 to the tube sheet 13, with a gasket 21 between the sheet 13 and the ring 19. The ring 16 has welded thereto 3,257,693 Patented August 23, 1966 a manifold 23 which has a diametral, vertically extending baffle sheet 24 extending across the space within the manifold 23. The manifold 23 has another baffle sheet 25 extending horizontally from the center of the sheet 24 across the space within the manifold 23. The manifold 23 has a liquid inlet 26 between the sheet 25 and the lower half of the sheet 24, and has a liquid outlet 27 between the sheet 25 and the upper half of the sheet 24. The ring 19 has welded thereto a manifold 28 which has a diametral, horizontally extending, baffle sheet 29 extending across the space within the manifold 28.

The tube sheets 12 and 13 contain circular openings into which extend the ends of copper tubes 30 which extend horizontally the length of the shell 10. The tubes 30 are supported between the tube sheets 12 and 13 by spaced apart, vertically extending, tube support sheets 31 which have circular openings 32 through which the tubes 30 extend. The sheets 31 have horizontally extending tops 33 and bottoms 34, and have ends 35 and 36 curved to contact the inner surface of the shell 10 between its top and bottom. The sheets 31 have slots 38 extending part way therethrough from opposite sides thereof for receiving the ends of bafile sheets 39 (FIGS. 1 and 4). The sheets 31 also have slots 40 extending part way therethrough from opposite sides thereof for receiving the ends of baffle sheets 41. The sheets 31 also have slots 42 extending part way therethrough from opposite sides thereof for receiving the ends of baffle sheets 43.

A refrigerant inlet tube 45 connects with the interior of the shell 10 at the longitudinal center of its bottom. A refrigerant gas outlet tube 46 connects with the interior of the shell 10 at the longitudinal center of its top, substantially opposite the inlet tube 45. A refrigerant inlet baffle assembly consists of a horizontally extending baffle sheet which extends along and under the bottoms 34 of the tube support sheets 31, the length of the shell 10 and across the lower portion of the interior of the shell, and also consists of a baffle sheet 49 which extends vertically from the bottom of the sheet 48 to the bottom of the shell 10 in alignment with the left edge (FIG. 4) of the inlet tube 45 where it connects with the interior of the shell. The baffle sheet 49 also extends the length of the shell, and has longitudinally spaced apart notches 50 in its bottom edge. The bafile sheet 48 has longitudinally spaced apart notches 51 in its left edge (FIG. 4), which are staggered with respect to and are larger than the notches 50.

Horizontally extending bafile sheets 39 collectively extend the length of the shell 10 except where they are spaced apart at tube support sheets 31, across the interior of the shell above the bafile sheet 48. The bafiie sheets 39 extend from their left edges (FIG. 4) about of the way across the interior of the shell 10 leaving spaces between their right edges and the adjacent inner surface of the shell for refrigerant to flow. Both ends of each baffie sheet 39 except the two end ones extend into slots 38 in the sheets 31 as do the inner ends of the end sheets 39. Baffle sheets 41 extend horizontally above the sheets 39, collectively the length of the shell 10 except where they are spaced at the tube support sheets 31, and extend from their right edges (FIG. 4) about two-thirds of the Way across the interior of the shell 10, leaving spaces between their left edges 44 aud the adjacent side of the interior of the shell for refrigerant to flow. Both ends of the bathe sheets 41 except the two end ones extend into slots 40 in the tube support sheets 31, as do the inner ends of the end baffle sheets 41. Baflle sheets 43 extend horizontally above the sheets 41, collectively the length of the shell 10 except where they are spaced apart at the tube support sheets 31, and extend from their left edges (FIG.

4) about one-ninth of the way across the inter of the shell,

enemas 83 leaving spaces between their right edges 55 and the edges 44 of the sheets 41 for refrigerant to flow. Both ends of the batfie sheets 43 except the two end ones extend into slots 42 in the tube support sheets 31 as do the inner ends of the end baffle sheets 43. The tube support sheets 31 thus also support the baffle sheets 39, 41 and 43.

Narrow strips 56 extend vertically between and in contact with the bafile sheets 43 and 39 at their transverse centers at the ends of the shell 19. Similar strips 57 aligned with the strips 56 extend between and in contact with the sheets 39 and 41. The strips 56 and 57 support the ends of the end ones of the baffle sheets 41.

A suction bathe assembly consists of a baffle sheet 60 having a portion 61 extending vertically from the shell along the longitudinal center of the latter adjacent to the left edge (FIG. 4) of the gas outlet tube 46 where it connects with the interior of the shell 1d above the top row of tubes 36, and having a portion 62 which extends from the lower end of the portion 61 at an angle of about 110 to the inner surface of the upper portion of the shell 10. The sheet portions 61 and 62 extend the length of the shell 10, and the sheet portion 61 has longitudinally spaced apart notches 64 in its upper edge.

With reference to FIG. 4, the left and right edges of the bafile sheets 48 and 39, the right edge of the baffle sheet 41, the left edge of the baffle sheet 43, the top edge of the battle sheet portion 61, and the right edge of the baffle sheet portion 62 are welded to the inner surface of the shell 10.

Operation A liquid, such as water, to be chilled is supplied under pressure into the liquid inlet 26, and flows in four passes through the tubes 30, the first pass being through the tubes 30 having ends between the bafile sheets 24 and in the manifold 23, in the 3 to 6 oclock quadrant (FIG. 3), into the manifold 28, the second pass being through the tubes having ends below the baffle sheet 29 in the manifold 28, in the 6 to 9 oclock quadrant (FIG. 2), the third pass being through the tubes 39 having ends have the baffle sheet 29 in the manifold 28, in the 9 to 12 oclock quadrant (FIG. 2), and the fourth pass being through the tubes 30 having ends between the baffle sheets 24 and 25 in the manifold 23, in the 12 to 3 oclock quadrant (FIG. 3). Other numbers of passes could be provided,

Refrigerant from an expansion device which is not shown, is supplied through the inlet'tube into the interior of the shell 10 at the center of its bottom. The refrigerant then flows as shown by the dashed arrows on FIG. 1 and the solid-line arrows on FIG. 4, through the refrigerant distribution notches in the baffle sheet 49, both ways from the center of the bottom of the shell it), then flows through the refrigerant distribution notches 51 in the battle sheets 48, over the rows of tubes which are between the baftle sheets 43 and 39 along the entire lengths of such tubes, then flows through the spaces between edges 54 of the baffle sheets 39 and the adjacent inner surface of the shell 10, over the rows of tubes 39 between the battle sheets 39 and 41 along the entire lengths of such tubes, then through the spaces between the edges 44 of the baffle sheets 41 and the edges 45 of the bafiie sheets 43 over the uppermost rows of tubes 31} along their entire lengths, and then through the notches 6 1 in the bafile sheet portion 61 into the gas outlet tube 46. The notches 49 and 51 are staggered with respect to each other in order to double the refrigerant distribution effect into the first pass across the tubes 39 between the baffle sheets 39 and 48.

The refrigerant liquid evaporates as it passes through the chiller, and becomes gas, the velocity of which is greatly increased through being forced to flow through constructed passages in a plurality of horizontal and vertical passes across the tubes 36.

What is claimed is:

1. A liquid chiller comprising a substantially horizontally extending shell having liquid manifolds at its ends, a plurality of vertically spaced apart rows of substantially horizontally extending, closely spaced tubes extending within said shell substantially the length of said shell and connecting at their ends with the spaces within said manifolds, one of said manifolds having a liquid inlet, one of said manifolds having a liquid outlet, said shell having a refrigerant inlet in its bottom, and having a refrigerant gas outlet in its top, a plurality of vertically spaced apart, substantially horizontally extending bafile sheets within and extending substantially the length of said shell between said refrigerant inlet and outlet, and means including said battle sheets for causing refrigerant to flow from said refrigerant inlet to said refrigerant outlet in a plurality of substantially horizontal and substantially vertical passes over the exterior surfaces of said tubes.

2. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 1 in which there is provided a bafile sheet extending substantially vertically from the lowermost of said sheets to the inner surface of said shell alongside said refrigerant inlet, and having longitudinally spaced apart, constricted refrigerant flow passages therein.

3. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 2 in which there is provided a bafile sheet within said shell extending across said refrigerant outlet substantially the length of said shell, and having longitudinally spaced apart, constricted refrigerant flow passages therein.

4. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 1 in which there is provided a bafile sheet within said shell extending across said refrigerant outlet and substantially the length of said shell, and having longitudinally spaced apart, constricted refrigerant flow passages therein.

5. A liquid chiller comprising a substantially horizontally extending shell having liquid manifolds at its ends, a plurality of vertically spaced apart rows of substantially horizontally extending, closely spaced tubes extending within said shell substantially the length of said shell, and connecting at their ends with the spaces within said manifolds, one of said manifolds having a liquid inlet, one of said manifolds having a liquid outlet, said shell having a refrigerant inlet in its bottom and having a refrigerant outlet in its top, a first, substantially horizontally extending baffle sheet extending substantially the length of said shell with its edges in contact with the inner surface of said shell below the lowermost of said rows of tubes, one of said edges having longitudinally spaced apart, constricted refrigerant distribution notches, and a second baffle sheet extending substantially vertically downwardly from said first sheet to the inner surface of said shell adjacent to said refrigerant inlet,,said second sheet extending substantially the length of said shell and having longitudinally spaced apart, constricted refrigerant distribution notches in its bottom edge.

6. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 5 in which there is provided a baffle sheet within said shell extending across said refrigerant outlet and substantially the length of said shell, with its edges in contact with the inner surface of said shell, and having longitudinally spaced apart, constricted refrigerant flow notches in one of its said edges.

7. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 5 in which said notches in said bottom edge of said second sheet are staggered with respect to said notches in said one ends of said first sheet.

8. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 5 in which there is provided within said said shell a plurality of longitudinally spaced. apart, substantially vertically extending, tube support sheets through which said tubes extend, said support sheets having similar, substantially horizontally extending upper slots extending part way therethrough in opposite sides thereof, said support sheets having similar, substantially horizontally extending lower slots extending part way therethrough in opposite sides thereof, in which there is provided a first plurality of aligned, substantially horizontally extending, bafile sheets between adjacent ones of said rows of tubes and having ends in said lower slots, and in which there is provided a second plurality of aligned, substantially horizontally extending, bafile sheets between adjacent ones of said rows of tubes and having ends in said upper slots, said sheets of said first plurality having edges in contact with the inner surface of said shell above said edge of said first sheet which has notches therein, and having their other edges aligned and spaced from the facing inner surface of said shell, said sheets of said second plurality having edges in contact with the inner surface of said shell above where said other edges of said sheets of said first plurality are spaced from the inner surface of said shell, and having their other edges aligned and spaced further from the facing inner surface of said shell than said other edges of said sheets of said first plurality.

9. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 8 in which there is provided a baffie sheet within said shell extending substantially the length of said shell and extending across said refrigerant outlet, with its edges in contact with the inner surface of said shell, and having longitudinally spaced apart, constricted refrigerant flow notches in one of its edges.

10. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 9 in which said support sheets have other similar, substantially horizontally extending slots extending part Way therethrough in opposite sides thereof above said upper slots, and in which there is provided a third plurality of baflie sheets between adjacent ones of said rows of tubes and having ends in said other slots, said sheets of said third plurality having edges in contact the inner surface of said shell above where said edges of said sheets of said first plurality are in Contact with said inner surface of said shell, and extending across the interior of said shell a distance substantially less than the distance said sheets of said second plurality extend across the interior of said shell.

11. A liquid chiller as claimed in claim 8 in which said support sheets have other similar, substantially horizontally extending slots extending part Way therethrough in opposite sides thereof above said upper slots, and in which there is provided a third plurality of baflle sheets between adjacent ones of said rows of tubes and having ends in said other slots, said sheets of said third plurality having edges in contact with the inner surface of said shell above where said edges of said sheets :of said first plurality are in contact with the inner surface of said shell, and extending across the interior of said shell a distance substantially less than the distance said sheets of said second plurality extend across the interior of said shell.

References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,147,788 2/1939 Gay 62/527 X 2,247,107 6/1941 Waterfill 62527 X 2,312,312 3/1943 Beline 62527 X 3,181,606 5/1965 Belanger 165158 ROBERT A. OLEARY, Primary Examiner.

MEYER PERLIN, Examiner.

W. E. WAYNER, Assistant Examiner.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,267,693 August 23, 1966 Douglas K. Richardson et a1.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 4, line 11, after "top," insert and column 4, lines 14 and 15, strike out "and means including said baffle sheets for" and insert instead two alternate ones of said sheets having corresponding edges contacting the inner surface of one side of said shell with spaces provided adjacent to their opposite edges for the upward flow of refrigerant, and another one of said sheets between said alternate ones having an edge contacting the inner surface of the opposite side of said shell with space provided adjacent to its opposite edge for the upward flow of refrigerant, said sheets and said spaces line 63, for "ends" read edge Signed and sealed this 26th day of September 1967.

(SEAL) Attest:

ERNEST W. SWIDER EDWARD J. BRENNER Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Patent Citations
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US2147788 *Jun 15, 1936Feb 21, 1939Norman H GayEbullition-type cooler
US2247107 *Sep 30, 1938Jun 24, 1941Buensod Stacey Air ConditioninRefrigerant evaporator
US2312312 *Oct 17, 1941Mar 2, 1943York Ice Machinery CorpEvaporator
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3411314 *Feb 1, 1967Nov 19, 1968St Regis Paper CoRefrigerating apparatus with tubular evaporator
US3735811 *Jul 12, 1971May 29, 1973Bbc Sulzer TurbomaschinenHeat exchanger
US5419391 *Jun 17, 1992May 30, 1995Westinghouse Electric CorporationSteam generator with axial flow preheater
US5561987 *May 25, 1995Oct 8, 1996American Standard Inc.Falling film evaporator with vapor-liquid separator
US5588596 *May 25, 1995Dec 31, 1996American Standard Inc.Falling film evaporator with refrigerant distribution system
US5638691 *Mar 6, 1996Jun 17, 1997American Standard Inc.Falling film evaporator with refrigerant distribution system
US5645124 *Aug 2, 1996Jul 8, 1997American Standard Inc.For use within a heat exchanger
US5704422 *May 19, 1995Jan 6, 1998Huntsman Specialty Chemicals CorporationShrouded heat exchanger
US5836382 *Nov 26, 1997Nov 17, 1998American Standard Inc.Evaporator refrigerant distributor
US6497115Jul 23, 2001Dec 24, 2002Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.Evaporator and refrigerator
US6966200Apr 26, 2001Nov 22, 2005Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.Evaporator and refrigerator
US7028762Mar 14, 2005Apr 18, 2006Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.Condenser for refrigerating machine
US7073572Jun 18, 2003Jul 11, 2006Zahid Hussain AyubFlooded evaporator with various kinds of tubes
US7849710Oct 12, 2005Dec 14, 2010York International CorporationFalling film evaporator
US8302426Jun 8, 2010Nov 6, 2012Johnson Controls Technology CompanyHeat exchanger
US8650905Jan 19, 2011Feb 18, 2014Johnson Controls Technology CompanyFalling film evaporator
US20090165497 *Dec 29, 2008Jul 2, 2009Johnson Controls Technology CompanyHeat exchanger
DE3522954A1 *Jun 27, 1985Jan 16, 1986Stal Refrigeration AbVerdampfer fuer ein kuehlsystem in form eines waermeaustauschers
WO2001081841A1 *Apr 26, 2001Nov 1, 2001Sunao AokiEvaporator and refrigerator
Classifications
U.S. Classification62/527, 165/160
International ClassificationF25B39/02
Cooperative ClassificationF25B39/02, F25B2339/0242
European ClassificationF25B39/02
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 1, 1982ASAssignment
Owner name: MCQUAY-PERFEX, INC., MINNEAPOLIS, MN A CORP. OF MN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION, A CORP. OF PA;REEL/FRAME:003954/0610
Effective date: 19820204
Owner name: MCQUAY-PERFEX, INC., A CORP. OF MN, MINNESOTA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION, A CORP. OF PA;REEL/FRAME:003954/0610