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Publication numberUS3273297 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 20, 1966
Filing dateJun 7, 1963
Priority dateJun 7, 1963
Publication numberUS 3273297 A, US 3273297A, US-A-3273297, US3273297 A, US3273297A
InventorsWehe Jr Herbert W
Original AssigneeOverly Mfg Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Door and panel construction
US 3273297 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 20, 1966 H, w, WEHE, JR 3,273,297

DOOR AND PANEL CONSTRUCTION Sept. 20, 1966 H. w. wEHE, JR

DOOR AND PANEL CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 7, 1963 Attorneys United States Patent O 3,273,297 DOOR AND PANEL CONSTRUCTION Herbert W. Wehe, Jr., Ligonier, Pa., assigner to Overly Manufacturing Company, Greensburg, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed .lune 7, 1963, Ser. No. 286,289 4 Claims. (Cl. 52-404) The present invention relates generally to partition and door panels employed in the division of floor space in commercial buildings to provide separated work areas. More specifically, the invention is concerned with door and partition panels constructed to suppress passage of noise therethrough, particularly those noises within the sound frequencies of 125 c.p.s. and 1400 c.p.s. These latter sound frequencies are within normal conversation and business machine noises.

Although industry has successfully employed noise reducing single and double doors and partitions of considerable thickness, up to 6 inches and more, relatively little success has heretofore been had with noise reducing doors and partitions employed in dividing floor areas in office and other commercial buildings. These latter doors and partitions are constructed so as to be frequently rearranged to suit changing needs and, of necessity, must be both relatively light in weight and readily set up and removed. Thus the invention herein disclosed is concerned with door and partition panels in the area of 1% inches thick.

Although the same panel construction may be ernployed in both doors and partitions, the latter may be readily sealed to oors and walls, Doors being intended for frequent movement cannot fit tightly within their frames and for maximum efliciencies must be provided with seals about their periphery which permit door movement but restrict passage of sound.

As is well known in the science of noise control, sound Volume is measured in decibels and frequency is measured in cycles per second. Thus in rating a panel for noise suppression a graph is prepared comparing decibels with cycles per second. Conversation and business machine noises are generally audible within the frequencies of 125 c.p.s. and 1400 c.p.s. Conversation noises outside this range may be heard but are not understandable. Since sound transmission loss, at a given sound frequency is measured in decibels which are based upon a logarithmic scale, la few decibels of sound transmission loss represents a considerable percentage of noise control. For example, a partition having an A'.S.T.M., Sound Transmission Class, rating of 4() decibels transmits 3;/10000 of the incident sound, a 43 decibel class rating transmits 1/20000 of lthe incident sound, a 46 decibel class rating transmits MOOOO of the incident sound, etc. Otherwise stated, for every three decibel rise in sound transmission loss the efliciency of the panel to suppress passage of sound therethrough is doubled. In the case of a movable panel, as a door, the clearance between the periphery of the door and the adjacent door frame opening must be sealed to prevent unrestricted passage of sound.

The preferred door construction herein disclosed when tested by a recognized commercial testing laboratory had an A.S.T.M. Sound Transmission Class number of 45 when equipped with the door seals herein disclosed. When equipped with improved door seals, forming no part of this invention, the same door panel construction when tested attained a Sound Transmission Class number of 51. This increase in efficiency resulted solely by better restriction of the passage of sound between the periphery of the door and the door frame opening.

One object of the invention is to provide fa metal door or partition panel embodying a limp septum having mass to restrict sound transmission.

v3,273,297 Patented Sept. 20, 1966 Another object of the invention is to provide a metal door or partition panel of minimum thickness provided with a limp septum having mass and other internal construction restricting sound transmission through the panel.

Another object of the invention is t-o provide 4a metal door or partition panel of low `cost construction having improved restriction of sound passage therethrough.

Another object of the invention is to provide an irnproved seal for the periphery of the door panels above referred to.

These and other objects of the invention will be made apparent from the following description and the drawing forming a part thereof, wherein:

FIG. 1 shows `a front elevation of the preferred form of limp septum door panel;

FIG. 2 shows a horizontal transverse section taken on line II-II of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows a vertical section taken on line III-III of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 shows an enlarged transverse cross-section of a portion of the door panel of FIG. 1 illustrating one form of seal between the door frame and adjacent edge of the door panel;

FIG. 4A shows a modification in the limp septum of FIG. 2 of the drawing;

FIG. 5 shows a form of panel bottom seal as a modification of FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 shows a modified form of the door panel illustrated in FIG. 2;

FIG. 7 shows a further modified form ofthe door panel of FIG. 2;

FIG. 8 shows another moditication of the door panel of FIG. 2;

FIG. 9 shows a still further modification of the door panel of FIG. 2.

Referring now in detail to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 of the drawing, illustrating the prefered form of sound attenuating door panel, reference character 1 indicates the door panel generally and 2 indicates a suitable form of door frame within which the door is mounted by means of suitable hinges 3. The -outer and inner faces of panel 1 are comprised of steel skin plates 4 and 5 connected at their vertical edges 6 and 7 to form a closed envelope. The edge 7 is preferably reinforced by the channel member 8 extending the full height of the panel and the edge 6 is preferably reinforced by a hinge butt reinforcing member 9 both being welded in place. The top and bottom edges of the panel are closed by channel members 10 welded to the skin plates as at 11.

Extending between the vertical edges Vand the top and bottom edges of the panel and intermediate the skin plates thereof is Ia limp Iseptum 12 having its horizontal and vertical margins turned, as at 13, to lie against the door edge members and secured thereto -by a suitable adhesive, all as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. One suitable type of limp septum and commercially available is comprised of a 1A@ inch lead vinyl sheet 14 provided with a 1A; inch foam backing 15, obtainable from Cordo Chemical Co.

The panel exterior envelope is stiffened by vertically extending transversely spaced members 16 disposed upon opposite sides of the septum. Preferably the members 16 are in the form of channels or Z bars, having one flange disposed against and welded to the adjacent inner face of the skin plate as at 17, with the opposite fiange disposed against the adjacent face of septum 12. Thus these stiffening members 16 provide some lateral support for the septum but lare not attached thereto. Preferably the spacing of stiffeners 16 are staggered on opposite sides of the septum 12 as shown in FIG. 2. As best shown in FIG. 3 of the drawing, stiffeners 16 at their opposite ends terminate adjacent the inner ends of the fianges of closure members 10 but are not attached thereto. Preferably the 'opening receiving the door panel.

'inwardly of the panel edge.

inner faces of the panel skin plates and stiffeners, except at their areas of contact with each other or with the septum, have applied thereto a coating of a suitable sound deadening compound 18. Any suitable commercially available compound may be used and a spray coating of about 3,64 inch thick has been found adequate. Contacting metallic surfaces are preferably not coated since to do so would impair any welding attachment between them. The remaining space within the panel envelope is filled With a porous non-continuous material 37 such as rockwool or equivalent material; 9 pound density rockwool has been found suitable. It will be noted from FIG. 3 of the drawing that one of the end channels 10 may be assembled with the panel outer plates 4 and 5 after the rockwool has been applied.

As shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 of the drawing the door panel 1 is normally disposed in spaced relation to the adjacent faces of the door frame 2 and, as best shown in FIG. 2, the greatest spacing is at the lock side of the door. These open spaces about Vthe periphery of the door panel will freely pass sound unless sealedoff in some manner.

As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, one form of sealing device is Aattached to the door frame about the entire periphery of the door panel to close these openings. The door as shown in FIG. 2 moves away from and towards such seals in opening and closing.

The door seal as indicated generally at 19 on FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 is comprised of four sections mounted upon the door frame 2 about the periphery of the door frame Each section of the seal comprises a housing member 20 having a cavity 21 therein defined by the walls 22, 23 and connecting wall 24. Wall 24 intermediate the walls 22, 23 of the cavity has a longitudinally extending recess therein receiving the head portion 25 of a flexible bellows 26, of suitable material such as rubber or plastic, within which is mounted a magnet 27 engaging with the door panel in closed position. The herein described cavity, bellows and magnet extend the length of housing 20. Suitable flanges 28, 29 abut the adjacent face lof frame 2 and position the magnet Such flange 28 also serves to close the opening 30 between the adjacent edge of the panel and door frame. A rearwardly extending L-shaped flange 31 encloses a section of flexible material 32 and is attached to the adjacent frame by fasteners 33. A suitable cover plate 34 encloses the seal at the'top edge and sides of the door panel and at the threshold of the door. A threshold plate 35 overlies the adjacent seal housing and is secured by fasteners 36 to the door frame. When the door is in closed position the magnet 27 draws the flexible housing into engagement with the door panel making a substantially air tight seal. When the door is opened it pulls free of the magnet 27 which is then partly withdrawn into seal housing cavity 21.

The above defined door panel and seal of FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 4 inclusive when tested for sound transmission loss under A.S.T.M. Designation E90-61T provided the Sound Transmission Class No. 45. When the same door panel was tested again under the same test conditions, except provided with a more efficient door seal, the S.T.C. No. was 51. This represents a 300% efficiency increase in air borne noise suppression. The more efficient seal referred to forms no part Iof my invention but is referred to here to indicate the need and effectiveness of door seals.

Referring now to FIG. 4 of the drawing, the door panel 1a structure hereof is identical with that of FIGS. 2 and 3,'except for omission of the sprayed coating 18 of sound deadening material. The sound seal is of the same construction as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. This door panel,

' when tested under identical conditions as was the door the use of sound deadening material as applied in FIGS. 2 and 3.

Referring now to FIG 4A comprising a fragmentary sectional view of a corner of a door panel 1b which is similar to that of FIG 2, except the foam backing 15 of the limp septum 12a has been omitted and the sound deadening material 18 has been omitted from the plates and stiffeners of the door. Such door panel construction under the same test conditions of FIGS. 2, 3 .and 4, gave an A.S.T.M.-STL. number of 38.

FIG. 5 of the drawing shows a further modified form of the door panels of FIGS. 2 and 3, This door panel 1c is similar in all respects to panel 1 except it has a modified form of bottom edge construction to provide what is called an automatic bottom seal between the bottom edge of the door panel and the threshold plate of the door frame. The bottom closure channel 10, as in FIG. 3, is yomitted and the member 38 is substituted therefor. Member 38 has a flange portion 38a disposed against and secured to skin plate 4, as by welding and transversely extending portion 38h forms part of the bottom edge of the panel. Extendinginwardly of lthe panel the Z-shaped portion 38C provides a housing opening 38d and is secured to a door bottom member 39 by screw fastener 40. Door bottom member 39 which may be an aluminum extrusion, replaces a portion of skin plate 5, as shown. Within the bottom member cavity 41 is a spring loaded member 42 having mounted therein a sealing member 43 of resilient material adapted to engage the door frame threshold plate. The adjacent portion of septum 12 is offset over member 38C as shown.

FIG. 6 shows a fragmentary transverse cross-section of another modified form of the door panel of FIG. 2. Here the limp septum 12b is not provided with flange portions 13 as in FIG. 2, and is merely abutted against and cemented to the door inside edges.

FIG. 7 of the drawing is a fragmentary transverse section of a modified form of the door panel of FIG. 2. Here two limp septums 12 are mounted back to back, with the vinyl sheets 14 abutting and the edges of the septums secured to the door edges as in FIG. 2. The stiffener channels 16a .are secured between the panel skin plates and the septum as in FIG. 2. The inner faces of the panel skin plates and the exposed faces of the stiffeners may be spray 4coated with a sound deadening material as in the panel of FIG. 2. Otherwise the panel will be the same las in FIG. 2.

FIGS. 8 and 9 show fragmentary transverse cross-sections of further modifications of the panel of FIG. 2. In FIG. 8 a section of gypsum board 44 is disposed beneath the septum 12 and has at least its vertical edges adhesively bonded to the adjacent inner faces of the door panel. The vertical'and transverse dimensions of the gypsum board 44 are preferably those of the septum. The door panel stiffeners 16-b are provided as in FIG. 2 between one face of the septum and the adjacent skin plate and between one face of the gypsum board and the adjacent face of the skin plate. The porous filling material 317 is applied as in FIG. 2, which may be rockwool of 9 lb. density or equivalent material. The exposed inner faces of the skin plates and the stiffeners may, if desired, have a coating of sound deadening material 18 applied thereto as in FIG. 2. In FIG. 9 the gypsum board 44a is applied intermediate the skin plates and a limp septum 12 is applied at each side of the .board 44a. The stiffeners 116e are applied to the inner faces of the skin plates 4 and 5. Otherwise the panel is as in FIG. 2, including sound deadener coating if desired.

The hereinbefore described door constructions have as their basic purpose to restrict passage of sound therethrough. In the a-rt this is referred to as structures having large or high sound transmission loss. Such doors find uses in not only commercialand industrial structures, but are also highly desirable in pub-lic buildings, apartment buildings, hospitals, residences and, in fact, any structure where noise reduction is a desirable feature. The details of construction have been discussed in relation to door panels, however, the same structures are also desirable a-s lixed panels or partitions 'dividing a given tico-r area into rooms.

It is acknowledged that door and partition panels having a high sound transmission loss are not new in the art, especially in industrial buildings and similar establishments. Such prior panel constructions were both bulky,

,heavy and relatively expensive. Maximum results have previously been obtained by use of multiple doors and panels, also thick concrete and concrete block walls. However, door and wall panels having high sound transmission loss for use in office buildings, hospitals, apa-rtments, etc. are desired to be of minimum thickness and of reasonable cost.

The panel constructions hereinbefore described and the results obtained therefrom were based upon'a maximum thickness of about 1% inches. The basic structure is of metal and the interior contains materials generally referred to as non-metallic. The panelsare described as having front :and rea-r yskin plates, but these designations are solely in reference to the drawing since sound, to be excluded, may impinge upon either face of the panel. For purposes of both economy and convenience the metal portions of the door are desirably light in weight. For

were closed by use of sound seals mounted upon the door frame, about the four peripheral margins of the door. Tests were made using a sound seal of the general type as shown in FIIGS. 3 and 4 extending about all four margins of the door. Additionally, sound seals, FIG. 4, were applied to the vertical and top margins of the door and another form of bottom seal, FIG. 5, applied to the bottom margin of the door. Increased sound transmission loss was obtained by use of these door seals on all forms of the invention as shown in FIGS. 1 to 9` inclusive. IOther improved forms of door seals were also tested with the herein described door panels and provided increased sound transmission loss, as indicated in the following tabulation. Such improved door seals form no part of my invention and are the subject matter of a co-pending application of Donald C. Smeltzer, iiled June 7, 1963, Serial No. 286,234.

Each of the above door panel constructions have been tested by a certifed testing laboratory and the sound transmission class numbers shown were obtained in accordance with the American Society for Testing Materials, designation E 90-61T, Tentatively Recommended Practice for Laboratory Measurements of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Floors and Walls.

TEST RESULTS ON DOOR PANELS-FIGS. l TO 9 INCLUSIVE Door Sound Rockwool Panel, S.T.C. Septum Damp. Density, Seal Remarks Fig. Matl lb.

1, 3 51 Single Yes... 9 A See co-pending Smeltzer appl. for Seal. 1, 3, 5 45 Yes... 9 A-3 sides and See cri-pending Smeltzer Bott. Seal. appl. for Seal and Fig. 5. 1, 3 46 9 B See eo-pending Smeltzer appl. 1, s, 4 45 9 1, a, 4 as 9 1, 7, 4 as 9 1,4, 4A-.-. 38 9 Foam Backing Omitted from Septum. 1, 4,8 36 ASingle and Gyp. Bd. No-... 9 1,4,9 42 DllolSept. and Gyp. N0 9 purposes of the drawings the metal members have been shown enlarged. By way of example and not intending any limitations upon the inventions, the panel metal skin plates and the metal stiifeners therefor may be of 16, 18 and -20 gauge metal.

The basic concept of the several inventions herein disclosed is to reinforce the thin spaced panel skin plates and to lill the voids therebetween with sound attenuating materials, while preventing direct sound transmission through the panel by means of said skin plate and stiiieners. Such a door panel provides a substantial sound transmission loss.

A substantial increase in sound transmission loss is provided by the 4modified form of the basic invention as best illustrated in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, wherein a limp septum is disposed between the skin plates and the skin plate stiiieners are made into two parts, one part eng-aged with each skin plate and substantially abutting but not secured to the septum.

Both the basic and the modified basic forms of the invention were varied by comparisons between regular and irregular spacing of the stiffeners and addition or omission of sound deadening coating on the st-iffeners. Dampening of the stiffeners and skin plates by application of sound deadening materials had negligible effects, but irregular spacing was superior to regular spacing of stiffeners in providing greater sound transmission loss, particularly in the door panel of the basic invention.

In the modified form of the basic invention the addition of the limp septum greatly increased the sound transmission loss figures. Further improvements were noticeable by inclusion of irregular spacing and dampening thereof. However, the clearances between the margins of the door panel and adjacent door frame provide space for unimpeded passage of air borne sound. The openings A variety of panel constructions employing septums of several types have been disclosed. Additionally, certain details of construction in each of the panel modiiications have been shown as well as certain dimensional limitations, but it will be understood that these are by way of illustration and not limitation except as made necessary by the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. In a sound attenuating metal panel construction in combination,

(a) a pair of laterally spaced vertically disposed metal sheet members providing Outer faces of the panel and having connected vertical margins at each side thereof forming an open ended envelope,

(b) a limp septum member comprising a sheet of lead vinyl provided on one face thereof with a foam type backing layer disposed intermediate the inner faces of said spaced sheets for substantially the vertical height thereof and connected with the adjacent inner faces of said envelope side edges,

(c) a plurality of verticallyl disposed transversely spaced stiiening members secured to the inner face of each said vertically disposed meta-l sheet members and extending therefrom towards an adjacent face of said septum,

(d) a porous non-continuous material filling the spaces between said metal sheets, stiffening members and septum member, and

(e) top and bottom closure members secured to the opposite ends of said envelope.

2. In a sound attenuating metal panel construction in combination,

(a) a pair of laterally spaced vertically disposed metal sheet members providing outer faces of the panel and having connected vertical margins at each side thereof forming an open ended envelope,

(b) a limp septum comprised of two sheets of lead vinyl each having on one face therefore a layer of foam backing material with the foam backing layers opposing each other and disposed intermediate the inner faces of said spaced sheets for substantially the vertical width thereof and connected with the adjacent inner faces of said envelope side edges,

(c) a plurality of vertically disposed transversely spaced stiffening members secured to the inner face of each said vertically disposed metal sheet members and extending therefrom towards an adjacent face of said septum,

(d) a porous non-continuous material filling the spaces between said metal sheets, the limp septum and the stiffening members, and

(e) top and bottomvclosure members secured to the opposite ends of said envelope.

3. In a sound attenuating metal panel construction in combination, V

(a) a pair of laterally spaced vertically disposed metal sheet members providing outer faces of the panel and having connected vertical margins at each side thereof forming an open ended envelope,

(b) a limp septum member comprising a sheet of lead vinyl provided on one face thereof with a foam type backing layer and a rigid non-metallic member disposed in abutting relation to said lead vinyl sheet backing layer and conforming to the surface thereof with the vertical edges of the non-metallic member abutting the adjacent panel inner faces,

(c) a plurality of vertically disposed transversely spaced stiffening members secured to the inner face of each said vertically disposed metal sheet members and extending therefrom towards an adjacent face of said septum and rigid non-metallic member,

(d) a porous non-continuous material lling the spaces between said metal sheets, stilfening members and the septum assembly, and

(e) top and bottom closure members secured to the opposite ends of said envelope.

4. In a sound attenuating metal panel construction in combination,

(a) a pair of laterally spaced vertically disposed metal sheet members providing outer faces of the panel and having connected vertical margins at each side thereof forming an open ended envelope,

(b) a limp septum comprising space-d sheets of lead vinyl having on the opposing faces thereof a foam type backing layer Iand a rigid non-metallic member disposed between said opposing layers of foam backing material and conforming substantially to the vertical surfaces thereof,

(c) a plurality of vertically disposed transversely spacedstiffening members secured to the inner face of each said vertically disposed metal sheet members and extending therefrom towards an adjacent face of said septum,

(d) a porous non-continuous material filling the spaces between lsaid metal sheets, stiffening members and septum, and

(e) top and bottom closure members secured to the opposite ends of said envelope.

References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,554,395 .V9/1925. Young 189-46 X 2,350,513 6/ 1944 Leadbetter 20-35 X 2,880,471 4/ 1959 Von Munchhausen 20-35 X 3,004,641 10/ 1961 Johnson 189-46 3,051,260 8/1962 Eckel 20--35 X 3,061,056 10/1962 Kodaras 189-46 3,075,258 1/ 1963 Petkwitz 20-69 3,120,295 2/ 1964 Lemmerman 189-46 FOREIGN PATENTS 180,950 1/ 1955 Austria.

HARRISON R. MOSELEY, Primary Examiner.

R. P. MACHADO, Examiner.

K. DOWNEY, Assistant Examiner.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/404.1, 181/294, 52/784.15
International ClassificationE04B1/84, E06B3/70, E06B5/20, E06B5/00, E06B3/82
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2001/8423, E06B5/20, E06B3/7015, E06B2003/703, E06B2003/7032, E06B3/827, E04B2001/8452
European ClassificationE06B5/20, E06B3/82F, E06B3/70F