US 3269061 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1966 P. MASSINA 3,269,061
PNEUMATIC JACK-OPERATED SWINGING DOOR AND THE LIKE Filed April 22, 1964 INVENTOR PER/Q5 MflSS/NA BY KARL 2A 7 ATTORNEY United States Patent "ice 7 Claims. (:1. 49-326) The present invention relates to a pneumatic jack device, applicable particularly to the opening and closing of pivoted members such for example as swing doors, barriers, trap doors and other analogues applications permitting a particularly simple and effective construction. The complete opening of the pivoted element is caused by a single push exerted on it, initiating this opening, and it returns at once automatically to the closed position, after having attained its position of complete opening. Any new opening force, in the course of the return movement, brings about afresh the complete opening of the said member.
The device which is the subject of the invention makes use of the principle of toggle levers, in which one dead centre position is attained when the two arms of the toggle are in alignment.
In the device which is the subject of the invention, one of the arms of the toggle is constituted by the pivoted member, and its other arm by a pneumatic jack placed in the plane of the latter, pivoting at one end at an intermediate point on the edge of the pivoted member, and at its other end on the case or frame of the opening in which the said member swings.
In most cases, the device will be mounted above the pivoted member, but however there is nothing against its being mounted below, if suitable preparations are made. One may also provide two symmetrical devices, above and below the member. The invention is applicable with particular interest both to simple swing doors and to doors which are double or with two leaves, each of which will then be equipped with the device in question.
The invention concerns more especially a particular mechanism for control of admission and exhaust of the air or other compressed gas, incorporated in the jack for the purpose of obtaining the desired effects.
It will now be best explained with reference to the accompanying drawings, which show schematically, and simply by way of illustration, a constructional example applied to a single door, constituted by a flexible leaf, such as a workshop door. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 shows in elevation the device in the position of complete closure.
FIG. 2 is a corresponding plan view.
FIG. 3 shows the position of the components at the beginning of opening.
FIG. 4 shows the door completely open.
FIG. 5 is a view partly in elevation and partly in longitudinal section of the pneumatic jack used, and of the control mechanism which it contains.
On a pin 1 fixed to the lower face of the case 2 of the door there pivots, via a sleeve 3, a pneumatic jack 4 the rod 5 of which carries at its end a swivel head 6, attached at a suitable point to the upper edge of a door leaf 7 which pivots on hinges 8 against the action of torsion springs 9 which tend to keep it shut.
At the position of rest of the device, shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the jack 4 and the door leaf 7 are in line with the pin 1 and the hinges 8, a condition which corresponds to the dead center position of the toggle system the two branches of which, pivoted to one another at 6, are re- 3,Z69,%1 Patented August 30, 1966 spectively constituted by the jack 4 and by the leaf 7 of the door.
To cause opening of the door, it is sutficient to exert on it a light push, either in one direction or the other, for example in the direction indicated by the arrow in FIG. 3. An angular displacement of slight amplitude, for example equal only to the angle a, has the effect of making the toggle system depart from its dead center position. The compressed air is then admitted into the cylinder of the jack, thanks to the particular mechanism constructed according to the invention which will be described in more detail later, to complete the opening of the door and so bringing the system to the final position shown in FIG. 4.
At the end of travel, the air admission valve being automatically closed and the torsion springs 9, stressed by the opening of the door, ensure its return to the position of complete closure, in step with the exhausting of the air contained in the cylinder of the jack, and escaping from it through an adjustable opening.
If, in the course of the closing, a fresh push is exerted on the door, it will be moved afresh to its position of complete opening, by reason of a fresh admission of compressed air into the jack.
The mechanism providing for these operations, constructed according to the invention and incorporated into the jack, is schematically shown in FIG. 5,. and will now be described in detail.
The rod 5 of the jack carries a sleeve 1&1 tightened but sliding on it, and the tightness of which is adjustable by use of screws 11.
In the head 14 of the jack there is provided the chamber 15 of an inlet valve with a ball 16 loaded by a spring 17. A longitudinal pusher 18 permits the sleeve 10 to act on the ball 16 to displace it from its seat. This pusher slides with slight friction in a bore 21, into which open two radial openings 22 and 23.
A needle valve 24 permits precise adjusting of the cross section of a passage 25 connecting the radial opening 23 with the interior of the cylinder of the jack, the wall 26 of which is pierced by a vent 27 in communication with the exterior.
The compressed air arrives in the chamber 15 through the pipe 28. Another pipe 29 puts the radial opening 22 into communcation with a passage 30 provided in the base 31 of the cylinder of the jack, the piston of which is indicated at 32. The piston rod 5 includes a portion 33 of reduced diameter, and preferably slightly conical, the length of which corresponds to that of the sleeve 10, the return travel of which is limited by an abutment 34, fixed to the cylinder.
The operation of the device shown and described herein is as follows:
A push exerted on the leaf 7 of the door, in one direction or the other, causes displacement of the piston rod 5 towards the outer end of the jack that is to say towards the right in FIG. 5. This rod carries with it the sleeve 10, which, via the pusher 18, displaces the ball 16 from its seat, at the same time as this pusher closes off the radial opening 23. The compressed air is thus admitted into the bore 21 and, making use of the opening 22, the pipe 29 and the passage 30, it arrives behind the piston 32, which it displaces to cause the complete opening of the door (see FIG. 4).
At the end of the travel of the piston, the reduced diameter portion 33 provided on the rod 5 reaches a position abreast of the sleeve 10, the grip of which is thus nullifed. The pusher 18 then ceases to act on the ball 16, which by the pressure of the compressed air, to which is added the force of the spring 17, is returned to its seat, thus cutting off the supply of compressed air behind the piston 32. The pusher is displaced towards the left in FIG. 5, making Q the sleeve 10 return until it is stopped by the abutment 34, at the same time as it uncovers the radial opening 23.
The compressed air enclosed within the cylinder 26 behind the piston 32 passes to the exterior by making use of the path 30, 29, 22, 21, 23, 25, and 27, the speed of closing of the door, produced by the torsion springs 9, being able to be controlled by adjusting the needle valve 24.
If, in the course of closing of the door, and as has been explained above, a fresh push is exerted on it, the sleeve 10 carried to the right by the piston rod again acts on the pusher 18, thus causing a fresh cycle of the operations described above to be performed.
To adjust the angle of the push necessary for opening the door, one could vary by any appropriate means the distance which separates the sleeve and the push rod 18.
For the purpose of adjusting the opening of the door, the swivel 6 could be adjustable at the end of the piston rod 5 for varying the length of this lever arm, and the point of pivoting of this swivel 6 on the leaf 7 of the door could itself be displaced, thus altering the length of the other lever arm.
It has already been stated that the friction of the sleeve 10 on the rod 5 would be adjustable by using the screws 11, and that the needle valve 24 would permit adjusting the speed of exhaust of air, and in consequence the speed of closing of the door.
Without going outside the scope of the invention, numerous modifications could be made in the construction of the different elements of the device described and shown, and also in their arrangement, the example given being only to be considered as a simple illustration.
1. In a device of the type described comprising in combination:
(1) a frame defining an opening,
(2) a leaf member,
(3) hinge means mounting said member on said frame, whereby to enable said member to pivot through said opening in both directions from a closed position wherein said member lies in the plane of said frame,
(4) spring means urging said member to said closed position, and
(5) actuating means for said member comprised of (a) a pneumatic jack including a cylinder, a piston and a piston rod extending from one end of said cylinder, said cylinder and piston rod movable apart by the admission of operating medium to said cylinder,
(b) means pivoting the opposite end of said cylinder to said frame,
(c) further means pivoting the projecting end of said rod to the edge of said leaf member at a point intermediate the axes of said hinge means and said first pivoting means,
4 (d) an air inlet valve associated with said jack and including a seat, a valve member and a valve spring urging said valve member against said seat,
(e) a sleeve sliding with substantial friction on a first portion of said piston rod, and
(f) a pusher disposed to transmit actuating movement from said sleeve to said valve member in opposition to said valve spring,
(g) said piston rod including a second portion of reduced diameter spaced from said first portion and enabling friction between said sleeve and piston to be nullified when said rod attains a,
predetermined extended position. 2. A device as claimed in claim 1, including an abut.-
ment mounted within said cylinder adapted to limit travel.
of said sleeve away from said valve member.
3. A device as claimed in claim 1, including adjusting means adapted to adjust the amount of friction between said sleeve and said piston rod.
4. A device as claimed in claim 1, including a head mounted on the jack cylinder and enclosing the air inlet valve, said head defining a bore providing guidance for said pusher and terminating at the valve seat, and defining a passage extending from the interior of the cylinder to an opening in the side of said bore, said pusher including a portion adapted to act as a slide valve controlling said opening.
5. A device as claimed in claim 4 including an abutment mounted within the jack cylinder adapted to limit travel of the sleeve away from the valve member, and a wall enclosing the cylinder and defining a vent from the interior of the cylinder to the exterior at a place between the cylinder head and the abutment.
6. A device as claimed in claim 4 including a pipe connecting the cylinder head to the end of the cylinder remote from the head, the head defining a second opening in the side of the bore in communication with the pipe.
7. A device as claimed in claim 4, including adjusting means adapted to adjust the rate of escape of operating medium through the passage by variable constriction of the cross section of the passage.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,127,160 3/1964 Wallmann 268-69 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,119,148 12/1961 Germany.
HARRISON R. MOSELEY, Primary Examiner.
REINALDO P. MACHADO, Examiner.
J. K, BELL, Assistant Examiner.